Chapter 18


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Chapter 18

  1. 1. Chapter 18 Dental Assistant Skills
  2. 2. Career Highlights <ul><li>Dental assistants are valuable members of the dental health care field </li></ul><ul><li>Education requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Certification obtained through the Dental Assisting National Board </li></ul><ul><li>Duties performed follow state regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Required skills </li></ul>
  3. 3. 18:1 Identifying the Structures and Tissues of a Tooth <ul><li>Odontology: study of the anatomy, growth, and diseases of the teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth are accessory organs of the digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Aid in mastication (chewing) of food </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two Sets of Teeth <ul><li>Dentitions: sets of teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Primary or deciduous dentition </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent or succedaneous dentition </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Tooth <ul><li>Crown—visible in the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Root—below the gum line </li></ul><ul><li>Cervix—where the crown meets the root </li></ul><ul><li>Apex—tip of the root </li></ul>
  6. 6. Tissues of the Tooth <ul><li>Enamel—covers the crown </li></ul><ul><li>Cementum—covers the outside of the root </li></ul><ul><li>Dentin—located under the enamel and cementum of the root </li></ul><ul><li>Pulp—in the inner area of the tooth </li></ul>
  7. 7. Periodontium <ul><li>Structures that surround and support teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar process or ridge—surrounds the roots and has sockets </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontal ligament—supports the tooth in the socket </li></ul><ul><li>Gingiva or gums—surrounds the cervix </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dental Care <ul><li>Disease can affect the teeth and supporting structures </li></ul><ul><li>Dental care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing and treating dental disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserving and prolonging the life of the teeth </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 18:2 Identifying the Teeth <ul><li>Incisors—front and center of the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Cuspids—at angles of lips </li></ul><ul><li>Bicuspids—before the molars </li></ul><ul><li>Molars—back of the mouth </li></ul>
  10. 10. Primary or Deciduous Teeth <ul><li>First set of teeth—called “baby” teeth </li></ul><ul><li>20 teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Naming of teeth </li></ul>
  11. 11. Permanent or Succedaneous Teeth <ul><li>Second or permanent set of teeth </li></ul><ul><li>32 teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Naming of teeth </li></ul>
  12. 12. 18:3 Identifying Teeth Using Numbering Systems <ul><li>Universal National Numbering System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified by using letters A to T </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federation Dentaire International System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-digit code and 4 quadrants </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 18:4 Identifying the Surfaces of the Teeth <ul><li>Anterior (toward the front) teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior (toward the back) teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Crown surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested abbreviations </li></ul>( continues )
  14. 14. Identifying the Surfaces of the Teeth ( continued ) <ul><li>Line angles—form where two crown surfaces meet </li></ul><ul><li>Point angles—form where three crown surfaces meet </li></ul><ul><li>Abbreviations for line angles and point angles of anterior teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Abbreviations for line angles and point angles of posterior teeth </li></ul>
  15. 15. 18:5 Charting Conditions of the Teeth <ul><li>Conditions of the teeth are often charted on dental charts or insurance forms </li></ul><ul><li>Forms, symbols used, abbreviations, and other factors vary </li></ul><ul><li>Dental charts are legal records </li></ul><ul><li>Dental charts </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomic diagrams </li></ul>( continues )
  16. 16. Charting Conditions of the Teeth ( continued ) <ul><li>Geometric diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Surfaces of teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Charting guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Common symbols for anatomic or geometric diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Recording treatments or services </li></ul><ul><li>Use of computerized dental charting </li></ul>
  17. 17. 18:6 Operating and Maintaining Dental Equipment <ul><li>Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for operation of equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Infection control </li></ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment (PPE) </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) </li></ul><ul><li>Covers for dental equipment </li></ul>( continues )
  18. 18. Operating and Maintaining Dental Equipment ( continued ) <ul><li>Dental light </li></ul><ul><li>Dental chair </li></ul><ul><li>Air compressor </li></ul><ul><li>Oral-evacuation system </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant’s cart </li></ul><ul><li>Tri-flow or air-water syringe </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva ejector </li></ul>( continues )
  19. 19. Operating and Maintaining Dental Equipment ( continued ) <ul><li>High-velocity oral evacuator </li></ul><ul><li>Cuspidor </li></ul><ul><li>Doctor’s cart </li></ul><ul><li>Low-speed hand piece </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contra angle for cutting and polishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophylaxis angle for holding cups, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-speed handpiece (ultraspeed) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Summary <ul><li>Responsibilities for care and maintenance of dental equipment will vary </li></ul><ul><li>Dental assistant should learn exactly what maintenance is expected as a part of the job </li></ul><ul><li>Read specific manufacturer’s instructions for equipment you will handle </li></ul>
  21. 21. 18:7 Identifying Dental Instruments and Preparing Dental Trays <ul><li>Methods for setting up dental trays </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of trays </li></ul><ul><li>Main parts of a dental hand instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Standard instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for preparing dental trays </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of tray set-ups </li></ul><ul><li>Basic principles for preparing dental trays </li></ul>
  22. 22. 18:8 Positioning a Patient in the Dental Chair <ul><li>Designed to position patient comfortably while providing doctor and assistant easy access to oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Headrests </li></ul><ul><li>Supine position </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation of all chair movements </li></ul><ul><li>Protective drape and safety glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning of light </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of seating patient in dental chair </li></ul>
  23. 23. 18:9 Demonstrating Brushing and Flossing Techniques <ul><li>Using correct brushing and flossing techniques is essential in prevention of dental disease </li></ul><ul><li>May be responsible for teaching patients </li></ul><ul><li>Correct brushing and flossing is one method of prophylactic care </li></ul>( continues )
  24. 24. Demonstrating Brushing and Flossing Techniques ( continued ) <ul><li>Purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Bass method </li></ul><ul><li>Five surfaces on each tooth </li></ul><ul><li>Toothbrushes </li></ul><ul><li>Toothpastes or dentifrices </li></ul><ul><li>Dental floss </li></ul>
  25. 25. Summary <ul><li>Correct brushing and flossing provides prophylactic care </li></ul><ul><li>Give thorough explanation to all patients </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure patient understands procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Asking patient to demonstrate procedures is a good way to determine if all points have been learned </li></ul>
  26. 26. 18:10 Taking Impressions and Pouring Molds <ul><li>Impression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative film reproduction of a tooth, several teeth, or a dental arch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taken to form a model of the area for restoration treatment that will take place outside of the mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common materials used to take impressions </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Alginate <ul><li>Hydrocolloid impression material that cannot be returned to its original state </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Alginate powder—follow manufacturer’s recommended directions </li></ul><ul><li>Principles for taking alginate impression </li></ul><ul><li>Storage of alginate material </li></ul>
  28. 28. Rubber Base or Polysulfide <ul><li>Elastomeric impression material that is elastic and rubbery in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Three types are available </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in any type of dental impression </li></ul><ul><li>Not as subject to dimension changes as alginate </li></ul>( continues )
  29. 29. Rubber Base or Polysulfide ( continued ) <ul><li>Models should be poured promptly if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Basic principles of preparing rubber base </li></ul>
  30. 30. Silicones <ul><li>Polysiloxane or polyvinylsiloxane </li></ul><ul><li>Available in different material qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied in two tubes—base and catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul>
  31. 31. Gypsum Products <ul><li>Two main products to form models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principles for the use of gypsum </li></ul><ul><li>Follow standard precautions for infection control when taking impressions and pouring models </li></ul>
  32. 32. 18:11 Making Custom Trays <ul><li>Impression trays that are made to fit patient’s mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Materials used to produce trays </li></ul><ul><li>Acrylic resins are self-curing or light-curing </li></ul><ul><li>Types of custom trays </li></ul><ul><li>Clean and replace all equipment </li></ul>
  33. 33. 18:12 Maintaining and Loading an Anesthetic Aspirating Syringe <ul><li>Anesthesia is used for pain control </li></ul><ul><li>Types of anesthesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General anesthesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analgesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local anesthesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topical anesthesia </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Injections <ul><li>Two main kinds of injections for used for local anesthesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infiltration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of medications </li></ul><ul><li>Anesthetic carpules (cartridges) </li></ul><ul><li>Aspirating syringes </li></ul><ul><li>Follow standard precautions </li></ul>
  35. 35. 18:13 Mixing Dental Cements and Bases <ul><li>Cements and bases used in variety of dental procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Types of products </li></ul><ul><li>Basic principles of mixing cements and bases </li></ul>
  36. 36. 18:14 Preparing Restorative Materials <ul><li>Restoration: process of replacing a diseased portion of a tooth or a lost tooth by artificial means </li></ul><ul><li>May include filling material, crowns, bridge, denture, partial denture, or implant </li></ul><ul><li>Dental caries or decay </li></ul>
  37. 37. Amalgam <ul><li>Restorative material used mostly on posterior teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Contains four main metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul>( continues )
  38. 38. Amalgam ( continued ) <ul><li>Mercury when added to other metals forms amalgam </li></ul><ul><li>Must be handled with care due to toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Use protective clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Follow manufacturer’s recommendations </li></ul>
  39. 39. Composite <ul><li>Restorative material used primarily for the repair of anterior teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-curing (chemical-curing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-curing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Various shades to blend with teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Follow manufacturer’s instructions </li></ul>
  40. 40. 18:15 Developing and Mounting Dental X-Rays <ul><li>Dental X-rays or radiographs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiolucents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiopaque </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of dental radiographs </li></ul><ul><li>Developing films </li></ul><ul><li>Mounting X-rays </li></ul>
  41. 41. Summary <ul><li>The dental assistant acquires many skills </li></ul><ul><li>Use of these skills enables the dental assistant to perform or assist with many procedures in the dental care setting </li></ul><ul><li>Following procedures the assistant is often responsible for cleaning and care of equipment used </li></ul>