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Multiple Species Grazing in Oklahoma

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Dave Sparks, D.V.M.
Oklahoma Beginning Farmer & Rancher Program
2013
Livestock #2: April 13
co-grazing of cattle and goats; parasite management

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Multiple Species Grazing in Oklahoma

  1. 1. Multiple Species Grazing In OklahomaDave Sparks DVMOklahoma State UniversityExtension Food Animal Qualityand Health Specialist
  2. 2. Why Multiple Species Grazing?• Two income stream from one set of fixed assets (land and equipment).• Helps in controlling internal parasites of both species, but especially goats.• Overlap of species grazed/browsed is variable, but increases overall stock rate.• Diversification of livestock program• Multiple income times aids cash flow.
  3. 3. Famacha•Used to select goats that actually need worming•Based on the fact that Barber Pole Worm kills by sucking blood•Evaluates the degree of anemia if present•80% of the parasites are in 20% of the goats•Slows the development of dewormer resistant•Saves money on drug purchase
  4. 4. Washington County 2007 - 2008• Project set up with two cooperators who currently grazed both cattle and goats, but not together.• County extension educators from Osage, Washington, and Nowata counties.• Area and State specialists in herd health, range agronomy, entomology, and pest management.• Utilized 200 acres of open native range.
  5. 5. Washington County 2007 - 2008• Divided into 3 sections, similar in forage quantity and forage type.• Stocked one pasture with goats only, one with cattle only, and one with cattle and goats combined.• Bob Woods, area agronomist, set stocking rates in total lbs. of livestock, based on forage availability. Cooperators and county educators then translated stocking weights into cattle and goat numbers.
  6. 6. 2007 Average Group Dewormings Washington County Goats Only Goats & Cattle 50 40 30 20 10 0 07 07 7 7 7 7 7 7 00 00 00 00 00 00 20 20 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /24/ 2/ 18 16 30 13 27 106/ 7/ 6/ 7/ 7/ 8/ 8/ 9/% of Goats 6/4/07 6/22/07 7/6/07 7/20/07 8/13/07 8/31/07 9/17/07Dewormed Goats Only 3 44 45 13 22 25 13by Group Goats & Cattle 2 12 15 11 5 7 6
  7. 7. 2008 Deworming Rates Washington County60.00% 55.77%50.00% 45.56% 44.94%40.00% 40.95% 34.69%30.00% 29.25% 26.67%20.00% 20.39% 19.77% 13.95%10.00%0.00% 08 08 08 08 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 20 20 20 20 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 /2 6/ 4/ 1/ 8/ 23 30 13 20 27 11 18 25 6/ 7/ 8/ 8/5/ 5/ 6/ 6/ 6/ 7/ 7/ 7/ Goat Only Mixed Goats
  8. 8. 2008 Eye Score 5’s Washington County EYE SCORE 5 Goats Only: 10% of all eye checks Mixed Goats: 6% of all eye checksGOATS ONLY MIXED GOATS & CATTLENever Wormed 24% Never Wormed 31%Wormed Once 31% Wormed Once 36%Wormed 2-3 Times 30% Wormed 2-3 Times 19%Wormed 4-5 Times 15% Wormed 4-5 Times 14%Wormed Every Time 8% Wormed Every Time 6%The biggest change is in the goats wormed 2 – 3times. These goats are neither real strong or realweak on parasite control immunity. This is thegroup most influenced by pasture contamination.
  9. 9. Muskogee County 2008• The How and Why of the Project• Multiple Species Grazing Project Started in Washington County in 2007• Utilized tall grass native range• Led to questions for smaller acreage, intensive grazing of introduced grasses• History of the property• Joint Venture – OSU Extension and Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture
  10. 10. Obstacles to Overcome• partitions for rotational grazing• fences• water availability• soil testing and amendment• what kind of cattle? what kind of goats?• setting stocking rate for sustainability• herd health program• predator control• parasite control program• marketing cattle and goats
  11. 11. 80 acres total56 acres reasonably open
  12. 12. websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov
  13. 13. Muskogee County 2008Expense AmountFencing Materials $8,376.26Fencing Labor and Bulldozing $4,070.00Total fencing costs $12,446.26Minus NRCS Share $7,277.94NET FENCING COSTS $5,168.32Annual fence cost per year 7 year depreciation $738.33Litter & Spreading $3,711.37Annual Litter cost per year (2 year life) $1,855.69Annual production cost-fencing plus annual fertilizer cost $2,594.02Net Income from cattle (after other operating expenses $3,000.00Net Income from goats (after other operating expenses) $3,375.00 Total Net Income $6,375.00ANNUAL RETURN TO LAND LABOR AND MANAGEMENT $3,781.00
  14. 14. % Wormed by Date 2008 Muskogee County403530 Composite25 NZ Kiko20 PB Kiko15 Commercial1050 8 8 8 8 8 08 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 7/ 27 17 29 12 29 6/4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 7/
  15. 15. Pasture Evaluation• Bob Woods used step point transect method to determine pasture composition at beginning and end of the growing season.• All paddocks increased in grass, decreased in legumes and brushy species, while staying about the same for forbs.• In both trials Bob used Web Soil Survey to suggest stocking rates and at the end of the season to recommend adjustments. In both trials he recommended stocking rate of cattle go up.
  16. 16. Production of 56 Acres 2008 Muskogee County• 120 mixed does and their kids year around. Kidding rate 1.85%• 50 yearling heifers from early April 15 until August 31, 2008. – In weight 438 lbs. – Out weight 641 lbs. – Gain 203 lbs. – Average Daily Gain = 1.9 lbs
  17. 17. NZ Kikos PB Kikos Commercial CompositeNever 46 (90%) 27 (75%) 8 (32%) 81 (72%)WormedWormed 4 (8%) 8 (22%) 5 (20%) 17 (15%)12 1 (2%) 1 (3%) 6 (24%) 8 (7%)3 0 0 3 (12%) 3 (3%)4 0 0 2 (8%) 2 (2%)5 0 0 0 06 0 0 1 (4%) 1 (1%) Times Dewormed 100Kikos vs. Boer X 90 80Spanish Com. 70 60 Compsite Per CentDoes Deworming 50 NZ Kikos PB Kikos CommercialSummer 2008 40 30 20 10 0 Never 1 2 3 4 5 6
  18. 18. Questions?

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