Enterprise Architecture in Smalland Medium-Sized Enterprises
How to delineate research studies inDSRM PhD research project?23/05/2013 MIS Research Seminar 2• Each phase is a paper DOE...
23/05/2013 MIS Research Seminar 3Research review with research agenda• Valid option – we have examples that WORKED• Time-c...
23/05/2013 MIS Research Seminar 4Evaluation existing solutions• Valid option – we have examples that WORKED• Theoretical d...
23/05/2013 MIS Research Seminar 5Incremental studies based on multiple artifacts• Best option (so far)• Challenge = define...
Typical research study(6 to 12 months throughput time)• Preliminary study• Problem analysis• Planning solutiondesign1 to 2...
Part 0.0: Exploring the problem• Integrating the semantics of events,processes and tasks across requirementsengineering la...
Three orthogonal dimensions of Events(UFO)Atomic event Complex eventInstantaneous eventTime-extended eventNon-action event...
Three orthogonal dimensions of Events(BWW)Event ProcessInternal eventExternal eventPoorly-defined eventWell-defined event
1.6. Results• Example of results:– Construct overload– Construct excess– Construct redundancy– Construct deficit
Part 0.1: Getting an idea• The quest for know-how, know-why, know-what and know-who : using KAOS forenterprise modelling• ...
Modelling an SME with KAOS
Part 0.1: Getting an idea• De zoektocht naar know-how, know-why, know-what en know-who : architectuurvoor kleinere bedrijv...
Integrated Model
Research Steps
Part 1: Problem/Motivation
Part 1: Problem/Motivation• Enterprise architecture for small andmedium-sized enterprises• Conference: 5th Phd day (2012)•...
Part 1: Problem/Motivation
Part 1: Problem/Motivation• Enterprise architecture for small andmedium-sized enterprises : a starting pointfor bringing E...
Enterprise Architecture for SMEs• EA for SMEs???4,5– Not known in SMEs– Not used in SMEs4De Nil S, Deprost E, Bernaert M, ...
Adoption Models• Method Evaluation Model
Enterprise Architecture for SMEs• EA for SMEs???– Increase the perceived usefulness• Increase actual effectiveness• Advant...
Enterprise Architecture for SMEs• Design Science1111Hevner AR, March ST, Park J, Ram S (2004) Design Science in Informatio...
Part 2: Metamodel
Part 2: Metamodel• CHOOSE: Towards a Metamodel forEnterprise Architecture in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises• Journal: ...
Part 2: Metamodel
Enterprise Architecture for SMEs• Existing EA techniques
Part 2: Metamodelmentioned. In the strategy-operations column, a minus indicates that a translation from strategy(business...
Enterprise Architecture for SMEs• CHOOSE metamodel
Part 2: Metamodel
Part 2: Metamodel
Part 2: Metamodel
Part 2: Metamodel
Part 2: Metamodel
Part 2: Metamodel
Part 2: Metamodel
Part 2: Metamodel• -- CONSTRAINTS• constraints•• -- GOAL•• --Constraint 1) Hard constraint: a Goal cannot have a Conflict ...
Part 3: Method
Part 3: Method• Enterprise Architecture Modelling for Smalland Medium-Sized Enterprises: Case StudyResearch to Refine and ...
Part 3: Method
Part 3: Method
Enterprise Architecture for SMEs
Part 3: Method
Part 4: Software Tools
Enterprise Architecture for SMEs
Part 4: Software Tools• Development of Software Tool Support forEnterprise Architecture in Small and Medium-Sized Enterpri...
Step 1Step 3Step 4Step 5Step 6Step 2
Part 4: Software Tools• Enterprise Architecture Software ToolSupport for Small and Medium-SizedEnterprises: EASE• Conferen...
Part 4: Software Tools
Part 4: Software Tools
Part 4: Software Tools
Part 4: Software Tools• Software Tool Support voor EnterpriseArchitectuur in Kleine en MiddelgroteOndernemingen: EASE• Jou...
Part 4: Software Tools• An Android Tablet Tool for EnterpriseArchitecture Modelling in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises•...
Part 5: Integration/Translation
Part 5: Integration/Translation• Development of a common base forenterprise architecture: building the bridgebetween CHOOS...
Part 5: Integration/Translation
Part 5: Integration/Translation
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: PhD Overview
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: PhD Overview
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: PhD Overview
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: PhD Overview
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: PhD Overview
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: PhD Overview
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Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: PhD Overview

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Enterprise Architecture, EA, Business Architecture, BA, Small and Medium-Sized Enteprise, SME, Small business, CHOOSE, metamodel, meta-model, method, software, tool, support, adoption models, goals, actor, operations, objects, business process management, bpm

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Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: PhD Overview

  1. 1. Enterprise Architecture in Smalland Medium-Sized Enterprises
  2. 2. How to delineate research studies inDSRM PhD research project?23/05/2013 MIS Research Seminar 2• Each phase is a paper DOESN’T WORK(though each phase as a dissertation chapter makes sense)
  3. 3. 23/05/2013 MIS Research Seminar 3Research review with research agenda• Valid option – we have examples that WORKED• Time-consuming• Contribution of new knowledge is absolute requirement• Risky strategy
  4. 4. 23/05/2013 MIS Research Seminar 4Evaluation existing solutions• Valid option – we have examples that WORKED• Theoretical development to explain evaluation resultsis an absolute requirement• Risky strategy
  5. 5. 23/05/2013 MIS Research Seminar 5Incremental studies based on multiple artifacts• Best option (so far)• Challenge = define artifact set with relatively independentcomponents that each present a significant contribution
  6. 6. Typical research study(6 to 12 months throughput time)• Preliminary study• Problem analysis• Planning solutiondesign1 to 2 months• Solution design• Demonstration• Planning evaluation• Write conference paper3 to 4 months• Evaluation studies• Seminar• Refinement solution (?)• Revise conference paper2 to 4 months• Conferencepresentation• Incorporatefeedback• Preparepublication1 to 2 months23/05/2013 6Prof. dr. Geert Poels, director AOG Information and Knowledge Management
  7. 7. Part 0.0: Exploring the problem• Integrating the semantics of events,processes and tasks across requirementsengineering layers• Conference: 3th Phd day (2010)• Conference: Proceedings of the CAiSE Doctoral Consortium 2010 (CEUR WorkshopProceedings) (2010)
  8. 8. Three orthogonal dimensions of Events(UFO)Atomic event Complex eventInstantaneous eventTime-extended eventNon-action eventAction event
  9. 9. Three orthogonal dimensions of Events(BWW)Event ProcessInternal eventExternal eventPoorly-defined eventWell-defined event
  10. 10. 1.6. Results• Example of results:– Construct overload– Construct excess– Construct redundancy– Construct deficit
  11. 11. Part 0.1: Getting an idea• The quest for know-how, know-why, know-what and know-who : using KAOS forenterprise modelling• Conference: 4th Phd day (2011)• Conference: BUSITAL (CAiSE): Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing (2011)• Conference: EIS/SIKS: CEUR Workshop Proceedings (2011)
  12. 12. Modelling an SME with KAOS
  13. 13. Part 0.1: Getting an idea• De zoektocht naar know-how, know-why, know-what en know-who : architectuurvoor kleinere bedrijven in vier dimensies• Journal: INFORMATIE (AMSTERDAM) (2011)
  14. 14. Integrated Model
  15. 15. Research Steps
  16. 16. Part 1: Problem/Motivation
  17. 17. Part 1: Problem/Motivation• Enterprise architecture for small andmedium-sized enterprises• Conference: 5th Phd day (2012)• Conference: Confenis Doctoral Consortium, Proceedings (2012)
  18. 18. Part 1: Problem/Motivation
  19. 19. Part 1: Problem/Motivation• Enterprise architecture for small andmedium-sized enterprises : a starting pointfor bringing EA to SMEs, based on adoptionmodels• Book chapter: Information systems and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) : state ofart of IS research in SMEs (2013)• Conference: EIS/SIKS: CEUR Workshop Proceedings (2012)
  20. 20. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs• EA for SMEs???4,5– Not known in SMEs– Not used in SMEs4De Nil S, Deprost E, Bernaert M, Poels G (2012) Van Strategie tot Procesmodellering in Kleine enMiddelgrote Organisaties: Een Exploratief Onderzoek. University of Ghent, Ghent5Devos J (2011) IT Governance for SMEs. University of Ghent, Ghent
  21. 21. Adoption Models• Method Evaluation Model
  22. 22. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs• EA for SMEs???– Increase the perceived usefulness• Increase actual effectiveness• Advantages for SMEs in practice– Increase the perceived ease of use• Adapt methods to an SME context (in practice)• Complexity10 (= 1/actual efficiency) must be decreased– From actual to perceived efficacy• Test in SMEs: feedback + EA gets better known10Rogers EM, Shoemaker FF (1971) Communication of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach.The Free Press, New York
  23. 23. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs• Design Science1111Hevner AR, March ST, Park J, Ram S (2004) Design Science in Information Systems Research. MISQ 28 (1):75-105
  24. 24. Part 2: Metamodel
  25. 25. Part 2: Metamodel• CHOOSE: Towards a Metamodel forEnterprise Architecture in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises• Journal: Information Systems Frontiers (2013)?
  26. 26. Part 2: Metamodel
  27. 27. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs• Existing EA techniques
  28. 28. Part 2: Metamodelmentioned. In the strategy-operations column, a minus indicates that a translation from strategy(business or IT) to operations (organizational or IT) is not clearly supported.Table 1 Analysis of EA frameworksWHAT HOW WHERE WHO WHEN WHYBUSINESSISITSTRATEGY-OPERATIONSZachman What How Where Who When Why B/IS/IT +TOGAFData entity,...Process, ...InfrastructureextensionOrganization unit,actor, role, ...Event, ...MotivationextensionB/IS/IT +ArchiMate Information Behavior Network, ... Structure Event, ... Motivation B/IS/IT +DoDAF Resource Activity Location Performer - Capability Blend +CARP Resource Activity - Performer - Capability B +IAF Object Activity Interaction Actor, role, ... Event Why, goal, ... B/IS/IT +E2AFBusinessobjects,resources, ...Businessactivities,...With who?Organizationstructure, actors,...When? Why? B/IS/IT +FEA: FEAF Objects, ...Businessprocess, ...Businesslocations, ...- - - IS/IT -FEA: TEAFInformation,...Businessprocess, ...Informationexchange, ...Organizationchart, ...Event, ...Mission, vision,...B/IS/IT +GEAM - - - - -RequirementsvisionB/IS/IT +ARISInput, output,...Function -Organizationalunit, ...Event Goal Blend +-(BMM) -(Businessprocess) -(Organizationunit) - End B +DYAProduct,data, ...Process Network Organization, ... -BusinessobjectivesB/IS/IT +Enterprisemodelling /EKDConceptsmodelBusinessprocessmodel-Actors andresources model- Goals model B/IS +REA Resource Event - Agent - Goals B -SEAM - - - - - Strategies B/IS +LEAP Object Operation - Object Condition OCL constraint B/IS/IT -
  29. 29. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs• CHOOSE metamodel
  30. 30. Part 2: Metamodel
  31. 31. Part 2: Metamodel
  32. 32. Part 2: Metamodel
  33. 33. Part 2: Metamodel
  34. 34. Part 2: Metamodel
  35. 35. Part 2: Metamodel
  36. 36. Part 2: Metamodel
  37. 37. Part 2: Metamodel• -- CONSTRAINTS• constraints•• -- GOAL•• --Constraint 1) Hard constraint: a Goal cannot have a Conflict with itself• context Goal• inv GOALSELFCONFLICT: (self.ConflictGoal1->union(self.ConflictGoal2))->excludes(self)•• --Constraint 2) Soft constraint: the Goal model may not contain Refinement cycles• context Goal• inv GOALCYCLICREFINEMENT: self.allHigherGoals()->excludes(self)•• -- GOAL-ACTOR•• --Constraint 3) Soft constraint: favour Assignments of Goals to Actors Wishing one of the related higher-level Goals• context Actor• inv WISHASSIGNMENT:• if self.AssignmentGoal->notEmpty• then• if self.WishGoal->notEmpty• then self.AssignmentGoal.allHigherGoals().WishActor->union(self.AssignmentGoal.WishActor)->includes(self)• else true endif• else true endif•• --Constraint 4) Hard constraint: a Role, SofwareActor or Device cannot have a Wish relationship with a Goal• context Goal• inv ACTORWISH: self.WishActor.SubRole->isEmpty and self.WishActor.SubSoftwareActor->isEmpty and self.WishActor.SubDevice->isEmpty•• --Constraint 5) Soft constraint: if an Actor has an Assignment relationship with a Goal and is part of another Actor, then the encompassing Actor should have an Assignment relationshipwith the same or a related higher-level Goal• context Actor• inv ASSIGNMENTAGGREGATION:• if self.AssignmentGoal->notEmpty• then• if self.WholeActor->notEmpty• then ((self.AssignmentGoal.allHigherGoals().AssignmentActor->union(self.AssignmentGoal.AssignmentActor))->intersection(self.allWholeActors()))->notEmpty• else true endif• else true endif•• --Constraint 6) Soft constraint: if a HumanActor has an Assignment relationship with a Goal, then one of its Supervisors should have an Assignment relationship with the same or a relatedhigher-level Goal• context HumanActor
  38. 38. Part 3: Method
  39. 39. Part 3: Method• Enterprise Architecture Modelling for Smalland Medium-Sized Enterprises: Case StudyResearch to Refine and Evaluate the CHOOSEMethod and Metamodel• Journal: Enterprise Information Systems (2013)?
  40. 40. Part 3: Method
  41. 41. Part 3: Method
  42. 42. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs
  43. 43. Part 3: Method
  44. 44. Part 4: Software Tools
  45. 45. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs
  46. 46. Part 4: Software Tools• Development of Software Tool Support forEnterprise Architecture in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises• Conference: BUSITAL (CAiSE): Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing (2013)
  47. 47. Step 1Step 3Step 4Step 5Step 6Step 2
  48. 48. Part 4: Software Tools• Enterprise Architecture Software ToolSupport for Small and Medium-SizedEnterprises: EASE• Conference: Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems(2013)
  49. 49. Part 4: Software Tools
  50. 50. Part 4: Software Tools
  51. 51. Part 4: Software Tools
  52. 52. Part 4: Software Tools• Software Tool Support voor EnterpriseArchitectuur in Kleine en MiddelgroteOndernemingen: EASE• Journal: INFORMATIE (AMSTERDAM) (2013)
  53. 53. Part 4: Software Tools• An Android Tablet Tool for EnterpriseArchitecture Modelling in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises• Conference: Practice of Enterprise Modeling (2013)?
  54. 54. Part 5: Integration/Translation
  55. 55. Part 5: Integration/Translation• Development of a common base forenterprise architecture: building the bridgebetween CHOOSE and ArchiMate• Journal: ?
  56. 56. Part 5: Integration/Translation
  57. 57. Part 5: Integration/Translation

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