Anatomy Physiology Introduction Notes

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  • Influenza Symptoms Fever (usually high) Headache Tiredness (can be extreme) Cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Body aches Diarrhea and vomiting (more common among children than adults)
  • Music example: set music at a certain level then raise the volume. Ask them what would I do if I a negative feedback system was stimulated? Positive feedback system was stimulated? POSITIVE FEEDBACK Positive feedback is the opposite of negative feedback in that encourages a physiological process or amplifies the action of a system. Positive feedback is a cyclic process that can continue to amplify your body's response to a stimulus until a negative feedback response takes over. An example of positive feedback also can happen in your stomach. Your stomach normally secretes a compound called pepsinogen that is an inactive enzyme. As your body converts pepsinogen to the enzyme pepsin , it triggers a process that helps convert other pepsinogen molecules to pepsin. This cascade effect occurs and soon your stomach has enough pepsin molecules to digest proteins. Influenza Symptoms Fever (usually high) Headache Tiredness (can be extreme) Cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Body aches Diarrhea and vomiting (more common among children than adults)
  • Influenza Symptoms Fever (usually high) Headache Tiredness (can be extreme) Cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Body aches Diarrhea and vomiting (more common among children than adults)
  • Influenza Symptoms Fever (usually high) Headache Tiredness (can be extreme) Cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Body aches Diarrhea and vomiting (more common among children than adults)
  • Influenza Symptoms Fever (usually high) Headache Tiredness (can be extreme) Cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Body aches Diarrhea and vomiting (more common among children than adults)
  • Pericarditis = inflammation around the heart
  • Deferred Transitory Heterotopic Implant Dr. Jon Mikel Iñarritu over at Unbounded Medicine describes (and very graphically illustrates) a case of a patient who underwent reimplantation of the left upper extremity, severed above the elbow. The subsequently developed infection at the anastomosis site has necessitated removal of the extremity and reimplantation into the groin region, "to save it by taking it into a healthy zone where it would be possible to nourish it while we cleaned the infected area."
  • Pink eye is the inflammation of the conjunctiva membrane ( protective membrane that lines the sclera or white part of the eye and lines the inner portion of the eyelid.
  • Influenza Symptoms Fever (usually high) Headache Tiredness (can be extreme) Cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Body aches Diarrhea and vomiting (more common among children than adults) Syndrome – Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (medial nerve pinched in wrist and hand, tingling, swelling, slow nerve impulses) or Metabolic Syndrome (obesity, high blood pressure, high sugar levels)
  • Influenza Symptoms Fever (usually high) Headache Tiredness (can be extreme) Cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Body aches Diarrhea and vomiting (more common among children than adults)
  • This test is used to diagnose hiatal hernias, ulcers, tumors, diverticulitis, esophageal varices, obstruction, narrowing, or enteritis (inflammation of the small intestine lining). It may also be used to determine the causes of swallowing problems, reflux, abdominal pain, diarrhea, unexplained vomiting or weight loss or bleeding.
  • Anatomy Physiology Introduction Notes

    1. 1. Normal? Abnormal?
    2. 2. Why is A&P important? Often things go wrong (abnormal) within systems, and in order to fix them you need to understand their “normal” state. Structure determines function. If function is off = structure is off and vice versa. (Pathology) Example : Sickle Cell Anemia
    3. 3. What is Anatomy? Anatomy – “to cut apart” the study of the internal and external structures of plants and animals. How things are put together!
    4. 4. Division's of Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy – study structures that can only be seen with magnification aids. Example: Histology Cytology
    5. 5. Gross Anatomy (Macroscopic Anatomy) – study of structures visible to would be visible to the naked eye. Example: Bones
    6. 6. Would the following items would fall under Microscopic or Macroscopic Anatomy? Femur Lungs Stomach Bacteria Red Blood Cell Ear Cardiac Muscle Tissue
    7. 7. What is Physiology? Physiology – focuses on the function of body parts. How things work! Example: Muscle Contraction Smelling
    8. 8. Why is abnormal bad in terms of Anatomy & Physiology?
    9. 9. How does the body stay in a normal state? Homeostasis - physiological mechanism that creates a constant internal environment. Example : temperature, oxygen levels, nutrient levels, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose levels, and pH levels. Why does homeostasis occur?
    10. 10. National Geographic Fight Science Hypothermia & Hyperthermia
    11. 11. Hypothermia
    12. 12. How does the body maintain homeostasis? Negative Feedback Loops opposes a stimulus. (Opposite Directions) Positive Feedback Loops increases magnitude of change. (Same Direction)
    13. 13. Receptor (Start) Control Center Effector Afferent Pathway Efferent Pathway How do homeostatic mechanisms work?
    14. 15. The chemical reactions in your body are collectively called… Metabolism
    15. 17. What are the 2 metabolic processes? Anabolism – the process by which simpler compounds are build up and used for growth, repair and reproduction. Examples – making proteins or glycogen
    16. 18. Catabolism – the process by which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances. Examples – breaking down food.
    17. 19. What is necessary for living things to function successfully? <ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul>
    18. 20. When we begin to become dehydrated, we usually get thirsty, which causes us to drink liquids. Is the thirst sensation part of a negative or a positive feedback control system? Defend your choice.
    19. 21. Which organ system is the least important? Why?
    20. 22. How to speak A&P? Understanding the Language. Medical Terminology Prefix Root Suffix + + Peri – Around Cardi/o Heart <ul><li>itis </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation </li></ul>
    21. 23. Peri – Around Cardi/o Heart <ul><li>itis </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation </li></ul>Pericarditis Inflammation around the heart + + = Erythr/o Red <ul><li>cyte </li></ul><ul><li>cell </li></ul>Erythrocyte Red cell + =
    22. 24. Abdomin/o - Abdomen
    23. 25. Angi/o - Vessel
    24. 26. Arthr/o - Joint
    25. 27. Cardi/o - Heart
    26. 28. Cyan/o - Blue
    27. 29. Cyt/o - Cell
    28. 30. Derm/o - Skin
    29. 31. Erythr/o - Red
    30. 32. Gastr/o - Stomach
    31. 33. Glyc/o - Sugar
    32. 34. Hepat/o - Liver
    33. 35. Hist/o - Tissue
    34. 36. Leuk/o - White
    35. 37. Mamm/o - Breast
    36. 38. Nephr/o - Kidney
    37. 39. Neur/o - Neuron
    38. 40. Oste/o - Bone
    39. 41. Phag/o - Swallow
    40. 42. Path/o - Disease
    41. 43. Rhin/o - Nose
    42. 44. Acro - Extremities
    43. 45. Brady - Slow
    44. 46. Dys - Difficult
    45. 47. Electro - Electric
    46. 48. Macro - LARGE
    47. 49. Micro - small
    48. 50. Tachy - Fast
    49. 51. -algia Pain
    50. 52. -ectomy Surgical Removal
    51. 53. -itis Inflammation
    52. 54. Homework Questions 1-11 on page 10. <ul><li>Acrocyanosis – </li></ul><ul><li>Gastritis – </li></ul><ul><li>Rhinoplasty – </li></ul>Condition of blue extremities. Inflammation of the stomach Surgical repair of the nose
    53. 55. 4. Bradycardia - 5. Mammogram – 6. Cytomegaly - Slow heart rate Recording or image of the breast Enlarged cell
    54. 56. 7 . Inflammation of the kidneys - 8. Removal of the stomach - 9. Enlarged heart - 10. Disease of the bones - 11. One who studies neurons - Nephritis Gastrectomy Cardiomegaly Osteopathy Neurologist
    55. 57. What is disease and how do we find it? Disease – a condition in which the body fails to function normally. Signs or Vitals – measurable indicators. Heart rate, temp, height, blood pressure, etc. Symptoms – subjective indicators. Fatigue, Anxiety, Nausea, Pain etc..
    56. 58. Steps to Determining Disease <ul><li>Assess patient externally </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Measure vital signs </li></ul><ul><li>Explore signs & symptoms to determine etiology (cause of disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Make diagnosis (identify the disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide prognosis (prediction of the outcome of the disease) </li></ul>
    57. 59. Case Studies: A 66-year old Asian male involved in a vehicular accident is taken to the ICU with SOB and abdominal pain. He has acrocyanosis, tachycardia, and a past medical history of cardiopathy. He weighs 150 pounds and is 5 feet 6 inches tall. His chest X-ray shows an enlarged heart. His facial injuries will require future rhinoplastic surgery. An electrocardiogram and a lower GI series is ordered. <ul><li>Where exactly in the hospital was the patient taken? </li></ul><ul><li>- Intensive Care Unit </li></ul><ul><li>2. Describe the patient’s color, heart rate, and breathing? </li></ul><ul><li>-Blue, fast heart rate, shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>3. What is the medical term for what the X-ray showed? </li></ul><ul><li>- Cardiomegaly </li></ul><ul><li>4. What future facial surgery will be needed? </li></ul><ul><li>-Surgical repair of the nose </li></ul><ul><li>5. Identify the what are signs and what are symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Signs = Tachycardia, Weight, Height, ECG, GI, Cardiomegaly , Acrocyanosis, SOB, </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom = Abdominal Pain </li></ul>
    58. 60. Do medical practitioners make mistakes?
    59. 61. Mathematical Language of Anatomy Your sibling is in the hospital and is being administered 12mcg/kg/min of morphine. Hanging is a 100cc piggyback containing .6g of morphine. The doctor had told you earlier that the safe dosage for this medication is between 20-30 ml/hr. Is the nurse administering the right dosage if your sibling weighs 105lbs?
    60. 62. Meditation
    61. 63. Peri - Around
    62. 64. A or An - Without ?
    63. 65. Dia - Through
    64. 66. -graphy The process of recording
    65. 67. -logist One who studies
    66. 68. -otomy Cutting into
    67. 69. -ostomy Surgically forming an opening
    68. 70. -phobia Fear
    69. 71. Can maggots be used to help cure disease? Video shows graphic images!
    70. 72. Review Questions – Language of Disease <ul><li>Microcytes – </li></ul><ul><li>Osteostomy – </li></ul><ul><li>Slow heart rate – </li></ul><ul><li>Disease of below normal sugar levels - </li></ul>Cells that are small. Surgically forming and opening in bone Bradycardia Hypoglycopathy or Hypoglycosis
    71. 73. Mathematical Language of Anatomy You are to administer 5L of medication to a patient over 48 hours. The machine used to administer the medication can only be set in mL/hour. At what rate (mL/hr) will you set the pump to deliver the medication?

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