OWASP Top Ten in Practice

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This webcast's agenda is:

1. Introduction to the OWASP Top TEN.

2. How to integrate the OWASP Top Ten in your SDLC.

3. How the OWASP Top Ten maps to compliance, standards and other drivers.

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OWASP Top Ten in Practice

  1. 1. 3/24/2011 OWASP Top Ten in Practice Jason Taylor Dinis Cruz CTO Security Consultant Security Innovation OWASP LeaderAgenda• Intro to the OWASP Top Ten• How to Integrate the OWASP Top Ten into your SDLC• How the OWASP Top Ten maps to compliance, standards and other drivers• Conclusion 1
  2. 2. 3/24/2011About Security Innovation• Application & Crypto Security Experts – 10+ years research on vulnerabilities and cryptography – Hundreds of assessments on world‟s most dominant software applications• Products, Services and Training – Application & Process Assessments – Training. Industry‟s largest eLearning library – Encryption. Fastest, most secure available• Helping organizations: – Ensure applications are secure and in compliance – Build internal software security competency – Roll out a secure, repeatable SDLCAgenda Intro to the OWASP Top Ten • How to Integrate the OWASP Top Ten into your SDLC • How the OWASP Top Ten maps to compliance, standards and other drivers • Conclusion 2
  3. 3. 3/24/2011What is the OWASP Top 10• Consensus of most critical web application security flaws• Aim: – Educate all security stakeholders: developers, designers, architects and organizations – Reinforce that a secure software initiative must address security at each phase of the development lifecycle – Educate, not standardize• Used by many companies, referenced in standards and regulations such as PCI-DSS o A.G. Edwards o Recreational Equipment, Inc. (REI) o British Telecom o Samsung SDS (Korea) o Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms o Sprint o Citibank o Sun Microsystems o HP o Symantec o IBM Global Services o The Hartford o Price Waterhouse Coopers o ...many othersOWASP Top Ten: SummaryA1 – InjectionA2 – Cross Site Scripting (XSS)A3 – Broken Authentication and Session ManagementA4 – Insecure Direct Object ReferencesA5 – Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF)A6 – Security Misconfiguration (NEW)A7 – Failure to Restrict URL AccessA8 – Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards (NEW)A9 – Insecure Cryptographic StorageA10 – Insufficient Transport Layer Protection 3
  4. 4. 3/24/2011A1 – Injection• Injection means… – ricking an application into including unintended commands in the data sent to an interpreter• Interpreters… – Take strings and interpret them as commands – SQL, OS Shell, LDAP, XPath, Hibernate, etc…• SQL injection is still quite common – Many applications still susceptible (really don‟t know why) – Even though it‟s usually very simple to avoid• Typical Impact – Usually severe. Entire database can usually be read or modified – May also allow full database schema, or account access, or even OS level accessA2 – Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)• Occurs any time… – Raw data from attacker is sent to an innocent user‟s browser• Raw data… – Stored in database – Reflected from web input (form field, hidden field, URL, etc…) – Sent directly into rich JavaScript client• Virtually every web app has this problem – Try this in your browser: • javascript:alert(document.cookie) • <script>alert(document.cookie)</script>• Typical Impact – Steal user‟s session, steal sensitive data, rewrite web page, redirect user to phishing or malware site – Most Severe: Install XSS proxy which allows attacker to observe and direct all user‟s behavior on vulnerable site and force user to other sites 4
  5. 5. 3/24/2011A3 – Broken Authentication and Session Management• HTTP is a “stateless” protocol – Means credentials have to go with every request – Should use SSL for everything requiring authentication• Session management flaws – SESSION ID used to track state since HTTP doesn‟t • and it is just as good as credentials to an attacker – SESSION ID is typically exposed on the network, in browser, in logs, …• Beware the side-doors – Change my password, remember my password, forgot my password, secret question, logout, email address, etc…• Typical Impact – User accounts compromised or user sessions hijackedA4 – Insecure Direct Object References• How do you protect access to your data? – This is part of enforcing proper “Authorization”, along with A7 – Failure to Restrict URL Access• A common mistake … – Only listing the „authorized‟ objects for the current user; or – Hiding the object references in hidden fields … and then not enforcing these restrictions on the server side – This is called presentation layer access control, and doesn‟t work – Attacker simply tampers with parameter value• Typical Impact – Users are able to access unauthorized files or data 5
  6. 6. 3/24/2011A5 – Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF)• Cross Site Request Forgery – An attack where the victim‟s browser is tricked into issuing a command to a vulnerable web application – Vulnerability is caused by browsers automatically including user authentication data (session ID, IP address, Windows domain credentials, …) with each request• Imagine… – What if a hacker could steer your mouse and get you to click on links in your online banking application? – What could they make you do?• Typical Impact – Initiate transactions (transfer funds, logout user, close account) – Access sensitive data – Change account detailsA6 – Security Misconfiguration• Web applications rely on a secure foundation – All through the network and platform – Don‟t forget the development environment• Is your source code a secret? – Think of all the places your source code goes – Security should not require secret source code• CM must extend to all parts of the application – All credentials should change in production• Typical Impact – Install backdoor through missing network or server patch – XSS flaw exploits due to missing application framework patches – Unauthorized access to default accounts, application functionality or data, or unused but accessible functionality due to poor server configuration 6
  7. 7. 3/24/2011A7 – Failure to Restrict URL Access• How do you protect access to URLs (pages)? – This is part of enforcing proper “authorization”, along with A4 – Insecure Direct Object References• A common mistake … – Displaying only authorized links and menu choices – This is called presentation layer access control, and doesn‟t work – Attacker simply forges direct access to „unauthorized‟ pages• Typical Impact – Attackers invoke functions and services they‟re not authorized for – Access other user‟s accounts and data – Perform privileged actionsA8 – Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards• Web application redirects are very common – And frequently include user supplied parameters in the destination URL – If they aren‟t validated, attacker can send victim to a site of their choice• Forwards (aka Transfer in .NET) are common too – They internally send the request to a new page in the same application – Sometimes parameters define the target page – If not validated, attacker may be able to use unvalidated forward to bypass authentication or authorization checks• Typical Impact – Redirect victim to phishing or malware site – Attacker‟s request is forwarded past security checks, allowing unauthorized function or data access• Live Example – http://www.youtube.com/redirect?username=digitalhook& q=http%3A%2F%2Fsecuritytube.net%2FSocial-Engineering-Attacks-using-Simple-Redirections-video.aspx &video_id=Vgc3NVVpb8c&event=url_redirect&url_redirect=True&usg=UE0DOmwjBRK-mgheFtW1hMTEvh4= 7
  8. 8. 3/24/2011A9 – Insecure Cryptographic Storage• Storing sensitive data insecurely – Failure to identify all sensitive data – Failure to identify all the places that this sensitive data gets stored • Databases, files, directories, log files, backups, etc. – Failure to properly protect this data in every location• Typical Impact – Attackers access or modify confidential or private information • e.g, credit cards, health care records, financial data (yours or your customers) – Attackers extract secrets to use in additional attacks – Company embarrassment, customer dissatisfaction, and loss of trust – Expense of clean up: forensics, apology letters, reissuing credit cards, etc. – Business gets sued and/or finedA10 – Insufficient Transport Layer Protection• Transmitting sensitive data insecurely – Failure to identify all sensitive data – Failure to identify all the places that this sensitive data is sent • On the web, to backend databases, to business partners, internal communications – Failure to properly protect this data in every location• Typical Impact – Attackers access or modify confidential or private information • e.g, credit cards, health care records, financial data (yours or your customers) – Attackers extract secrets to use in additional attacks – Company embarrassment, customer dissatisfaction, and loss of trust – Expense of cleaning up the incident – Business gets sued and/or fined 8
  9. 9. 3/24/2011Agenda• Intro to the OWASP Top TenHow to Integrate the OWASP Top Ten into your SDLC• How the OWASP Top Ten maps to compliance, standards and other drivers• ConclusionIntegrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLC• Requirements How to determine your security objectives• Design How to design mitigations with OWASP threats in mind• Implementation How to code defensively and implement mitigations for key threats• Test How to devise test plans and attacks against OWASP threats• Deploy How to deploy and configuration your application with OWASP in mind• Maintenance How to scan for the OWASP threats in production 9
  10. 10. 3/24/2011 Integrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLC Determining Security Requirements & Objectives • Identify goals and constraints that affect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of your data and application • Are used to: – Filter the Design Guidelines that are applicable – Scope and guide Architecture and Design reviews – Help set Code Review objectives – Guide Threat Modeling, Security Test Planning, Deployment ReviewsObjective Category Questions to askTangible assets to  Are there user accounts, passwords, confidential information, intellectualprotect property, etc to protect?  Can this system be used as a conduit to access other corporate assets?Intangible assets to  Is there potential for an attack that may be embarrassing, although notprotect otherwise damaging?Compliance  Are there corporate security policies or standards that must be adhered to?requirements  Are there security or privacy legislations you must comply with?Quality of service  Are there specific availability or performance requirements you mustrequirements meet? Integrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLC Threat Modeling with Top Ten threats in mind • Identify threats and vulnerabilities relevant for your application – What are the potential threats that could impact each asset. – For each threat, what attacks could realize the threat? – Use the OWASP Top 10 as a guide to potential attacks. – Determine countermeasures to mitigate vulnerabilities • Perform in the architecture and design phase, as soon as: – You understand your security objectives and application architecture • Update and improve iteratively: – When your security objectives and design changes – During implementation, testing and deployment • Some specific considerations – Legal, safety or contractual/customer requirements 10
  11. 11. 3/24/2011Integrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLCThreat Modeling with OWASP threats in mind• Secure software starts with understanding the threats – Threats are not vulnerabilities• Threats live forever; they are the attackers goal Mitigation Attacker Threat VulnerabilityIntegrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLCHow to design mitigations with OWASP threats in mind• Adopt a set of design guidelines that are: – Actionable. A vulnerability that can be mitigated through the guideline – Relevant. Associated with a vulnerability that could impact your application – Impactful. Represents a key engineering decision that will have wide-ranging impact• Categorize your guidelines based on areas of highest risk – Describes the areas in which poor design can lead to security vulnerabilities – Allows the inclusion of additional guidelines or the refinement of existing guidelines based on newly discovered vulnerabilities 11
  12. 12. 3/24/2011 Integrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLC Best Practices for Secure DesignCategory GuidelinesInput / Data Do not trust input; consider centralized input validation. Do not rely on client-sideValidation validation. Be careful with canonicalization issues.Authentication Use strong passwords. Support password expiration periods and account disablement. Do not store credentials (use one-way hashes with salt).Authorization Use least privileged accounts. Consider authorization granularity. Enforce separation of privileges. Restrict user access to system-level resources.Configuration Use least privileged process and service accounts. Don‟t store credentials in clearManagement text. Don‟t use Local Security Authority (LSA).Sensitive Data Avoid storing secrets. Secure the communication channel. Provide strong access controls for sensitive data stores.Cryptography Do not develop your own. Use proven and tested platform features. Keep unencrypted data close to the algorithm. Cycle your keys periodically. Avoid key management (use DPAPI).Exception Use structured exception handling. Do not reveal sensitive applicationManagement implementation details. Consider a centralized exception management framework.Auditing and Identify malicious behavior. Know what good traffic looks like. Audit and log activityLogging through all application tiers. Secure access to log files Integrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLC How to code defensively and implement mitigations for key threats • Goal: Reduce your risk by addressing OWASP Top 10 vulnerabilities in your implementation… – by using a set of implementation best-practices organized directly around the OWASP Top 10 • Now let’s see what this looks like for a few of the Top 10 12
  13. 13. 3/24/2011A1 – Avoid Injection Flaws• Recommendations 1. Use an interface that supports bind variables (e.g., prepared statements, or stored procedures), • Bind variables allow the interpreter to distinguish between code and data 2. Encode all user input before passing it to an interpreter – Always perform „white list‟ input validation on all user supplied input – Always minimize database privileges to reduce the impact of a flawA2 – Avoiding XSS Flaws• Recommendations – Eliminate Flaw • Don‟t include user supplied input in the output page – Defend Against the Flaw • Primary Recommendation: Output encode all user supplied input (Use OWASP‟s ESAPI to output encode: http://www.owasp.org/index.php/ESAPI • Perform „white list‟ input validation on all user input to be included in page • For large chunks of user supplied HTML, use OWASP‟s AntiSamy to sanitize this HTML to make it safe See: http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AntiSamy 13
  14. 14. 3/24/2011Integrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLCPerforming Security Code Reviews• Code Review – Critical leverage point to reduce the number of implementation errors – Can be performed on every check-in, every build, or some other interval that works for your development process – One of the most impactful steps you can take toward more secure code – While design bugs are the most expensive to fix, implementation bugs are the most common• OWASP Code Review Guide – http://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Code_Review_Guide_Tabl e_of_ContentsIntegrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLCStatic analysis tools for a code review• Should be used throughout the product cycle – DEVELOPERS use light weight version to check for simple bugs missed during development – BUILD MANAGERS or LAB TECHNICIANS use to discover more sophisticated bugs at code integration time – TESTERS use to ensure code coverage and discover complex sections of the product that should be tested more thoroughly – Example: IBM Rational Appscan Source Edition• Find a lot of the common coding errors, faster than humans – Can drastically reduce a number of bugs which may be difficult to find in black box testing – But same applies to hackers, who often use static analysis tools to find exploits• Beware of False Positives and Negatives – False positives can result in wasted effort and drain on security resources 14
  15. 15. 3/24/2011Integrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLCHow to devise test plans and attacks to test against OWASP threats• Leverage your Threat Model for more focused and effective testing• Security Testing – Functional test techniques cannot uncover security bugs – Designed to understand what is the application NOT supposed to do – Specific attacks should be applied to uncover vulnerabilities• Many flaws are caused by environment interaction – what if a resource is not available? – will we page that to disk? If so, when?• Many flaws are only discoverable after analyzing application’s environment – discover sensitive information by sniffing the network – uncover temporary filesIntegrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLCWeb scanners• PROS. Automates testing; Finds common vulnerabilities – Rely on a database of constantly growing known vulnerabilities – Identify common vulnerabilities faster than manual efforts – Can discover a large amount of information about a device • Misconfigurations, exposed usernames/passwords, vulnerable scripts • Directory/file structure, helper files, Java applets, Flash/ActiveX controls • Forms, query strings, hidden fields, input validation, header information – Example: IBM Rational AppScan Enterprise Edition• CONS. Scanners are just that – scanners – Limited to known vulnerabilities • Can‟t detect business logic attacks • Difficult to find flaws caused by environment interaction – No prioritization of vulnerabilities – False positives are time consuming to validate 15
  16. 16. 3/24/2011Integrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLCBest practices for using tools• Sequencing of tools introduction critical . When?” is just as important as “Which?”• Adopt when you have the ability to: – Interpret false positives – Fix the problems you are finding – Compliment with manual test efforts• Compliment with sound process – What good are tools if not required and/or used at critical security gates?• Compliment with Training – Tools don‟t make your organization more mature – Tools are more productive when you know what you are looking for and can use them to prevent problems down the roadIntegrating OWASP Top Ten into your SDLCDeployment Reviews• Ensures application security is not compromised by poor configuration of NETWORK and/or HOST – even the most securely designed and implemented application can be compromised by an error during deployment• Use server security categories - Patches & Updates - Files/Directories - Registry - Accounts - Ports - Services - Auditing and logging - Protocols - Shares• Break down your deployment review – use categories to break down your application deployment for further analysis and to help identify vulnerabilities• Review systematically – you can go through the deployment review process from start to finish or pick a particular category for further analysis 16
  17. 17. 3/24/2011Agenda• Intro to the OWASP Top Ten• How to Integrate the OWASP Top Ten into your SDLCHow the OWASP Top Ten maps to compliance, standards and other drivers• ConclusionThe Corporate Application Compliance Frameworkaligning development with management policies 17
  18. 18. 3/24/2011OWASP Adopters & Users• OWASP Top 10 in standards and frameworks – U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) – U.S. Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) – PCI-DSS• How organizations use the OWASP Top 10 – Microsoft: Top 10 threats are handled by security design and test procedures – NSA: in their developer guidance on web application security – Oracle: for developer awareness – IBM AppScan: maps source code findings to OWASP Top 10Mapping OWASP Top Ten to PCI DSS v2.0• OWASP and PCI• Previous version of PCI had explicit mapping to OWASP Top 10• Current version has direct references to OWASP and mappings to OWASP Top 10 entries 18
  19. 19. 3/24/2011Mapping OWASP Top Ten to PCI DSS v2.0Mapping OWASP Top Ten to PA DSS 19
  20. 20. 3/24/2011HIPAA - Health Insurance Portability andAccountability Act• Addresses the security and privacy of health data ...• But Web application security or OWASP are not specifically called out in the HIPAA Security Rule• That said, HIPAA requires: – A risk analysis and risk assessment – Depending on the risk rating, entities may need to ensure proper security controls are in place for web applications associated with electronic protected health information (ePHI)• Which means that compliant apps must not have security vulnerabilities likes the one in OWASP Top 10 issuesOther standards are also a vague on ApplicationSecurity• But an application can’t be compliant if vulnerable to an OWASP Top 10 risk: – SOX (US): seeks to protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosure. – GBLA (US): seeks to protect the personal information of consumers stored in financial institutions. – PIPED (Canada): The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Document Act mandates that appropriate security measures be applied to personal data obtained on the course of commercial transactions. – 95/46/EC (Europe): European Union Directive 95/46/EC is a sweeping European Parliament directive designed to protect individuals from unregulated personal data access or transfer. – DPA (UK): The Data Protection Act mandates that the processing of sensitive personal data should be carried out with appropriate security in the interests of protecting the individual rights and privacy. – .... and there are many more.... 20
  21. 21. 3/24/2011ISO 27000 Series• New ISO Standards (most are under development) – ISO 27000 : Information Security techniques, fundamentals and vocabulary – ISO 27001 : Information Security Management System Requirements (the standard to which an organization can certify) – ISO 27002 : Code of Practice (ISO 17799:2005, guidance for interpretation and implementation of controls) – ISO 27003 : ISMS Implementation (proposed) – ISO 27004 : Guide for Information Security Metrics and Measures (proposed) – ISO 27005 : Guide for Risk Management (currently BS 7799-3:2006) – ISO 27006 : International Accreditation Guidelines• With a key one standard still on early stages – ISO27034 : Guidelines for application securityPCI DSS mapped to ISO 27001 (and OWASP) 21
  22. 22. 3/24/2011OWASP Top 10(s) vs WASC vs CWE vs CAPEC vsSANS• Another big mapping can be found at: http://projects.webappsec.org/w/page/13246975/Threat-Classification-Taxonomy-Cross-Reference-ViewOpen SAMM• New SDL from OWASP• OWASP Top 10 is relevant in all 12 Security Practices 22
  23. 23. 3/24/2011OWASP ESAPI• The OWASP Enterprise Security API: – “....is a free, open source, web application security control library that makes it easier for programmers to write lower-risk applications. http://www.owasp.org/index.php/ESAPIESAPI and OWASP Top 10 23
  24. 24. 3/24/2011EASPI and OWASP Top 10• For an in depth coverage see John Melton’s blog post at: http://www.jtmelton.com/2009/01/03/the-owasp-top-ten-and-esapi/Agenda• Intro to the OWASP Top Ten• How to Integrate the OWASP Top Ten into your SDLC• How the OWASP Top 10 maps to compliance, standards and other driversConclusion 24
  25. 25. 3/24/2011Conclusion• The OWASP Top 10 was designed as a way to publicize the top threats on the web• You can use it for: – Education – Organization of best practices and SDLC initiatives – As a call to action for your development organization• The Top 10 maps well to a variety of industry and regulatory compliance standards – Protection against the Top 10 will help you fulfill your application security compliance requirementsHow Security Innovation can Help• TeamProfessor eLearning – OWASP Courses: • OWASP Top Ten: Threats & Mitigations • How to Test for the OWASP Top Ten – Many popular technologies • ASP.Net, Java, C/C++,.Net, Windows, C#, JRE• TeamMentor: Secure Development Knowledgebase – Free OWASP Version: http://owasp.teammentor.com• Secure SDLC Consulting – SDLC Assessment & Optimization – Code Review – Security Testing 25
  26. 26. 3/24/2011 Free OWASP eLearning Course http://www.teamprofessor.com Free OWASP TeamMentor http://owasp.securityinnovation.com Copy of Presentation getsecure@securityinnovation.com Upcoming/Past Webinarswww.securityinnovation.com/securitylab/elearning.shtml Technical Contacts Jason Taylor Dinis Cruzjtaylor@securityinnovation.com dcruz@owasp.org 26

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