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  1. 1. Infants, Children, and Adolescents Laura E. Berk 6th edition <ul><li>Chapter 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood </li></ul><ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Body Growth <ul><li>Gain 50% in height from birth to age 1; 75% by age 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Grow in spurts </li></ul><ul><li>Gain “baby fat” until about 9 months, then get slimmer </li></ul><ul><li>Girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys </li></ul>
  3. 3. Growth Trends <ul><li>Cephalocaudal </li></ul><ul><li>“ Head to Tail” </li></ul><ul><li>Lower part of body grows later than the head </li></ul><ul><li>Proximodistal </li></ul><ul><li>“ Near to far” </li></ul><ul><li>Extremities grow later than head, chest, and trunk </li></ul>
  4. 4. Epiphyses of the Bone
  5. 5. The Skull at Birth
  6. 6. Neurons and Their Connective Fibers
  7. 7. Major Milestones of Brain Development
  8. 8. Methods for Measuring Brain Functioning
  9. 9. Regions of the Cerebral Cortex
  10. 10. Lateralization and Plasticity of the Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>The left and right hemispheres of the brain control different functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization of the two hemispheres is called lateralization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left hemisphere: best at processing information in a sequential, analytic way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right hemisphere: best at processing information in a holistic, integrative manner. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a highly plastic cerebral cortex, many areas are not yet committed to one function, consequently, the cortex has a high capacity for learning. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Brain Plasticity Insights <ul><li>In children with injuries to the cerebral cortex that occurred before birth or in the first 6 months of life, language delays persisted to about 3 ½ years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, by age 5, the children caught up in grammatical and vocabulary skills, showing that the undamaged area of the brain—either hemisphere—had taken over the language function. </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial skills showed more impairment after a brain injury. Researchers speculate that spatial processing is more lateralized at birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain plasticity can occur later in adulthood, for example, in stroke victims. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sensitive Periods in Brain Development <ul><li>Early, extreme sensory deprivation results in permanent brain damage and loss of function. </li></ul><ul><li>Babies born with cataracts in both eyes who have corrective surgery within 4 to 6 months show rapid improvement in vision. </li></ul><ul><li>The longer the surgery is postponed, the less complete the recovery of visual skills. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Brain Development in Orphanage Children <ul><li>Children adopted from Romanian orphanages before 6 months of age showed dramatic cognitive and physical gains. </li></ul><ul><li>Those adopted after 6 months, however, showed serious intellectual deficits. </li></ul><ul><li>The chronic stress of early, deprived orphanage rearing disrupts the brain’s ability to manage stress, with long-term consequences. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Relationship of Age at Adoption to Mental Test Scores
  15. 15. Sensitive Periods in Brain Development <ul><li>Experience-expectant growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinary experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ expected” by brain to grow normally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experience-dependent growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific experience, varies widely </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Appropriate Stimulation <ul><li>Experience-expectant brain development takes place early and naturally as part of a preschooler’s daily routine. </li></ul><ul><li>No evidence exists to support a sensitive period in early life when mastering skills that depend on extensive training can occur. In fact, rushing early learning can overwhelm young brains. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sleep Patterns <ul><li>Sleep moves to an adult-like night-day schedule during the first year. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep needs decline from 18 to 12 hours a day by age 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Night wakings often increase between the ages of 1 ½ and 2 years, and then decline. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cultural Variations in Infant Sleeping Arrangements <ul><li>Cosleeping is the norm for 90% of the world’s population. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural values of collectivism versus individualism strongly influence infant sleeping arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>Cosleeping is increasing in North America, perhaps because more mothers are breastfeeding. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Influences on Early Growth <ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast v. Bottle Feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional Well-Being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems Can Cause Failure to Thrive </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Benefits of Breastfeeding <ul><li>Correct fat-protein balance </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritionally complete </li></ul><ul><li>More digestible </li></ul><ul><li>Better growth </li></ul><ul><li>Disease protection </li></ul><ul><li>Better jaw and tooth development </li></ul><ul><li>Easier transition to solid food </li></ul>
  21. 21. Are Chubby Babies At Risk for Later Obesity? <ul><li>Recent research shows that there is a relationship between rapid weight gain in infancy and later obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>What to do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breastfeed for six months. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid foods loaded with sugar, salt, and saturated fats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote physical exercise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit TV viewing time. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Malnutrition <ul><li>Physical symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and weight problems </li></ul><ul><li>Poor motor development </li></ul><ul><li>Learning, attention problems </li></ul><ul><li>Passivity, irritability, anxiety </li></ul>Consequences <ul><li>Marasmus </li></ul><ul><li>Kwashiorkor </li></ul><ul><li>Iron-deficiency anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Food insecurity </li></ul>Types
  23. 23. Nonorganic Failure to Thrive <ul><li>The baby is offered enough food and has no serious illness, but still has a wasted body and is withdrawn and apathetic. </li></ul><ul><li>Family circumstances surrounding failure to thrive often help explain the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>When treated early, by helping the parents or placing the baby in a caring foster home, failure-to-thrive infants show quick catch-up growth. Left untreated, most will remain small and have lasting difficulties. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Steps of Classical Conditioning
  25. 25. Operant Conditioning Terms <ul><li>Reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>Increases probability of behavior occurring again </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting desirable stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Removing unpleasant stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces probability of behavior occurring again </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting unpleasant stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Removing desirable stimulus </li></ul>
  26. 26. Using Habituation to Study Infants
  27. 27. Imitation <ul><li>Imitation is a powerful method of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more difficult to induce in babies 2 to 3 months old than right after birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Meltzoff: newborns imitate as much as older children and adults do. </li></ul><ul><li>Mirror neurons enable us to observe another person’s behavior while simulating that behavior in our own brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Meltzoff’s theory of newborn imitation as a voluntary capacity is controversial. </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Sequence of Motor Development <ul><li>Gross motor development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crawling, standing, walking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fine motor development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reaching and grasping </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Gross and Motor Development in the First Two Years
  30. 30. Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems <ul><li>Increasingly complex systems of action with each skill </li></ul><ul><li>4 factors in each new skill: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CNS development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body’s movement capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental supports </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Steps in Reaching and Grasping <ul><li>Prereaching </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With two hands, then one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ulnar Grasp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust grip to object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move objects from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hand to hand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pincer Grasp </li></ul>
  32. 32. Keeping Infants and Toddlers Safe <ul><li>Provide safe toys </li></ul><ul><li>Child-proof all rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously monitor the infant or toddler </li></ul><ul><li>Use a car seat, following government regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Report any unsafe toys and equipment </li></ul>
  33. 33. Bowel and Bladder Control <ul><li>Toilet training is best delayed until the months following the second birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective training techniques include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>establishing regular toileting routines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using gentle encouragement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>praising children for their effort </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Developments in Hearing Can detect words that start with weak syllables 10 months Divide the speech stream into word-like units 7 – 9 months “ Screen out” sounds from non-native languages 6- 8 months Sense of musical phrasing 4 – 7 months
  35. 35. Improvements in Vision <ul><li>Brain development helps infants reach adult levels of vision skills: </li></ul><ul><li>2–4 months: focus and color vision </li></ul><ul><li>6 months: acuity, scanning & tracking </li></ul><ul><li>6–7 months: depth perception </li></ul>
  36. 36. Steps in Depth Perception Sensitivity to pictorial cues. Wariness of heights. 6 –7 months Sensitivity to binocular cues. 2 – 3 months Sensitivity to motion cues. Birth – 1 month
  37. 37. Steps in Pattern Perception Can detect objects if two-thirds of drawing is missing. 12 months Can detect patterns even if boundaries are not really present. 4 months Can detect fine-grained detail. Prefer complex patterns. 2 months Poor contrast sensitivity. Prefer large simple patterns. 3 weeks
  38. 38. Appearance of Checkerboards to Very Young Infants
  39. 39. Subjective Boundaries in Visual Patterns
  40. 40. Stimuli for Studying Infants’ Facial Perception
  41. 41. Testing Infants’ Ability to Perceive Object Unity
  42. 42. Differentiation Theory of Infant Perception <ul><li>Infants actively search for invariant , unchanging features of the environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Borders of stimuli, faces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They note stable relationships between features. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex visual patterns, intermodal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perception gets more and more sensitive— differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Acting on the environment helps this process— affordances </li></ul>