Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Literature Review: Commercial Video Games In Classroom Education


Published on

This is a review of the literature concerning the use of commercial video and computer games in classroom education. Though focused primarily on academic research published in peer-reviewed journals, the review is supplemented by information available in non-peer-reviewed studies, unpublished academic papers, news stories and other venues. This review is structured to address several key points regarding the pedagogical use of video games. The first section briefly summarizes some of the arguments for the educational use of video games. The second section examines the evidence that commercial games—games created and sold primarily as entertainment products—have pedagogical advantages over games created by educators. The third section describes ways that commercial games are used to teach in the classroom. Finally, the fourth section identifies patterns in the literature and points out opportunities for useful further research. While historical perspectives on this question are interesting, this review focuses primarily on literature from the past ten years.

  • Be the first to comment

Literature Review: Commercial Video Games In Classroom Education

  1. 1. Max Lieberman May 3, 2009 ETCV510 Professor Sue South Literature Review: Commercial Video Games in Classroom Education Abstract This is a review of the literature concerning the use of commercial video and computer games in classroom education. Though focused primarily on academic research published in peer-reviewed journals, the review is supplemented by information available in non-peer-reviewed studies, unpublished academic papers, news stories and other venues. This review is structured to address several key points regarding the pedagogical use of video games. The first section briefly summarizes some of the arguments for the educational use of video games. The second section examines the evidence that commercial games—games created and sold primarily as entertainment products—have pedagogical advantages over games created by educators. The third section describes ways that commercial games are used to teach in the classroom. Finally, the fourth section identifies patterns in the literature and points out opportunities for useful further research. While historical perspectives on this question are interesting, this review focuses primarily on literature from the past ten years 1. Why Teach with Video Games? Arguments for considering games as pedagogical tools began to appear in the
  2. 2. 1980s, following the explosion of the home console game market in first half of that decade. Early work on the subject was largely speculative, as when Toole, Korienek and Lucariello proposed that existing games “meet the requirements of laboratory tasks” for studies of human motor skills (Toole, Korienek & Lucariello, 1983). Other contemporary work studied the ways that games motivate players, finding that the “challenge, fantasy and curiosity” at the heart of many games held “dazzling potential…for educational purposes” (Long & Long, 1984). Silvern was the first to suggest that games were more valuable as simulations in which students could come to understand rules, patterns, hypotheses and systems than as mere “electronic worksheets” (Silvern, 1986). However, the notion that games could be an asset rather than an obstacle to educators was not universally held. In 1985, in a paper histrionically titled Reversing the Literacy Decline by Controlling the Electronic Demons, Shenkman railed against the fact that young children were spending less time reading and more time with electronic media including video games, “ridiculous soaps” and “video rock” (Shenkman, 1985). Shenkman’s focus on video games as detrimental to literacy, and particularly her argument that video game players “are not learning the skills that will help them understand…the complexities of geopolitics” seem positively quaint given the current state of research into the educational value of video games. In the past ten years, the quantity and quality of scholarship on video games, as well as other game-like technologies, in the educational arena has risen dramatically. A search within the Education Resources Information Database for the terms “video game” and “education” returns a total of 125 documents published between 1970 and 1999; the same search returns 191 published since the year 2000. The reasons for the increased
  3. 3. interest in pedagogy and video games are not fully clear, but likely include the increased mainstream cultural relevance of video games (now rarely described as a “fad” as they were in the 1980s); the new possibilities opened up by maturing game technology; and the growing number of educators who are familiar with the medium because they grew up playing games. Broadly speaking, the scholarship on video games in education can be broken down into three categories. The first category is speculative or theoretical literature. Writers working in this vein tend to outline the potential educational value of games based on their understanding of the medium, which they connect with some other personal philosophy or established learning theory; this approach is not without value, but it does tend to rely on anecdote and theory rather than on research with real students, games and classrooms. The second category is observational literature. This category includes some real-world research, such as case studies of classrooms in which games are being used to teach. However, observational work tends to be somewhat haphazard in its planning and subjective in its methods of evaluation. The third category is controlled research. This category, much less common than the others in this young field, includes mainly surveys and controlled case studies with quantitatively verifiable results. The theory of “digital nativity” is one of the major arguments for restructuring modern school systems to better incorporate digital content like video games. This theory, the brainchild of game designer and author Marc Prensky, contends that people who have grown up with the Internet and other digital technology at their fingertips are “digital natives” who learn constantly from technology in ways that “digital immigrants” are often unable fully to comprehend (Prensky, 2003, 2005; Annetta, 2008). Prensky’s
  4. 4. terminology has gained wide currency with academics concerned with the digital divide, but his theory has also been criticized as a sort of inverse “moral panic” (Vaidhyanathan, 2008). The theory tends to rely heavily on anecdote, as when Prensky quotes a student of his acquaintance as saying of educators, “Don’t try to use our technology…you’ll only look stupid” (Prensky, 2008). Another major argument for the use of video games in education is the notion that playing is inherently a learning process, and that therefore the pedagogical use of games is a natural fit (Annetta, 2008). In order to succeed in the marketplace, a commercial video game must teach players its rules and interface, and must progressively introduce new mechanics in a way that suggests strategy to the player. Linguist and games theorist James Paul Gee contends that the profit motive has helped game developers to hone a “theory of human learning” that rivals “the best theories of learning in cognitive science” (Gee, 2007). There is in fact a remarkable compatibility between the ways that games teach players to pay and the constructivist theories of learning which are currently very much in vogue. Games teach players through experience, requiring them to construct knowledge for themselves (Shaffer, Squire, Halverson & Gee, 2005; Squire, 2006). Sophisticated games frequently train players using methods reminiscent of Vygotsky’s concept of “scaffolding” (Oblinger, 2004; Gee, 2007; Rice, 2007a; Schrader & McCreery, 2007; Annetta, 2008; Lim, 2008; Papastergiou, 2009). Many other arguments for the increased use of video games in education have been advanced. The possibility that games can be used to motivate students is often mentioned (Oblinger, 2004; Squire, 2008; Papastergiou, 2009). Related to the idea of “digital nativity” is the notion that students today will need a different set of skills later in
  5. 5. life than previous generations. This concept of “21st century skills” and “new media literacy”—that is, literacy with digital technologies—also comes up repeatedly in the literature (Gee, 2007; Annetta, 2008; Squire, 2008; Papastergiou, 2009). The argument that schools should reflect and incorporate the activities students engage in outside of the classroom is another common thread (Annetta, 2008; Lacasa, Martínez & Méndez, 2008; Lim, 2008). Ultimately, the question of whether video games have a place in the classroom is already settled—games are studied as cultural artifacts, taught to aspiring game designers, and used as simulations, conversation-starters, forums for collaboration and in countless other ways that are not always reflected in the academic literature. Even when teachers are not using games in the classroom, students are: in a 2003 survey, 32% of college students admitted to playing a game unrelated to “instructional activities” during class time (Jones, 2003). What the speculative and theoretical academic writers are doing is constructing frameworks for how best to use games now that they are here. 2. Why Commercial Games? Like entries in other mediums, video games differ greatly from each other in genre, scale, difficulty, setting, tone, cost, quality and other respects. Much of the academic work that has been done to date focuses on video games designed by professional educators, rather than games created to compete for players’ dollars, time and attention. As researchers have discovered, this is a significant distinction. Van Eck identifies three approaches that educators have taken to “digital game-
  6. 6. based learning” (Van Eck, 2006). These are to “have students build games from scratch”; to “have educators and/or developers build games from scratch to teach students”; and to “integrate commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) games into the classroom.”1 Van Eck concludes that the first approach can be fruitful, but is not generally viable because it requires teachers with specialized technical skill sets, as well as school systems willing to support a nontraditional interdisciplinary project and able to devote the time and resources to large-scale game development. Lim likewise describes major technical, structural, and cultural obstacles to this type of project (Lim, 2008). Van Eck’s second approach appears to hold out the hope of games that “address [education] and entertainment equally, and to do so with virtually any domain,” but the problems here are also significant (Van Eck, 2006). The main hurdle is the incredible concentration of talent and resources necessary to make a game that approaches the quality of commercial offerings. The literature repeatedly mentions the need for educational games to compete with their commercial brethren on fun and production values (Rosas et al, 2003; Lim, 2008; Warren, Dondlinger & Barab, 2008). Tüzün, whose research group designed three games for use in Turkish primary, secondary and higher education, found that teachers “demanded specific content” be included in the games, while students weighed the entertainment value of the games against that of commercial products (Tüzün, 2007). Poor quality graphics and unsophisticated interfaces are often particular sticking points for students (Roubidoux, Chapman & Piontek, 2002; Eikaas, Foss, Solbjørg & Bjølseth, 2005; Rice, 2007b; Simpson & Clem, 2008; Papastergiou, 1 Although the “COTS” nomenclature has been adopted by several researchers, I prefer to refer to commercial games as such, since the acronym ignores the increasing prevalence of digitally distributed commercial games (Martin, 2009).
  7. 7. 2009). Will Wright, designer of the games SimCity, The Sims and Spore observes that “All games are educational… Good games are hard to design. But designing a good game around specific subject matter is really difficult” (Prensky, 2008). One advantage of commercial games is that they tend to be more complex than games developed for educational purposes. Prensky makes the case that complex games are far more suitable for education than “mini-games” because they are more immersive and focus more deeply on strategy and decision-making (Prensky, 2005). Several studies make the case that complex games allow players to achieve the state of focused engagement known as “flow” in a way that mini-games never will (Prensky, 2005; Van Eck, 2006). According to Rice, complexity is a prerequisite for a game to “address the upper levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy,” and most complex games “are commercially developed software games” (Rice, 2007a). Other advantages include the availability and relatively low cost of commercial games (Van Eck, 2006; Simpson & Clem, 2008). The primary drawback noted of commercial games as tools for classroom teaching is the dearth of content that can be easily integrated into an existing curriculum (McFarlane, Sparrowhawk & Heald, 2002; Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2004; Van Eck, 2006; Rice, 2007b). Violence and other inappropriate content are particular concerns for teachers working with young students (Rice, 2007b; Simpson & Clem, 2008). Yet there are commercial games that mesh well with educational standards, and creative educators are finding ways to incorporate non-explicitly educational games in surprising ways. 3. How are educators using commercial games in the classroom?
  8. 8. Information about how commercial games are being employed in the classroom is available, generally, from three types of sources: government- or nonprofit-sponsored surveys; reports by educators who undertook pilot or case studies; and non-academic accounts, such as news reports, blog posts, and in one case, audio recordings of a college- level course. The available sources are far from uniform in the level of detail they supply about how the games were used in the classroom, but some clear concordances do emerge. Teachers are understandably concerned with the content of video games, and the commercial games used in classroom teaching are often selected because they are easily retrofitted to existing curricular standards. One study described the use of Restaurant Empire, a business simulation game, in a Wyoming 8th grade computer skills course (Simpson & Clem, 2008). The game was selected to conform to state vocational standards, and the activities built around the game focused on the realism of the simulation. A 2002 survey conducted by the British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTA) found that games in the SimCity and Rollercoaster Tycoon series were the most common commercial games used by the teachers surveyed (Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2003). SimCity games are frequently cited as appropriate for classes studying civics and city planning (British Educational Communications and Technology Agency, 2006; Charsky & Mims, 2008). Similarly, games in the Civilization and Age of Empires series are often used to teach history and social studies (Van Eck, 2006; Gros, 2007). Squire’s work with the turn-based historical strategy game Civilization III began with a case study using the game in a 9th grade humanities class studying human cultures (Squire, 2004, 2006, 2008). Squire found that players’
  9. 9. knowledge of basic geography and history improved dramatically, and that they became comfortable with the game’s college-level vocabulary. A slightly different example of a commercial game matching school standards is the dance-pad game Dance Dance Revolution, which has been integrated into physical education programs across the United States (Trout & Zamora, 2005; Schiesel, 2007). Another apparent trend is the use of a game to teach skills and subjects that are not inherent to its setting or narrative. Gros, in a well-structured case study, used the historical strategy game Age of Empires II in a social sciences class “while, in parallel, the mathematics teacher used the same game to work on a reading of statistical graphs” (Gros, 2007). Rollercoaster Tycoon games are often used to teach physics and engineering principles despite the fact that these concepts exist only as part of the game’s behind-the-scenes simulation, rather than as an overt game mechanic (Charsky & Mims, 2008). The BECTA Computer Games in Education project, a large-scale case study following on the organization’s 2002 survey of games in education, used several commercial games in interdisciplinary ways (McFarlane et al, 2002; BECTA, 2006). For example, SimCity 3000 was used not as a city simulator, but as a tool to teach 11-16 year- old special needs students about models, simulations and computer interfaces. Other examples from the BECTA study include the use of people simulator The Sims to teach budgeting skills and discuss emotional and relationship issues with the same special needs demographic; the use of soccer management simulation Championship Manager 00/01 to teach 11-13 year-olds about databases; and the use of Age of Empires to teach computer skills and strategic thinking. The researchers found that the games motivated students and provided “powerful learning experiences” by presenting learning
  10. 10. opportunities in contexts that were inherently attractive to students. The study further concluded that the role of the teacher “remains crucial” when using games in the classroom: teachers who were not themselves knowledgeable about the games being used had less positive results overall. Some studies have investigated the use of commercial games to stimulate student creativity, often by having students modify the games to create new scenarios, quests, dialogue, art assets and even game mechanics. Neverwinter Nights, a fantasy role-playing game, ships with a robust content development toolset. One Canadian case study tasked high school students in two tenth grade English classes with creating interactive stories using these tools, along with a programming tool of the researchers’ own design (Carbonaro et al, 2007). A British study, conducted as part of a voluntary summer workshop for high school students, also used the Neverwinter Nights tools to enable students to tell interactive stories, and reported strong enthusiasm for the project from participants (Robertson & Good, 2006). Both studies concluded that students found this new form of expression both challenging and rewarding. Even when no element of game modification is involved, games may still be used to aid students with creative expression. Researchers in Spain designed a “multimedia workshop” for children ages 8-9 centered around the action-adventure game Tomb Raider: Chronicles (Lacasa et al, 2008). The students played the game and undertook projects based on the experience, including writing stories, writing and performing a play, drawing pictures and creating web pages. The researchers found that the teacher of the class had a great deal of difficulty with the project. The teacher was unprepared for the enthusiasm that the students showed for the game, and felt that the class was spiraling
  11. 11. out of control. The teacher also interpreted the game’s narrative much differently than her students, framing it in terms of a traditional fairy tale (even using the phrase “once upon a time” in her summary of the plot) and focusing far more on the game’s violence than her charges. Overall, the researchers were pleased with the study’s outcomes, arguing that the students employed a “meta-cognitive process” to translate the motives and actions of the game’s heroine Lara Croft into several different mediums. The final and least common model for integrating commercial games into classroom education involves immersing students deeply into a game world. This may be done in order to use the fiction of the game’s narrative to explore real life issues, as was the case with a pilot study undertaken with a 7th grade language arts and social studies class in Wisconsin (Kadakia, 2005). The study introduced the concept of choices and consequences using traditional media (a novel), and then asked the students to play the first-person role-playing game The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind over the course of three days, analyzing the choices and consequences available to players during that time. The instructor behind the project reports that it was “highly successful in raising the engagement level in my classes,” and that students were able both to connect the lessons to their real lives and to distinguish the elements of the game that they perceived as unrealistic. Another, far more ambitious example of this approach was the freshman college English class “Worlds of Warcraft,” offered in 2007 and 2008 at Vanderbilt University. Worlds of Wordcraft incorporated two commercial games into its syllabus: the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Lord of the Rings Online and the smaller-scale online role-playing game Neverwinter Nights 2 (Clayton & Hall, 2008a). Students played
  12. 12. Lord of the Rings Online extensively, approaching it as an interactive text which they compared to versions of the same story told in books and film (Clayton & Hall, 2008b). Students and professors compared the narrative techniques available to authors working in these various mediums, and contrasted the experience of “player” from that of reader or viewer. Students in the class also used Neverwinter Nights 2 to adapt a section of the romantic poem The Fairie Queene into a quest-based role-playing game. This project built on what students had learned over the course of the semester about romantic narrative, game design and the complex nature of online and virtual identities. Listening to the podcasted audio recordings of this class, two things are clear: first, that the students cared a great deal about the material they were learning, and as a result learned a great deal; and second, that a college-level class incorporating video games in such a sophisticated and integral way would be impossible without instructors who were incredibly well-versed in the medium. A paper from professors Jay Clayton and Matthew Jett Hall evaluating Worlds of Wordcraft as a pilot study, or simply discussing the process of developing the course curriculum, would be a valuable contribution to the scholarship on games and pedagogy. Conclusions and suggestions for further research Although the literature reflects multiple approaches to using commercial games in the classroom, many teachers and researches drew similar conclusions about what worked and what did not. Numerous publications drew on these conclusions to propose best practices for using games in classroom education (McFarlane et al, 2002; Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2003; Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2004; Shaffer et al 2005; Van Eck, 2006;
  13. 13. Rice, 2007b; Charsky & Mims, 2008). Some perceived obstacles to the use of commercial games in education come up again and again in the literature. Concerns that commercial games are not content- appropriate for classroom teaching have already been discussed. Related to this concern is the opinion that games are mindless exercises filled with violent and sexual imagery (Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2004; Shaffer et al, 2005; Rice, 2007b; Lacasa et al, 2008). Several writers articulate the notion that games promote a freeform, experiential style of learning that is a good fit for digital natives, but is inherently challenging to the “social organization” and “social boundaries” of traditional schools (Shaffer et al, 2005; Lacasa et al, 2008; Lim, 2008; Brown, 2008). Although this is often presented as a reason why administrators may object to the deep integration of games into classroom learning, some researchers were pleased by the challenges games presented. Tüzün describes a “positive, messy classroom culture, in which students were active participants” (Tüzün, 2007). Simpson and Clem likewise describe the need for teachers to respond to “on- demand learning moments” (Simpson & Clem, 2008). The root of this messiness may lie partly in the nonlinear nature of games, which means that students who begin in the same place will almost certainly pursue a succession of divergent paths (Squire, 2008). If games are truly disruptive to institutionalized modes of teaching and learning, acceptance of them will take time; however, the extensive use of game-like simulations in military training suggests that games need not turn the classroom into a circus (Prensky, 2003; Oblinger, 2004; Shaffer et al, 2005). Teaching educators about what makes games valuable and different is an important first step (Shaffer et al, 2005).
  14. 14. The large time investment necessary to successfully integrate video games into a curriculum is mentioned repeatedly. Games can require a great deal of time to set up, and students must be allowed to explore the game’s narrative, environments and mechanics before meaningful learning can take place (Gros, 2007; Rice, 2007b; McFarlane et al, 2002; Lim, 2008). Sometimes, only certain sections of a game are deemed to be relevant to instruction, and accessing specific content within a larger game can also take time. Proposed solutions to this dilemma include “lite” versions of commercial games and teacher-created saved games that drop players into a game at a specific geographic or narrative place (McFarlane et al, 2002; Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2004; Kadakia, 2005; BECTA, 2006). Hopes that commercial game developers will create dedicated educational versions of their products appear unfounded, given the low penetration rate of games in the educational arena. However, the experience of Kadakia, working with Morrowind save game files, suggests that proper teacher preparation can save a significant amount of actual class time (Kadakia, 2005). Technical issues can exacerbate the problem of limited time for game-based instruction. Researchers either anticipated or encountered a number of technical problems when using games, from unreliable Internet connections to underpowered computer hardware to security programs that interfere with the installation and maintenance of game software (Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2004; Van Eck, 2006; Rice, 2007b; Charsky & Mims, 2008; Lim, 2008; Simpson & Clem, 2008; Tüzün, 2008). Computer security is incredibly important, but it is not incompatible with having games on computers—school IT departments can install games as easily as they can install word processors (Van Eck, 2006). Rice suggests limiting the use of newer games in classrooms, given that classroom
  15. 15. computers tend to be underpowered, but the fact that students fixate on graphical quality suggests that this approach is problematic (Rice, 2007b). Research into the costs, benefits and disadvantages of dedicated console hardware, as opposed to mixed-use computer hardware, would help to clarify the available options. The need for teachers to know a game very well before using it in the classroom is presented variously as an obstacle to the use of games (learning a game takes time) and as a best practice for their use. There is a consensus among academics writing about commercial video games in education that teachers must design instructional activities that contextualize game content and gameplay within the course and subject being studied (McFarlane et al, 2002; Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2004; BECTA, 2006; Van Eck, 2006; Gros, 2007; Charsky & Mims, 2008). Teachers must also know a game well in order to answer technical and gameplay questions from students (BECTA, 2006; Charsky & Mims, 2008; Simpson & Clem, 2008). All of the case studies on the use of commercial games were generally positive regarding the games’ effects on student learning (Kadakia, 2005; Robertson & Good, 2006; Squire, 2006; Carbonaro et al, 2007; Gros, 2007; Simpson & Clem, 2008). Several studies mentioned the beneficial effects that games have on students’ level of motivation and enthusiasm for schoolwork—Squire describes this enthusiasm spilling over into voluntary learning and studying outside of school (Rosas et al, 2003; Oblinger, 2004; Kadakia, 2005; BECTA, 2006; Robertson & Good, 2006; Schiesel, 2007; Squire, 2008). Writers concerned with educational theory frequently reiterate that games are a good fit for classrooms modeled on constructivist philosophies (Oblinger, 2004; Gee, 2007; Rice, 2007a; Schrader & McCreery, 2007; Lim, 2008). Finally, a number of theorists
  16. 16. speculated that games could stimulate student creativity, a hypothesis borne out by those studies concerned with creative expression (Robertson & Good, 2006; Carbonaro et al, 2007; Lacasa et al, 2008; Lim, 2008; Prensky, 2008; Squire, 2008). Despite the increase in scholarship focusing on pedagogy and video games in recent years, this review exposed some significant gaps in the literature. One problem is that many academics writing about games are not themselves very experienced with or knowledgeable about games, gaming culture or the video game industry. This leads to all sorts of issues, including a lack of understanding of the relationships between content, narrative, genre and game mechanics; an inability to distinguish between separate games in a series; and in one case, the misidentification of the game that was the subject of a case study (Lacasa et al, 2008). Ignorance of the gaming space also has less concrete effects on the field of study around games. For example, no publications focus on the significance of major industry trends such as the increased prevalence of console gaming and digital content distribution. The solution to this knowledge and culture gap is to encourage scholarship by writers who know games as well as educational theory and related subjects, something that is likely to happen naturally as people who grew up playing games move into college and beyond. Another issue is the surprising relative scarcity of academic literature on the actual use of commercial games to teach. Far more researchers create their own subject- specific games than use existing games. Knowledgeable and thoughtful academic analyses of specific commercial games do exist, and some of these works speculate convincingly about how to use these games in traditional school settings. However, this sort of speculation is more common than studies or reports on the real-world use of
  17. 17. games. What literature does exist along the latter lines suggests that most teachers are using the same few games, in the same few genres, in the same few ways (Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2003, 2004; Van Eck, 2006; Charsky & Mims, 2008; Simpson & Clem, 2008). The existing speculative literature on the use of commercial games in classrooms suggests that this is a promising avenue for further research. The positive outcomes reported by case studies that reached beyond frequently used games such as Civilization III and Neverwinter Nights should lead teachers and researchers to experiment with more games in different ways. There are countless possible avenues for further research. Super Monkey Ball, a first-person take on the traditional marble labyrinth, “demonstrates (and allows experimentation with) the concepts of velocity, friction, acceleration and gravity”—ideal for an elementary or middle school science class (Kirriemuir & McFarlane, 2004). Brothers in Arms, a realistic World War II first-person shooter series, could be used to teach high school history (Brown, 2008). The aptly named business simulator Capitalism II could be used to teach about budgeting, business, and macroeconomics. The cycles of hype and controversy surrounding the release of every Grand Theft Auto game since 2001 would make an excellent object lesson for journalism students. Particularly dismaying is the fact that few teachers devote classroom time to examining narrative games as literature: the sci-fi shooters BioShock and Half Life 2 would fit right into any serious examination of dystopian genre fiction. The existing research could be greatly diversified by a few well-designed case studies using games that are apparently as yet unknown to the inside of any classroom, anywhere. Part of the problem may be that teachers are reluctant to experiment with games
  18. 18. about which they know little, and have limited time to devote to learning more about games (McFarlane et al, 2002; Gros, 2007). Charsky and Mims suggest that teachers should not only play a game before incorporating it into the curriculum, but should also purchase a strategy guide and research the game on websites and discussion boards (Charsky & Mims, 2008). Researching a game across such a fragmented media landscape, where the available resources are targeted towards recreational players rather than the special concerns of educators, is a prohibitively costly proposition for most teachers. Providing teachers with information about games in a way that drastically limits their time and energy investment in research and preparation holds promise as a solution to this problem. As of this writing, there is no prominent website devoted to cataloging information about games from the educator’s perspective. A well-designed website might include a user-editable wiki for relevant information about a game (including alignment to state standards and age-appropriateness), space for teachers to share game-based lesson plans, and forums for interaction between educators, administrators and even students. One possible model for such a site is “What They Play” (, a website founded in 2007 which acts as a comprehensive resource for parents seeking to learn about the games their children are playing. What They Play reaches out to parents in a variety of ways—including through feature articles on gaming trends, a database assessing the content and quality of thousands of new and existing games, newsletters, a podcast and a blog—and is a rare example of a site dedicated to covering games whose audience is not exclusively or even predominantly composed of gamers. The rising interest in the use of commercial games in classroom settings has led to
  19. 19. a wealth of theory and speculation about how this exciting field could develop. Hopefully, teachers and researchers will now apply this body of theory, along with the lessons learned from previous pilot and case studies, in an effort to integrate more games into classrooms in more ways. Only through continued real-world practice will games move past something that we could be doing to something that is making a positive difference in students’ lives. References Annetta, L. A. (2008). Video games in education: Why they should be used and how they are being used. Theory into Practice. 47 (3), 229-239. Brown, H. J. (2008). Videogames and education. History, humanities, and new technology. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. BECTA Curriculum Software Initiative. (2006). Computer games in education project: Report. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from section=rh&catcode=&rid=13595&pagenum=1&NextStart=1. Carbonaro, M., Cutumisu, M., Duff, H., Gillis, S., Onuczko, C., Siegel, J., Schaeffer, J., Schumacher, A., Szafron, D., Waugh, K. (2008). Interactive story authoring: A viable form of creative expression for the classroom. Computers & Education. 51 (2), 687-707. Charsky, D., & Mims, C. (2008). Integrating commercial off-the-shelf video games into school curriculums. TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning. 52 (5), 38-44. Clayton, J., & Hall, M. J. (2008). Syllabus (2008) >> English 115F Worlds of Wordcraft. Message posted to Retrieved April 29, 2009, from Clayton, J., & Hall, M. J. (2008). Worlds of Wordcraft — class audio and video (Podcast). Retrieved May 8, 2009, from 0. Eikaas, T. I., Foss, B., Solbjørg, O. K., & Bjølseth, T. (2005). Game-based dynamic
  20. 20. simulations supporting technical education and training. International Conference on Interactive Computer Aided Learning. Villach, Austria. Gee, J. P. (2007). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Gros, B. (2007). Digital games in education: The design of games-based learning environments. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 40 (1), 23-38. Jones, S. (2003). Let the games begin: Gaming technology and entertainment among college students. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Kadakia, M. (2005). Increasing student engagement by using morrowind to analyze choices and consequences. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning. 49 (5), 29-32. Kirriemuir, J. K., & McFarlane, A. (2003). Use of computer and video games in the classroom. Proceedings of the Level Up Digital Games Research Conference. Universiteit Utrecht, Netherlands. Kirriemuir, J. K., & McFarlane, A. (2004). Literature review in games and learning: A report for NESTA futurelab. No. 8. Bristol, UK. Lacasa, P., Martinez, R., & Mendez, L. (2008). Developing new literacies using commercial videogames as educational tools. Linguistics and Education: An International Research Journal. 19 (2), 85-106. Lim, C. P. (2008). Spirit of the game: Empowering students as designers in schools? British Journal of Educational Technology. 39 (6), 996-1003. Long, S. M., & Long, W. H. (1984). Rethinking video games: A new challenge. Futurist. 18 (6), 35-37. Martin, M. (2009). High street retail validating digital distribution market // news. Retrieved April 26, 2009, from retail-validating-digital-distribution-market. McFarlane, A., Sparrowhawk, A., & Heald, Y. (2002). Report on the educational use of games. Cambridge, UK: TEEM. Oblinger, D. G. (2004). The next generation of educational engagement. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. 2004 (8). Papastergiou, M. (2009). Online computer games as collaborative learning environments: Prospects and challenges for tertiary education. Journal of Educational Technology Systems. 37 (1), 19-38.
  21. 21. Prensky, M. (2003). Digital game-based learning. Computers in Entertainment. 1 (1), 21. Prensky, M. (2005). In digital games for education, complexity matters. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY. 45 (4), 22-28. Prensky, M. (2008). Students as designers and creators of educational computer games: Who else? British Journal of Educational Technology. 39 (6), 1004-1019. Rice, J. W. (2007). Assessing higher order thinking in video games. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education. 15 (1), 87-100. Rice, J. W. (2007). New media resistance: Barriers to implementation of computer video games in the classroom. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. 16 (3), 249-261. Robertson, J., & Good, J. (2005). Children's narrative development through computer game authoring. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning. 49 (5), 43-59. Rosas, R., Nussbaum, M., Cumsille, P., Marianov, V., Correa, M., Flores, P., Grau, V., Lagos, F., López, V., Rodriguez, P., & Salinas, M. (2003). Beyond Nintendo: Design and assessment of educational video games for first and second grade students. Computers & Education. 40 (1), 71-94. Roubidoux M. A., Chapman C. M., & Piontek M. E. (2002). Development and evaluation of an interactive web-based breast imaging game for medical students. Academic Radiology. 9 (10), 1169-78. Schiesel, S. (2007, April 30). P.E. classes turn to video game that works legs. The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2009, from Schrader, P. G., & McCreery, M. (2008). The acquisition of skill and expertise in massively multiplayer online games. Educational Technology Research and Development. 56, 557-574. Shaffer, D. W., Squire, K. R., Halverson, R., & Gee, J. P. (2005). Video games and the future of learning. WCER working paper no. 2005-4. Wisconsin Center for Education Research. Shenkman, H. (1985). Reversing the literacy decline by controlling the electronic demons. Educational Leadership. 42 (5), 26-29. Silvern, S. B. (1986). Classroom use of videogames. Educational Research Quarterly. 10 (1), 10-16.
  22. 22. Simpson, E., & Clem, F. A. (2008). Video games in the middle school classroom. Middle School Journal. 39 (4), 4-11. Squire, K. D. (2006). From content to context: Videogames as designed experience. Educational Researcher. 35 (8), 19-29. Squire, K. D. (2004). Replaying history: Learning world history through playing Civilization III. Unpublished Ph.D., Indiana University. Squire, K. D. (2008). Video games and education: Designing learning systems for an interactive age. Educational Technology Magazine: The Magazine for Managers of Change in Education. 48 (2), 17-26. Toole, T., Korienek, G. G., & Lucariello, G. (1983). Video games: A tool for research. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 54, 44-46. Trout, J., & Zamora, K. (2005). Using Dance Dance Revolution in physical education. Teaching Elementary Physical Education. 16 (5), 22-25. Tüzün, H. (2007). Blending video games with learning: Issues and challenges with classroom implementations in the Turkish context. British Journal of Educational Technology. 38 (3), 465-477. Vaidhyanathan, S. (2008). Generational myth. Chronicle of Higher Education. 55 (4), B7. Van Eck, R. (2006). Digital game-based learning: It's not just the digital natives who are restless. EDUCAUSE Review. 41 (2), 16-18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30. Warren, S. J., Dondlinger, M. J., & Barab, S. A. (2008). A MUVE towards PBL writing: Effects of a digital learning environment designed to improve elementary student writing. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 41 (1), 113-140.