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SGP Skepticism


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SGP Skepticism

  1. 1. Skepticism<br />Max Hain<br />
  2. 2. Thesis<br />
  3. 3. Personal Relevance<br />Why this is important to me<br />
  4. 4. Audience Relevance<br />Why is this important to others<br />
  5. 5. 3 Forms of Skepticism<br />1. Global and restricted.<br />2. Academic and Pyrrhonian<br />3. Methodological<br />
  6. 6. Global<br />Global is a skepticism we all share in that we question whether or not the knowledge we have ever known is justifiable or reliable.<br />
  7. 7. Restricted<br />Restricted is whether or not the knowledge we know within ourselves about a specific interest is justified or reliable.<br />
  8. 8. Academic and Pyrrhonian<br />These were two groups of people who were of opposing opinions that at the heart of the issue actually held the same belief<br />Both were paradoxes to some extent<br />
  9. 9. Academics<br />Academic skepticism originated in the third century B.C. from a movement started in the academy started by Plato.<br />The academics thought that we can not definitively know anything and thus we know only that we can not know. This is their one truth.<br />
  10. 10. Pyrrhonian<br />Pyrrhonian skepticism is named after Pyrrho of Elis.<br />All knowledge of him is from the writings of his students.<br />Pyrrhonian skepticism revolves around the idea of “the suspension of knowledge”<br />Influenced the writings of Descartes<br />
  11. 11. Methodological<br />Relaxed form of skepticism<br />Uses skeptical methods to obtain knowledge but not absolute knowledge.<br />Knowledge on a set limit.<br />
  12. 12. Famous skeptics<br />Descartes, James Randi, Penn & Teller, <br />
  13. 13. Rene Descartes<br />Rene Descartes lived in France (March 31, 1596 - 11 February 1650) and was a mathematician that is credited with several writings, however not any formulas or the “cartesian plane” system like popularly believed.He was also a recluse and a philosopher rather than a skeptic. He employed a style known as “mitigated Skepticism”* He applied this thought process to everything possible to prove his own existence. “I think therefore I am” was his famous line soon followed by his writing of 21 rules known as the “Rules for the Direction of the Mind”.<br />
  14. 14. Rules for the Direction of the Mind<br />RULE I<br />The aim of our studies must be the direction of our mind so that it mayform solid and true judgments on whatever matters arise.<br />RULE II<br />We must occupy ourselves only with those objects that our intellectual powers appear competent to know certainly and indubitably.<br />
  15. 15. Rules for the Direction of Mind<br />RULE III<br />As regards any subject we propose to investigate, we must inquire not what other people have thought, or what we ourselves conjecture, but what we can clearly and manifestly perceive by intuition or deduce with curtains. For there is no other way of acquiring knowledge.<br />
  16. 16. Cogito ergo sum <br />"I am thinking therefore I exist."<br />This was the conclusion that Descartes finally made when he used his own rules to examine and doubt the existence of the world around him. The idea that one can not undeniably prove anything except one’s own existence. If you doubt your own existence, the very act of doubting proves you wrong.<br />
  17. 17. James Randi<br />“The amazing Randi”<br />tireless investigator and “demystifier” of paranormal and pseudoscientific claims<br />He has received numerous awards and recognitions, including a Fellowship from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation in 1986.<br />Authored several books<br />
  18. 18. JREF<br />James Randi Educational Foundation<br />Promote critical thinking<br />“debunk” psychics<br />Test pseudosciences<br />Legally defend individuals who share the JREF’s ideals<br />
  19. 19. Moon landing<br />Some believe it didn’t happen<br />Pick and choose facts to focus on<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Moon landing claims<br />“C rock” also called a prop C<br />NASA explained that hairs were caught in the negative<br />
  22. 22. Moon Landing Claims cont.<br />During the Apollo 14 flag setup ceremony, the flag would not stop fluttering.<br />Inertia<br />
  23. 23. If you cannot produce a flame in a vacuum because of the lack of oxygen how come footage shows a flame coming from the exhaust of an Apollo lander?<br />caused by the oxidizer, nitrogen tetroxide. <br />
  24. 24. 9-11<br />Some claim the gov’t conceived the 9-11 attacks<br />Orchestrated a reason to invade middle east<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. 9-11 claims<br />No plane hit the Pentagon on September 11. Instead, it was a missile fired by elements “from inside the American state apparatus.”<br />Numerous eyewitnesses saw the plane strike the Pentagon. Some saw passengers through the plane’s windows. Missiles don’t have windows or carry passengers.<br />
  27. 27. 9-11 claims cont.<br />Four thousand Jews failed to show up for work at the World Trade Center on September 11.<br />  It appears from media reports that some 10 percent to 15 percent of WTC victims were Jewish, indicating there were no mass absences.<br />
  28. 28. 9-11 claims cont.<br />Al Qaida is not responsible for the September 11 attacks.Al Qaida leaders, including Osama bin Laden, have repeatedly confirmed that they planned and carried out the September 11 attacks.<br />
  29. 29. Roswell, New Mexico<br />A UFO crashed in Roswell, New Mexico.<br />Project Mogul, the government's attempt to pick up on Soviet Union nuclear tests<br />
  30. 30. AIDS is a man-made disease.<br />a group of 500 African Americans were surveyed in a 2005 study published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, over half of them said that AIDS was created by the government<br />Originated from a strain of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus found in western African monkeys<br />