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Visual Impairment Information and Teaching Strategies


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Visual Impairment Information and Teaching Strategies

  1. 1. Visual Impairment By: Mauro Garcia
  2. 2. Contents 1. Types of Visual Impairment 2. Signs of Visual Impairment 3. Help Under IDEA 4. Tips for Parents 5. Tips for Teachers
  3. 3. IDEA Definition of Visual Impairment • An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. • This definition includes both partial sight and blindness
  4. 4. Help Under IDEA • Early Intervention- A system of services to support infants and toddlers with disabilities (before 3 years old) and their families. • Special Education and Related Services- Services available though the public school system for school-aged children, including preschoolers. (ages 3-21) • If a child meets the definition of visual impairment under IDEA as well as the state’s criteria, then they are eligible to receive the service they qualify for.
  5. 5. Signs of Visual Impairment • Eyes that don’t move together when following an object or a face • Crossed eyes, eyes that turn our or in, eyes that flutter from side to side or up and down, or eyes that don’t seem to focus • Eyes that bulge, or bounce in rapid movements • Pupils that are unequal in size
  6. 6. Signs of Visual Impairment cont. • Repeated shutting or covering of one eye • Unusual degree of bumping into things or knocking things over • Frequent squinting, blinking, eye rubbing • Sitting too close to toys, books or TV.
  7. 7. Types of Visual Impairment Strabismus- Where the eyes look in different direction and do not focus simultaneously on a single point. Optic Nerve Hypoplasia- Which is caused by underdeveloped fibers in the optic nerve and which affects depth perception, sensitivity to light, and acuity of vision. Cortical Visual Impairment- Which is caused by damage to the part of the brain related to vision, not to the eyes itself.
  8. 8. Types of Visual Impairment cont. Coloboma- Where a portion of the structure of the eye is missing. Congenital Cataracts- Where the lens of the eye is cloudy. Retinopathy of Prematurity- Which may occur in premature babies when the light-sensitive retina hasn’t developed sufficiently before birth. Retinitis Pigmentosa- A rare inherited disease that slowly destroys the retina.
  9. 9. Children Affected & Types of Impairment • Vision difficulty refers to children who have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing corrective lenses and those who are blind • Severe Vision Impairment refers to children who are unable to see words and letters in ordinary print. • Legally blind refers to children who have 20/200 vision or worse and that the vision can not be corrected with corrective lenses. Severity Children Affected Vision Difficulty 490,420 Severe Vision Impairment 42,000 Legally Blind 59,341
  10. 10. Tips for Parents • Learn as much as possible about the specific visual impairment • Encourage curiosity and help your child explore • Work with school staff • Talk to other parents
  11. 11. Tips for Teachers • Ask to be a part of the IEP team • Talk to special education teachers about learning strategies • Find the materials or resources needed to support the student • Talk to the student’s parents
  12. 12. Differentiated Instruction Ideas for Students with Visual Impairments
  13. 13. Contents 1.Academic Needs 2.Social Needs 3.Daily Living Needs 4.Support Sensorial Learning 5.Classroom Accommodations
  14. 14. Academic Needs • Find out if school has technology needed to help student succeed in the classroom • Practice auditory skills since hearing will be primary learning tool • Keep information on braille books available • Practice analytic touch to get a sense of object
  15. 15. Social Needs • Help distinguish between behaviors that are socially unacceptable in public, yet acceptable in private. • Understanding social distance for various communication situations. • Make student comfortable when asking for help when appropriate • Showing acceptable social behavior in a multitude of group situations.
  16. 16. Daily Living Needs • Help understand importance of: • Basic personal hygiene • Dressing skills • Preparing meals • Practice eating skills • Managing money • Using technology like cellphones, computers etc. • Basic understanding of time and keeping schedules
  17. 17. Supporting Sensorial Learning • Requires uses of other senses to make up for lack of vision • Ask questions like: • “Do you smell dinner?” • “Can you hear the bird singing outside?” • “Isn’t the dog’s fur soft?” • Allow them to hold objects in their hands to get a complete picture.
  18. 18. Making Classroom Accommodations • Keep aisles clear of debris • Notify students if any changes in the classroom are made • Make extra space for equipment like books in braille, enlarged print materials or other hardware • Be clear when giving instructions • Allow for extra time to finish assignments • Assign a peer to help in case of emergency
  19. 19. Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired
  20. 20. Contents 1. Educational Programs 2. Comprehensive Programs 3. School Information
  21. 21. Educational Programs • Academics- Designed for students who are functioning within two years of their grade level. This is the regular, public school curriculum for grades K-12, including the Texas Essential Knowledge & Skills adopted by the state. • Elementary concepts- Designed for students ages 6-12 years of age who are blind or visually impaired and may have additional impairments. This approach is for students who are at the readiness level for academic learning, but are not yet reading, writing or doing math on a first grade level.
  22. 22. Educational Programs cont. • Practical Academics- Designed for students 12 years of age or older who are functioning more than two years below their chronological age, with at least kindergarten equivalent reading and writing skills. Practical Academics courses focus on teaching students to use their academics skills in a variety of meaningful, functional tasks in preparation for adult life. • Basic Skills- Designed for students aged 6-22 who have visual impairments combined with other disabilities who learn best with the support of consistent routines and meaningful functional activities.
  23. 23. Comprehensive Programs • These programs focus on a more expanded core curriculum. • These skills include: • braille and other modes to access the general curriculum • orientation and mobility • assistive technology • career education • independent living skills • recreation and leisure • sensory efficiency • social interaction skills
  24. 24. School Website • Admission Process • Visiting the school • Connecting with other parents • More information
  25. 25. Works Cited • • • • The Inclusive Classroom M. Mastropieri Pearson Lynch 4th ed.