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Public PhD Defense Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: CHOOSE - Maxime Bernaert

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Enterprise architecture (EA) is a coherent whole of principles, methods, and models that are used in the design and realization of an enterprise’s organizational structure, business processes, information systems, and IT infrastructure. EA is used as a holistic approach to keep things aligned in a company. Some emphasize the use of EA to align IT with the business, others see it broader and use it to also keep the processes aligned with the strategy.
Recent research indicates the need for EA in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), important drivers of the economy, as they struggle with problems related to a lack of structure and overview of their business. However, existing EA frameworks are perceived as too complex and, to date, none of the EA approaches are sufficiently adapted to the SME context.
Therefore, in this PhD, we present the CHOOSE approach for EA for SMEs. The approach consists of four artifacts: a metamodel, a method, software tool support, and a visualization. The approach is kept simple so that it may be applied in an SME context and is based on the essential dimensions of EA frameworks.
Five steps were taken: first, the problem of EA in SMEs was extensively analyzed. Next, the CHOOSE metamodel was developed during action research in SMEs. Then, action research in six companies was used to develop an adequate method (consisting of guidelines, a roadmap, and stop criteria) and to further refine this CHOOSE metamodel, while different types of software tools (PC, iPad, Android, ...) were developed to enable the evaluation rounds. Finally, a proper visualization was established.

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Public PhD Defense Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: CHOOSE - Maxime Bernaert

  1. 1. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: CHOOSE Maxime Bernaert Promoter: Prof. Dr. Geert Poels (Ghent University), Prof. Dr. Monique Snoeck (K.U. Leuven), Prof. Dr. Manu De Backer (Ghent University)
  2. 2. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2 Main research question Enterprise Architecture could offer many advantages, but is as good as not used in small and medium-sized enterprises. The lack of research on an EA approach that can readily by used for SMEs is the problem addressed in this PhD.
  3. 3. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 3 Main research question: EA Enterprise Architecture could offer many advantages, but is as good as not used in small and medium-sized enterprises. The lack of research on an EA approach that can readily by used for SMEs is the problem addressed in this PhD.
  4. 4. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (re)build your house
  5. 5. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  6. 6. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  7. 7. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  8. 8. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  9. 9. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  10. 10. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  11. 11. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (re)build your company
  12. 12. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  13. 13. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  14. 14. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  15. 15. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 2/11/2015 FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Enterprise Architecture
  16. 16. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 16 Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture (EA)*: a holistic approach to keep things aligned in a company (IT - business, operations - strategy) Holistic overview:  Optimization of the company as a whole  Strategy --> Operations  Understood by all those involved *Lankhorst M (2013) Enterprise Architecture at Work: Modelling, Communication and Analysis. Springer-Verlag, New York
  17. 17. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 17 Enterprise Architecture
  18. 18. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 18 Enterprise Architecture
  19. 19. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 19 Enterprise Architecture
  20. 20. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 20 Enterprise Architecture
  21. 21. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 21 Enterprise Architecture
  22. 22. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 22 Enterprise Architecture
  23. 23. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 23 Enterprise Architecture
  24. 24. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 24 Enterprise Architecture
  25. 25. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 25 Main research question: SMEs Enterprise Architecture could offer many advantages, but is as good as not used in small and medium-sized enterprises. The lack of research on an EA approach that can readily by used for SMEs is the problem addressed in this PhD.
  26. 26. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 26 SMEs Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises*  European definition • <= 250 employees • Annual turnover <= 50 million euros or total assets <= 43 million euros *European Commission (2003) Recommendation 2003/361/EC: SME Definition. Official Journal of the European Union 46 (L 124) (6)
  27. 27. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 27 SMEs Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  Important for economy* • 20.8 million SMEs in Europe (99.8% of all companies) • 70% of European jobs, 58.4% of gross production *European Commission (2010) Are EU SMEs Recovering from the Crisis? Annual Report on EU Small and Medium Sized Enterprises 2011
  28. 28. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 28 Research steps Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  29. 29. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 29 Research steps related to PhD thesis Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5
  30. 30. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 30 Research steps: problem analysis Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  31. 31. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 31 Enterprise Architecture for SMEs EA for SMEs? *1,*2  Not known in SMEs  Not used in SMEs *1De Nil S, Deprost E, Bernaert M, Poels G (2012) Van Strategie tot Procesmodellering in Kleine en Middelgrote Organisaties: Een Exploratief Onderzoek. University of Ghent, Ghent *2Devos J (2011) IT Governance for SMEs. University of Ghent, Ghent Problem Analysis
  32. 32. High probability of failure for SMEs 0 2 5 10 15 100% 70% 50% 33% 25% Year Survival Rate Lack of structure and overview is a decisive factor in the failure of an SME* *O'Gorman C (2001) The Sustainability of Growth in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Int J Entrep Behav Res 7 (2):60-75 Problem Analysis
  33. 33. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 33 Enterprise architecture as solution! ✗ Lack of knowledge of EA in SMEs ✗ Lack of appropriate techniques Yes … but CHOOSE Enterprise architecture as solution! Problem Analysis
  34. 34. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 34 Enterprise Architecture for SMEs EA for SMEs?  Not known in SMEs  Not used in SMEs  Adoption models Problem Analysis
  35. 35. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 35 Adoption Models: Method Evaluation Model* *Moody, D. L. The Method Evaluation Model: A Theoretical Model for Validating Information Systems Design Methods. In Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Information Systems, Naples, Italy, 2003 Problem Analysis
  36. 36. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 36 Increasing adoption chances EA for SMEs?  Increase the perceived usefulness • Increase actual effectiveness • Advantages for SMEs in practice  Increase the perceived ease of use • Adapt methods to an SME context (in practice) • Complexity* (= 1/actual efficiency) must be decreased  From actual to perceived efficacy • Test in SMEs: feedback + EA gets better known *Rogers EM, Shoemaker FF (1971) Communication of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach. The Free Press, New York Problem Analysis
  37. 37. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 37 Research steps: metamodel Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  38. 38. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 38 Research steps: metamodel Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  39. 39. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 39 Research Method Metamodel
  40. 40. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 40 Requirements for EA and SMEs Metamodel
  41. 41. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 41 mentioned. In the strategy-operations column, a minus indicates that a translation from strategy (business or IT) to operations (organizational or IT) is not clearly supported. Table 1 Analysis of EA frameworks WHAT HOW WHERE WHO WHEN WHY BUSINESS IS IT STRATEGY - OPERATIONS Zachman What How Where Who When Why B/IS/IT + TOGAF Data entity, ... Process, ... Infrastructure extension Organization unit, actor, role, ... Event, ... Motivation extension B/IS/IT + ArchiMate Information Behavior Network, ... Structure Event, ... Motivation B/IS/IT + DoDAF Resource Activity Location Performer - Capability Blend + CARP Resource Activity - Performer - Capability B + IAF Object Activity Interaction Actor, role, ... Event Why, goal, ... B/IS/IT + E2AF Business objects, resources, ... Business activities, ... With who? Organization structure, actors, ... When? Why? B/IS/IT + FEA: FEAF Objects, ... Business process, ... Business locations, ... - - - IS/IT - FEA: TEAF Information, ... Business process, ... Information exchange, ... Organization chart, ... Event, ... Mission, vision, ... B/IS/IT + GEAM - - - - - Requirements vision B/IS/IT + ARIS Input, output, ... Function - Organizational unit, ... Event Goal Blend +- (BMM) - (Business process) - (Organization unit) - End B + DYA Product, data, ... Process Network Organization, ... - Business objectives B/IS/IT + Enterprise modelling / EKD Concepts model Business process model - Actors and resources model - Goals model B/IS + REA Resource Event - Agent - Goals B - SEAM - - - - - Strategies B/IS + LEAP Object Operation - Object Condition OCL constraint B/IS/IT - Existing EA approaches Metamodel
  42. 42. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 42 mentioned. In the strategy-operations column, a minus indicates that a translation from strategy (business or IT) to operations (organizational or IT) is not clearly supported. Table 1 Analysis of EA frameworks WHAT HOW WHERE WHO WHEN WHY BUSINESS IS IT STRATEGY - OPERATIONS Zachman What How Where Who When Why B/IS/IT + TOGAF Data entity, ... Process, ... Infrastructure extension Organization unit, actor, role, ... Event, ... Motivation extension B/IS/IT + ArchiMate Information Behavior Network, ... Structure Event, ... Motivation B/IS/IT + DoDAF Resource Activity Location Performer - Capability Blend + CARP Resource Activity - Performer - Capability B + IAF Object Activity Interaction Actor, role, ... Event Why, goal, ... B/IS/IT + E2AF Business objects, resources, ... Business activities, ... With who? Organization structure, actors, ... When? Why? B/IS/IT + FEA: FEAF Objects, ... Business process, ... Business locations, ... - - - IS/IT - FEA: TEAF Information, ... Business process, ... Information exchange, ... Organization chart, ... Event, ... Mission, vision, ... B/IS/IT + GEAM - - - - - Requirements vision B/IS/IT + ARIS Input, output, ... Function - Organizational unit, ... Event Goal Blend +- (BMM) - (Business process) - (Organization unit) - End B + DYA Product, data, ... Process Network Organization, ... - Business objectives B/IS/IT + Enterprise modelling / EKD Concepts model Business process model - Actors and resources model - Goals model B/IS + REA Resource Event - Agent - Goals B - SEAM - - - - - Strategies B/IS + LEAP Object Operation - Object Condition OCL constraint B/IS/IT - Existing EA approaches Metamodel
  43. 43. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 43 Focus mainly on 4 dimensions Metamodel
  44. 44. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 44 CHOOSE Metamodel
  45. 45. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 45 CHOOSE basic concepts  CHOOSE metamodel derived from KAOS* metamodel, covering these 4 main dimensions. *Van Lamsweerde, A. (2009). Requirements Engineering: From System Goals to UML Models to Software Specifications (Vol. 3): Wiley. Metamodel
  46. 46. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 46 CHOOSE basic concepts  Jeroen Van Cauwenberghe sells local products because customers love pure products and want to pay extra for it. Metamodel
  47. 47. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 47 Complete CHOOSE Metamodel Metamodel
  48. 48. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 48 Core Part of the CHOOSE Metamodel Metamodel
  49. 49. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 49 CHOOSE Goal Model Example Metamodel
  50. 50. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 50 CHOOSE Actor Model Example Metamodel
  51. 51. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 51 CHOOSE Operation Model Example IT Operations Manage Social Media Develop Webshop Metamodel
  52. 52. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 52 CHOOSE Object Model Example Metamodel
  53. 53. Increase Customer Base Increase Visibility Open New Store Increase Online Visibility Improve Signing Decrease Costs Christophe CEO Marketing Expert Olivier Bookkeeper BackOffice IT Operations Manage Social Media Develop Webshop Social Media Facebook PageFoursquare HootSuite Automatic Facebook Poster License Plate Scanner Metamodel
  54. 54. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 54 CHOOSE Metamodel Definitions Metamodel
  55. 55. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 55 CHOOSE Metamodel Constraints Metamodel
  56. 56. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 56 CHOOSE Metamodel Constraints Metamodel
  57. 57. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 57 CHOOSE Viewpoints? Metamodel
  58. 58. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 58 Evaluation  Essential dimensions of EA frameworks  Four essential EA focuses  Blends three EA layers  Strategy / Operations  Requirements for EA for SMEs 1. Control went up 2. Holistic overview by essential focuses 3. Based on objectives (goals) 4. SMEs: simplicity (but... need for method/tools), process overview, CEO involvement 5. Enterprise overview Metamodel
  59. 59. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 59 Research steps: method Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  60. 60. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 60 Research steps: method Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  61. 61. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 61 Research method “The validity of a method can only be established by applicative success in practice” (Rescher 1977) Method
  62. 62. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 62 Case study companies Method
  63. 63. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 63 CHOOSE method  6-step roadmap • a six-step procedure to implement the CHOOSE approach  + method for structured interviews • describes our best practice to structure the interviews  + stop criteria Method
  64. 64. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 64 Action Research: 6-step roadmap  Step 1: Goal tree: Balanced Scorecard: Financial, Customer, Internal Process, and Learning & Growth Goals  Step 2: Goal tree: More Goals are found through the 'Why/How?'-questions 1stinterview Method
  65. 65. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 65 Action Research: 6-step roadmap  Step 3: Adding the Actors to the CHOOSE-model based on secondary sources and interviews  Step 4: Based on the Porter’s Value Chain framework and the job description of Actors, the Operations are added to the model  Step 5: Adding the Objects and relationships based on interviews and visual inspection  Step 5: Validation 1stinterview 2ndinterview &validation 3rdinterview &validation Method
  66. 66. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 66 CHOOSE method  6-step roadmap  + method for structured interviews  + stop criteria • Quadruple check to indicate when the input-phase of the EA model development process can be terminated Method
  67. 67. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 67 Action Research: model example The CHOOSE-method Method
  68. 68. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 68 Action Research: evaluation Method
  69. 69. Evaluation / Case Study (CS) CS 1 CS 2 CS 3 CS 4 CS 5 CS 6 Avg. Method Evaluation (cf. Table 2) 7-point Likert scale Strongly disagree: 1 Disagree: 2 Slightly disagree: 3 Neutral: 4 Slightly agree: 5 Agree: 6 Strongly agree: 7 PU1 6 4 6 5 5 6 5,61 PU2 6 5 7 6 5 6 PU3 6 7 6 4 4 4 PU4 6 6 7 4 5 6 PU5 6 4 7 6 5 7 PU6 6 6 6 6 4 7 PEU1 6 5 6 6 4 6 5,11 PEU2 6 4 5 6 4 6 PEU3 6 5 4 6 5 6 PEU4 5 4 4 5 4 5 PEU5 6 4 6 6 4 6 PEU6 6 4 5 6 4 4 Metamodel evaluation (cf. Table 3) 7-point Likert scale Strongly disagree: 1 Disagree: 2 Slightly disagree: 3 Neutral: 4 Slightly agree: 5 Agree: 6 Strongly agree: 7 Cursive: negative statement PEOU1 6 3 5 5 4 6 4,54 PEOU2 2 5 6 3 3 2 PEOU3 6 4 5 5 4 5 PEOU4 6 5 4 6 4 5 US1 6 6 6 5 5 5 5,25 US2 2 3 3 3 3 3 US3 6 6 6 6 5 5 US4 6 6 5 6 5 6 PU1 6 7 7 4 5 6 5,56PU2 6 6 6 5 5 6 PU3 6 6 5 5 4 5 PSQ1 6 5 6 5 5 5 5,27 PSQ2 6 5 6 6 5 6 PSQ3 2 3 3 2 4 3 PSQ4 6 5 6 5 6 7 PSQ5 5 5 5 5 6 6 General evaluation 5-point Likert scale Very bad: 1 Bad: 2 Neutral: 3 Good: 4 Very good: 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4,17 PEOU1 It was easy for me to understand what the CHOOSE model was trying to model PEOU2 Using the CHOOSE model was often frustrating PEOU3 Overall, the CHOOSE model was easy to use PEOU4 Learning how to read the CHOOSE model was easy US1 The CHOOSE model adequately met the information needs that I was asked to support US2 The CHOOSE model was not efficient in providing the information I needed US3 The CHOOSE model was effective in providing the information I needed US4 Overall, I am satisfied with the CHOOSE model for providing the information I needed PU1 Overall, I think the CHOOSE model would be an improvement to a textual description of the company PU2 Overall, I found the CHOOSE model useful for understanding the company modeled PU3 Overall, I think the CHOOSE model improves my performance when understanding the company modeled PSQ1 The CHOOSE model represents the company correctly PSQ2 The CHOOSE model is a realistic representation of the company PSQ3 The CHOOSE model contains contradicting elements PSQ4 All the elements in the CHOOSE model are relevant for the representation of the company PSQ5 The CHOOSE model gives a complete representation of the company Perceived Usefulness PU1 The CHOOSE method enabled me to more quickly create the CHOOSE model. PU2 With the aid of the CHOOSE method, I was able to create a better and more consistent model. PU3 The structured CHOOSE method contributes to an increased productivity. PU4 The applied CHOOSE method increases the effectiveness of the enterprise architecture process and contributes to the final result. PU5 The offering of the method facilitates the enterprise architecture process. PU6 I consider the applied method as a useful aid in creating the enterprise architecture model. Perceived Ease of Use PEU1 It is easy to learn to work with the CHOOSE method. PEU2 The CHOOSE method is easily controllable. PEU3 The structure of the CHOOSE method is straightforward, clear, and understandable. PEU4 The CHOOSE method can be applied flexibly. PEU5 I feel that I will quickly get to master the CHOOSE method. PEU6 The CHOOSE method is easy to use. Interviewees with little business background “structurally mapping out an SME in a clear way” No manual of model elements / Switch from interview to model Method “through a limited number of interviews a complete and accurate picture of the firm has been outlined” Method was still immature
  70. 70. Lack of knowledge of sales & marketing Large enterprise Method
  71. 71. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 71 Research steps: tools Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  72. 72. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 72 Research steps: tools Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  73. 73. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 73 Tool support Tools
  74. 74. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 74 Tool support: case studies Case study evidence of the need for tool support Tools
  75. 75. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 75 Tool support: case studies Case study evidence of the need for tool support: Input (“actual efficiency”) Storage Data adjustments Data retrieval Analyses (“actual effectiveness”)  It can enhance the “perceived ease of use” and “perceived usefulness”, thus increasing chances for adoption Tools
  76. 76. (Kiger, 1984) · · breadth iPhone Eclipe GMF PC iPad iPad Android Android Tools
  77. 77. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 77 Tool outline: PC Tool PC Tool outline  Three main functionalities • Input • Adjust • Output Tools
  78. 78. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 78 Tool outline: PC Tool Input Easy interface No drawing tool Integration of all concepts and relationships Adjust Search functionality Modular overview Easy interface Tools
  79. 79. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 79 Tool outline: PC Tool Output  Automatic visualization  RACI charts  Data export to MS Excel The goal is to minimize effort and maximize value through automation, simplification, visualization, mistake proofing, … Tools
  80. 80. Input Adjust
  81. 81. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 81 Tool outline: PC Tool Tools Adjust
  82. 82. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 82 Tool outline: PC Tool Tools Output
  83. 83. Tools Output
  84. 84. Tools Output
  85. 85. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 85 Tool outline: PC Tool Tools Output
  86. 86. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 86 CHOOSE has to be used with other approaches to see every enterprise detail PC Tool: evaluation Increased control Increased overview Tools
  87. 87. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 87 Future developments Tools
  88. 88. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 88 Research steps: visualization Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  89. 89. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 89 Research steps: visualization Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE language Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  90. 90. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 90 *Moody, D. (2009). The Physics of Notations: Toward a Scientific Basis for Constructing Visual Notations in Software Engineering. IEEE Trans Softw Eng, 35(6), 756-779. Research method: The Physics of Notations* Visualization
  91. 91. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 91 *Moody, D. (2009). The Physics of Notations: Toward a Scientific Basis for Constructing Visual Notations in Software Engineering. IEEE Trans Softw Eng, 35(6), 756-779. Research method: The Physics of Notations* Visualization
  92. 92. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 92 *Moody, D. (2009). The Physics of Notations: Toward a Scientific Basis for Constructing Visual Notations in Software Engineering. IEEE Trans Softw Eng, 35(6), 756-779. Research method: The Physics of Notations* Visualization
  93. 93. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 93 *Moody, D. (2009). The Physics of Notations: Toward a Scientific Basis for Constructing Visual Notations in Software Engineering. IEEE Trans Softw Eng, 35(6), 756-779. Research method: The Physics of Notations* Visualization
  94. 94. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 94  Principles used in the example *Moody, D. (2009). The Physics of Notations: Toward a Scientific Basis for Constructing Visual Notations in Software Engineering. IEEE Trans Softw Eng, 35(6), 756-779. Research method: The Physics of Notations* Visualization
  95. 95. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 95  Principles used in alternatives for CHOOSE *Moody, D. (2009). The Physics of Notations: Toward a Scientific Basis for Constructing Visual Notations in Software Engineering. IEEE Trans Softw Eng, 35(6), 756-779. Research method: The Physics of Notations* Visualization
  96. 96. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 96 Research method: The Physics of Notations*  E.g. visual expressiveness *Moody, D. (2009). The Physics of Notations: Toward a Scientific Basis for Constructing Visual Notations in Software Engineering. IEEE Trans Softw Eng, 35(6), 756-779. Visualization
  97. 97. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 97 Original visualization Visualization
  98. 98. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 98 1st alternative: Moody’s principles Visualization
  99. 99. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 99 2nd alternative: uniformity in style Visualization
  100. 100. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 100 3rd alternative: complexity management Visualization
  101. 101. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 101 3rd alternative: complexity management Visualization
  102. 102. Visualization
  103. 103. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 103 evaluation 120 observations “Uniformity in style” seems to impact intention to use COGNITIVE EFFECTIVENESS ACCURACY TIME MENTAL EFFORT PERCEIVED EASE OF USE PERCEIVED USEFULNESS INTENTION TO USE Moody’s “visual” principles increase accuracy and speed “Complexity management” has the best results Visualization
  104. 104. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 104 Research steps: large enterprises? Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  105. 105. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 105 Research steps: large enterprises? Large enterprises Enterprise architecture Case studies CHOOSE metamodel Tool support Requirements CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Evaluation
  106. 106. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 106 Case study at KBC*  Adaptations to CHOOSE metamodel and method, however they still use it primarily for its benefits in aligning strategy and operations and assessing impact of a changing strategy *De Clercq, D., Bernaert, M., Roelens, B., Poels, G. (2015). Simplicity Is not Simple: How Business Architecture in One of Belgium's Biggest Companies Can Be Simple and Easy-to-use. To be published in Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Further research
  107. 107. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 107 Mapping: CHOOSE - ArchiMate Further research
  108. 108. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert 108 Questions

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