cosmetic surgery.doc


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

cosmetic surgery.doc

  1. 1. Controversies In CosmeticsBy Fiona Shaw, Giles Turner and Peter White
  2. 2. Aims and Objectives1. Summarise cosmetic surgery in the media2. Provide an evolutionary explanation of cosmetic surgery3. Outline evidence of a cultural phenomenon4. Evaluate these argumentsCosmetic/Aesthetic SurgeryDefinitionSurgery for non-medially explained reasons E.g. enhancingaesthetically the facial and bodily appearance. (Kisely et al, 2002)
  3. 3. Articles: BBC News Online, UK Edition 1. The Stigma of Plastic Surgery 2. Doctors Slam Plastic Surgery on TVSummary of Articles:• Media attention is growing e.g. I Want a Famous Face (MTV) Nip/Tuck (Sky One) Cosmetic Surgery Live (Channel 5)• Media creates unrealistic expectations (British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons, 2004)• Source of ridicule and fascination on UK• Ethically neutral in U.S. with “Flaunt it” parties. (Lane & Duffy, 2004)
  4. 4. The FiguresBritish estimates per annum:• 25,000 surgical procedures• 50,000 non-surgical procedures (Lane & Duffy, 2004)Who’s Having What? What Women Want What Men WantBreast Augmentation Otoplasty (ear pinning)Blepharoplasty (eye-lids) BlepharoplastyFace/Neck Lifts Face/Neck LiftsLiposuction LiposuctionRhinoplasty (nose surgery) Rhinoplasty Source: British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (Land & Duffy 2004)
  5. 5. Cosmetic Surgery – A Modern Mating Strategy • Animals use their body to attract a mate • A Classic example is the Peacock • The human body also conveys messages • We have evolved mechanisms to recognises these signals • Through them we can assess: 1. Age 2. Reproductive status 3. Individual quality (Diamond, 1997; Ridley, 1993)
  6. 6. Sex MessagingIndicators of Reproductive Maturity Female MaleBreasts Increased muscularityHips Voice deepeningButtocks Beard growthHair Colour Penis size (Diamond, 1997)
  7. 7. Indicators of Health and GenesAn Honest Face• Facial beauty is a vital health indicator• One of the most sensitive areas of the body• Easily shows signs of age, disease and injury• E.g. Symmetry, averageness and hormone markersThe Body Beautiful• Women favour men with classic V shape• Men favour women with optimum waist to hip ratioWhat the Body Communicates• A healthy body is a costly investment• It conveys two crucial messages: 1. Good genes 2. Good Resources
  8. 8. Faking It• Cosmetic surgery provides a unique mating strategy• It cheats the signal system• Effectively change phenotype to suggest better genotype• Creates the illusion you are a better mate• Hides ageing (Diamond, 1997)The Benefits: • Access to superior quality mates • Improved quality offspring • Increases survival chances of offspring
  9. 9. Criticisms – Psycho-Social InfluencesIs Appearance that Important?Less emphasis on the body than we think in mate choiceMen look for Women think men look for1. Personality 1. Good looks2. Good looks 2. Good body3. Brains 3. Breasts4. Humour 4. Butt5. Good body 5. PersonalityWomen look for Men think women look for1. Personality 1. Personality2. Humour 2. Good body3. Sensitivity 3. Humour4. Brains 4. Sensitivity5. Good body 5. Good looks (Pease & Pease, 1999)
  10. 10. Beauty and Attractiveness as a Cultural Construct • Socially-Constructed ideals based on Western Culture Case Example – China (Watts, 2004) • Rise in men and women wanting surgery • Aim to westernise their features • Girls have legs broken to try and become tallerIts Fashionable • Free-Market Economy Globalises fashion-culture • Societal norms then dictated by market forces • Aesthetic Surgery becomes a fashion accessory
  11. 11. Is the Current Ideal Maladaptive?Weight & Reproduction• Recent cultural ideation favours thin females• E.g. decreasing weight in magazines, beauty pageants and pornography (Ridley, 1993)• This ideal is maladaptive• Skinniness reduces fertility• A “harbinger of lactational failure” (Diamond, 1997, p146)• Difficult to attain – promotes eating disorders• Serious health threat (Lindeman, 1998) How can this be an adaptive strategy?
  12. 12. Is it Abnormal to want Cosmetic Surgery?• Growing concern about those wanting cosmetic surgery• High prevalence of psychopathology• Women 13 time more likely to seek surgery (Kisely et al, 2002)• Many display Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) and Body Image Disorders (Sarwer et al, 1998; Sarwer, 2004)• BDD link to mental health problems: Attachment anxiety PTSD Identity problems Neuroticism Personality Disorders (Davis & Vernon, 2002)
  13. 13. Criticism of Debate – ConclusionProblems• Surgery only around for 30 years, lack of empirical evidence• Limited research in this area• Most evidence can be adapted to either argumentCrucially• “A Darwinian story is not Mendelian Evidence” (Orr, 2003, p18).Surgery is learned - Not innate geneticButBehaviour potentially evolutionarily advantageous
  14. 14. Could this be the missing link?
  15. 15. ReferencesBritish Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (2004). Doctors slam plasticsurgery on TV. BBC News Online, UK Edition. Accessed 11/05/04.Deborah., D. (2002). Sculpting the body beautiful: attachment style, neuroticism, andthe use of cosmetic surgeries. Sex Roles. Vol. 47 (4). p129-138.Diamond, J. (1997). Why is Sex Fun? The Evolution of Human Sexuality. London:Weidenfeld and Nicholson.Henderson, J.A. & Anglin, J.M. (2003). Facial attractiveness predicts longevity.Evolution and Human Behaviour. Vol.23 (5). p351-356.Hughes, S.M. & Gallup, G.G. Jr. (2003). Sex differences in morphological predictorsof sexual behaviour: Shoulder to hip and waist to hip ratios. Evolution and HumanBehaviour. Vol.24 (3). p173-178.Jones, B.C. Little, A.C., Feinberg, D.R., Penton-Voak, I.S., Tiddeman, B.P. & Perrett,D.I. (2004). The relationship between shape symmetry and perceived skin conditionin male facial attractiveness. Evolution and Human Behaviour. Vol.25. p24-30.Kisely, S., Morkell, D., Allbrook, B., Briggs, P. & Jovanovic, J. (2002). Factorsassociated with dysmorphic concern and psychiatric morbidity in plastic surgeryoutpatients. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. Vol.36 (1).p121-126.Lane, M. & Duffy, J. (2004). The stigma of plastic surgery. BBC News Online, UKEdition. Accessed 08/05/04.Lindeman, A.K. (1998). Quest for ideal weight: costs and consequences. Medicineand Science in Sports and Exercise. Vol.31 (8). p1135-1140.Marzano-Parisoli, M.M. (2001). The contemporary construction of the perfect bodyimage: bodybuilding, exercise addiction and eating disorders. Quest. Vol.53p216-230.Orr, H.A. (2003). Darwinian storytelling. The New York Review. p17-20.Pease, B. & Pease, A. (1999). Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps.Pease Training International.Ridley, M. (1993). The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature.Penguin Books.Sarwer, D.B. (2004). Body image and cosmetic medical treatments. Body Image.Vol.1 (1). p99-111.
  16. 16. Sarwer, D.B., Wadden, T.A., Pertschuk, M.J. & Whitaker, L.A. (1998). ThePsychology of cosmetic surgery: a review and reconceptualization. ClinicalPsychology Review. Vol.18 (1). p1-22.Shackelford.T.K. (1999). Facial attractiveness and physical health. Evolution andHuman Behaviour. Vol.20 (1). p71-76.Soler, C., Nunez, M., Guterrez, R., Nunez, J., Medina, P., Sancho, M., Alvarez, J. &Nunez, A. (2003). Facial attractiveness in men provides clues to semen quality.Evolution and Human Behaviour. Vol.24 (3). p199-207.Thornhill, R. & Gangestad, S.W. (1999). Facial attractiveness. Trends in CognitiveSciences. Vol.3 (12). p452-460.Thornhill, R. & Gangestad, S.W. (1996). The evolution of human sexuality. Trendsin Ecology and Evolution. Vol.11 (2). p98-102.Thornhill, R. & Grammer, K. (1999). The body and face of woman: one ornamentthat signals quality? Evolution and Human Behaviour. Vol.20 (2). p105-120Tovee, M.J., Tasker, K. & Benson, P.J. (2000). Is symmetry a visual cue toattractiveness in the human female body? Evolution and Human Behaviour. Vol.21(3). p191-200.Watts, J. (2004). China’s cosmetic craze: leg-lengthening operations to fight heightprejudice can leave patients crippled. The Lancet. Vol.363. p958.Wetsman, A. &Marlowe, F. (1999). How Universal Are Preferences for FemaleWaist-to-Hip Ratios? Evidence from the Hadza of Tanzania. Evolution and HumanBehaviour. Vol.20 (4). p219-228Widemo, F. & Saether, S.A. (1999). Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: causes andconsequences of variation in mating preferences. Trends in Evolution and Ecology.Vol.14 (1). p26-31.Image SourcesSlide 1 - 4 - 6 - 8 - 10 – 11 - 14 -