3 broadest forms of skepticism that cover everything the mind could conjure
Give examples of both Global is more like an existential philosophy, in a sense, it is to question anything, anytime for any reason
Restricted is an educational tool, by excepting general truths such as we exist as tangible beings, we reside on the planet earth, we revolve around the sun, we eat and breath, we can see, smell, taste, touch, and hear, and so on we can learn about things within this restricted field. This would be the idea of researching and understanding, developing medicines, and pretty much any form of learning at any level.
Explain who the pyrrhonians were and why the academic’s didn’t like them Academic: only thing we know is that we can not knowPyrrhonian: we can not know that we do not know
Academic skepticism is primarily concerned with certainty which they regarded as necessary for knowledge.Since certainty is impossible, so is knowledge.
Pyrrhonians viewed skepticism as a philosophical exercise with a purpose: attaining ataraxia. Ataraxia is a state brought about by the contemplation of the tropes in which one ceases to worry about anything that goes beyond appearances and merely accepts the apparent.Apparent as an illusion or hallucination, the dagger in Macbeth
Form of skepticism often used by people who claim hoaxes and government coverups
Descartes was a philosopher and a mathematician, not a skeptic but employed methodological skepticism.James Randi, Penn and teller all started as magicians before becoming avid “debunkers” as they call themselves but in a more general sense, Skeptics
http://web.archive.org/web/20050108095032/http://www.lclark.edu/~rebeccac/forms.html3. methodological, form of skepticismRules for the direction of the mind = outline how things should be analyzed and tested to ensure that the understanding is as accurate as humanly possible.http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes-works/ -> birth date and achievements “credited with”Main writing never published for fear of catholic church (Galileo's condemnation)
Elaborate on rules, rule 1 and 2 of 21
Rule 3 of 21, elaborate
Methodological, explain how this skepticism is more philosophy and how Descartes implemented it
Books: The Truth About Uri Geller, The Faith Healers, Flim-Flam!, and An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and SupernaturalThe MacArthur Fellows Program awards five-year, unrestricted fellowships to individuals across all ages and fields who show exceptional merit and promise of continued creative work. It is limited to U.S. citizens and residents.JREF
The JREF puts paranormal practitioners to the test, tests supernatural claims using “mutually agreed upon scientific conditions”Offer $1,000,000 to anyone who can prove any sort of supernatural ability, no one has won yet“debunk” psychics, palm readers, hypnotists, and anyone else who claims supernatural powers and uses them to make money, payment for a service not honestly rendered is fraud.Psuedo-science= mind reading, telekinesis, etc When someone makes a claim against a psychic, palm reader, assorted phonies, that person is often taken to court and sued for attempting to promote their business as fraud, which it usually is. Most people can’t afford to defend themselves in court such as hiring a good lawyer. That’s where the JREF will step in. They will fund the legal battles in hopes that one more scam artist is removed. http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/about-the-foundation.html
http://www.ufos-aliens.co.uk/cosmicapollo.htmlThe Apollo 11 moon landing was the first manned mission to the moon. (expand) some believe it never happened saying it was filmed in a studio.
Prop lettering used on sets, not commonly known in Hollywood or LA“C’s” are actually eyelashes that were caught in the negative of the photo and was overlooked when printing. Had the C been part of a set prop multiple takes would have weeded out a noticeable flaw like that
Picture: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://i.telegraph.co.uk/telegraph/multimedia/archive/01442/19690720-US-flag-m_1442423c.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/5837458/Nasa-told-its-new-Moon-rockets-are-too-expensive.html&usg=__mWbd8GAEaNadm6XAQ1DsZHvGJ54=&h=296&w=460&sz=36&hl=en&start=47&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=oQ0z-CyyjR4yWM:&tbnh=82&tbnw=128&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmoon%2Blanding%2Bflag%26start%3D36%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26ndsp%3D18%26tbs%3Disch:1Flag only moves when astronauts are holding it, other movement is brief momentum still acting on the flag.Inertia: Physics a property of matter by which it continues in its existing state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line, unless that state is changed by an external force.
http://www.ocii.com/~dpwozney/apollo1.htm - answer to question
http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/May/20060828133846esnamfuaK0.2676355.htmlThe remains of the bodies of the crew and passengers of American Airlines flight 77 were found at the Pentagon crash site, and positively identified by DNA. The flight’s black boxes were also recovered at the site.
http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/May/20060828133846esnamfuaK0.2676355.htmlThe “4,000” figure apparently came from an early statement by the Israeli Foreign Ministry that some “4,000 Israelis” were believed to be in the New York and Washington areas, where the attacks occurred. This figure was apparently seized upon by conspiracy theorists, in an attempt to bolster the false rumor.
http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/May/20060828133846esnamfuaK0.2676355.htmlIn an audiotape released on May 23, 2006, bin Laden stated, “I was responsible for entrusting the 19 brothers … with those raids..” In a November 2001 tape, bin Laden said, “We calculated in advance the number of casualties … who would be killed. … I was the most optimistic of them all. … Due to my experience in this field, I was thinking that the fire from the gas in the plane would melt the iron structure of the building and collapse the area where the plane hit and all the floors above it only.”
http://www.alternet.org/story/140296/the_10_most_popular_conspiracy_theories/?page=2Poppularly believed that an alien crashed in New Mexico but was infact a government project
http://www.alternet.org/story/140296/the_10_most_popular_conspiracy_theories/Those in the scientific community generally believe HIV originated from a strain of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus found in western African monkeys. But when a group of 500 African Americans were surveyed in a 2005 study published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, over half of them said that AIDS was created by the government. Conspiracy theories about why the government might have created the virus ranged from population control to the weakening of racial minority groups and gay people. Some also say that there's a cure for AIDS being back held by the government for similar reasons.
Personal Relevance<br />Why this is important to me<br />
Audience Relevance<br />Why is this important to others<br />
3 Forms of Skepticism<br />1. Global and restricted.<br />2. Academic and Pyrrhonian<br />3. Methodological<br />
Global<br />Global is a skepticism we all share in that we question whether or not the knowledge we have ever known is justifiable or reliable.<br />
Restricted<br />Restricted is whether or not the knowledge we know within ourselves about a specific interest is justified or reliable.<br />
Academic and Pyrrhonian<br />These were two groups of people who were of opposing opinions that at the heart of the issue actually held the same belief<br />Both were paradoxes to some extent<br />
Academics<br />Academic skepticism originated in the third century B.C. from a movement started in the academy started by Plato.<br />The academics thought that we can not definitively know anything and thus we know only that we can not know. This is their one truth.<br />
Pyrrhonian<br />Pyrrhonian skepticism is named after Pyrrho of Elis.<br />All knowledge of him is from the writings of his students.<br />Pyrrhonian skepticism revolves around the idea of “the suspension of knowledge”<br />Influenced the writings of Descartes<br />
Methodological<br />Relaxed form of skepticism<br />Uses skeptical methods to obtain knowledge but not absolute knowledge.<br />Knowledge on a set limit.<br />
Famous skeptics<br />Descartes, James Randi, Penn & Teller, <br />
Rene Descartes<br />Rene Descartes lived in France (March 31, 1596 - 11 February 1650) and was a mathematician that is credited with several writings, however not any formulas or the “cartesian plane” system like popularly believed.He was also a recluse and a philosopher rather than a skeptic. He employed a style known as “mitigated Skepticism”* He applied this thought process to everything possible to prove his own existence. “I think therefore I am” was his famous line soon followed by his writing of 21 rules known as the “Rules for the Direction of the Mind”.<br />
Rules for the Direction of the Mind<br />RULE I<br />The aim of our studies must be the direction of our mind so that it mayform solid and true judgments on whatever matters arise.<br />RULE II<br />We must occupy ourselves only with those objects that our intellectual powers appear competent to know certainly and indubitably.<br />
Rules for the Direction of Mind<br />RULE III<br />As regards any subject we propose to investigate, we must inquire not what other people have thought, or what we ourselves conjecture, but what we can clearly and manifestly perceive by intuition or deduce with curtains. For there is no other way of acquiring knowledge.<br />
Cogito ergo sum <br />"I am thinking therefore I exist."<br />This was the conclusion that Descartes finally made when he used his own rules to examine and doubt the existence of the world around him. The idea that one can not undeniably prove anything except one’s own existence. If you doubt your own existence, the very act of doubting proves you wrong.<br />
James Randi<br />“The amazing Randi”<br />tireless investigator and “demystifier” of paranormal and pseudoscientific claims<br />He has received numerous awards and recognitions, including a Fellowship from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation in 1986.<br />Authored several books<br />
Moon landing claims<br />“C rock” also called a prop C<br />NASA explained that hairs were caught in the negative<br />
Moon Landing Claims cont.<br />During the Apollo 14 flag setup ceremony, the flag would not stop fluttering.<br />Inertia<br />
If you cannot produce a flame in a vacuum because of the lack of oxygen how come footage shows a flame coming from the exhaust of an Apollo lander?<br />caused by the oxidizer, nitrogen tetroxide. <br />
9-11<br />Some claim the gov’t conceived the 9-11 attacks<br />Orchestrated a reason to invade middle east<br />
9-11 claims<br />No plane hit the Pentagon on September 11. Instead, it was a missile fired by elements “from inside the American state apparatus.”<br />Numerous eyewitnesses saw the plane strike the Pentagon. Some saw passengers through the plane’s windows. Missiles don’t have windows or carry passengers.<br />
9-11 claims cont.<br />Four thousand Jews failed to show up for work at the World Trade Center on September 11.<br /> It appears from media reports that some 10 percent to 15 percent of WTC victims were Jewish, indicating there were no mass absences.<br />
9-11 claims cont.<br />Al Qaida is not responsible for the September 11 attacks.Al Qaida leaders, including Osama bin Laden, have repeatedly confirmed that they planned and carried out the September 11 attacks.<br />
Roswell, New Mexico<br />A UFO crashed in Roswell, New Mexico.<br />Project Mogul, the government's attempt to pick up on Soviet Union nuclear tests<br />
AIDS is a man-made disease.<br />a group of 500 African Americans were surveyed in a 2005 study published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, over half of them said that AIDS was created by the government<br />Originated from a strain of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus found in western African monkeys<br />