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Venezuela improvisation prospérité et contrastes

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Projet d'expo à l'Université Lyon 2 (France) avec les étudiants de l'Université de Los Andes de Mérida-Venezuela

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Venezuela improvisation prospérité et contrastes

  1. 1. VENEZUELA : IMPROVISATION, PROSPERITE ET CONTRASTES. Projet de Maria A. UZCATEGUI MONCADA Doctorante en Histoire Université Lyon 2 Lumière -ED 483 en Sciences socialesLaboratoire de Recherche Historique Rhône-Alpes, LARHRA UMR 5190.Avec la collaboration des Etudiants de l’Ecole d’Art et de l’Ecole de Médias Audiovisuels de l’Université des Andes – Mérida, Venezuela.
  2. 2. Objectifs :1. Analyser les sources de diffusion et les manifestations artistiquesdes œuvres musicales et plastiques inscrites dans le courant de ceque l’on appelle au Venezuela art urbain, afin de déterminercertains éléments qui permettent une meilleure compréhension dela société vénézuélienne. L’art urbain est représentatif du brassagedes différentes influences reçues dans le milieu artistique etexprimées à la vénézuélienne. En ce sens, « el Caso Venezuela »,rend possible l’identification du vrai sens du multiculturel.2. Proposer trois concepts qui définissent une identitévénézuélienne : improvisation, prospérité et contraste, afin de lesvaloriser car, loin d’être déconsidérés, ils sont souvent trèsappréciés par ceux qui découvrent la culture et la sociétévénézuéliennes.3. Nous interroger sur le rôle du web comme outil de support et dediffusion des productions de l’art urbain vénézuélien.
  3. 3. Méthodologie :A partir d’une étude exploratoire des blogs et des sites internetconsacrés à la diffusion des productions artistiques underground auVenezuela, nous avons pu déterminer que l’une des principalescaractéristiques du Vénézuélien réside dans sa préoccupation pourle renouveau. Ceci entraîne une conséquence à double volet : d’unepart, le refus du démodé et, d’autre part une quête perpétuelle deleur identité qui, la plupart du temps, résulte contradictoire etcomplexe.
  4. 4. Les éléments :1. La musique caractéristique des concerts et soirées d’art urbain est composée,dans l’actualité, principalement de deux rythmes : le hip-hop et la drum and bass.Même s’il s’agit des styles musicaux différents, tous les deux véhiculent des élémentssimilaires attirant l’attention d’un grand nombre de jeunes Vénézuéliens. La préférence très marquée que les acteurs de la culture urbainemanifestent pour la drum and bass, est très bien définie par l’un d’entre eux, le D.J.Marquez qui, dans un de ces documentaires intitulé « No tenemos crew » (« Nousn’avons pas de crew ») signale : « Ce phénomène est le résultat même de la drumand bass […]. Je crois que c’est par son caractère metisse […], puisque, comme nousle savons tous, la drum and bass rappelle la salsa, rappelle le métal, rappelle lesstyles de musique électronique, rappelle la house, la techno ; c’est tout un métissageproprement dit, et ça c’est notre caractéristique essentielle à nous, Vénézuéliens[…] » (“Ese fenómeno lo hizo el mismo drum and bass […]. Yo creo que es por lomestizo, […] porque como todos sabemos el drum te suena a salsa, te suena a metal,te suena a los estilos de música electrónica, te suena a house, te suena a techno, todoes un mestizaje como tal y eso es lo propio, esa es la esencia que tenemos nosotroscomo venezolanos […]”.MARQUEZ, Documental "Notenemoscrew" 1ra parte).
  5. 5. 2. Le « street art » vénézuélien intègre aussi les murales et les arts visuelles. Ces élémentsfondamentaux cherchent donner une signification à l’être urbain, à la quotidienneté. La photographie de gauche, par exemple, montre lune des œuvres exposées dans une manifestation culturelle quinitialement devait avoir lieu dans lune des salles du Centre Culturel Tulio Febres Cordero (centre culturel de la ville de Mérida). Elle a été organisée par les étudiants de lécole de beaux arts de lUniversité des Andes. Finalement, laccès à la salle leur a été refusé et ils ont fait une intervention "callejera« (de rue) dans lune des principales avenues du centre ville. Le petit bonhomme que lon distingue dans la partie supérieure du tableau était limage utilisée pour la commercialisation dune marque populaire de gâteaux pour enfants (le ponqué once – 11 -). Photographie 1
  6. 6. A droite du tableau on distingue limage du bonhomme du ponqué ONCE – qui traduit le chiffre11 - avec un révolver à la main. A gauche, la même image avec un deuxième élément: une chaîneautour du cou portant le chiffre 22. Les photographies qui suivent amplifient ces détails. Photographie 2 Photographie 3 Dans la composition principale (Photographie 1) figure, entre les deux détails antérieurementappréciés (photographies 2 et 3), un troisième bonhomme en petite taille, qui est la copie exacte de celui qui porte le révolver (photographie 2). S’agit-il peut-être d’une signification allusive au personnage des bandes dessinées qui se débat entre le bien et le mal?
  7. 7. Dans tous les cas, il est évident que ce genre artistique exprime la violencequi ne caractérise pas uniquement le Venezuela ou l’Amérique Latine, maisle monde moderne dans son intégralité. S’il est vrai que l’histoire définie leXXe siècle comme celui de grands conflits mondiaux, l’humanité aura faitson entrée dans un XXIe siècle imprégné du mot crise : crise économique,crise des institutions démocratiques, dévaluation de la qualité de vie desclasses moyennes et, par conséquent, généralisation de la violence urbaine.La visuelle intitulée « Il n’y a pas de travail » (« No hay trabajo » ), réaliséepar l’artiste Vénézuélien Vic Baszterdà partir de son œuvre Poster vs. Poster(voir photographies 4 et 5), exposée à Buenos Aires, en février 2012,constituent aussi de bons exemples de cette réalité.Sources disponibles sur :Vic Baszterd, “No hay trabajo”, febrero 2012, en: <http://vimeo.com/36871653>,(recuperado el 16/02/2012 a 23:17 GMT 0).Vic Baszterd, PvP, muestra en Buenos Aires, febrero 2012, en:<https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.349225761778454.87784.100000731004869&type=1>,(recuperado el 16/02/2012 a 23:20 GMT 0).
  8. 8. Photographie 4 Photographie 5
  9. 9. Les artistes :Victor Ali PerezAlberti (Vic_BASZT) en :http://vimeo.com/basztVic est un illustrateur, V.J.,producteur et artiste de rue.Etudiant en arts visuelles del’Université des Andes de Mérida.Son œuvre poursuit la réalisationd’une étude mashupd’illustration, annimation,projection de vidéos, musique,d’art de rue et de graffiti. Il esttoujours en quête d’une nouvellemanière d’aborder l’artcontemporain.
  10. 10. Carlos Ramon Barboza (Elerreme) en :http://raymonb.wordpress.com/acerca-de/Etudiant en dessin graphique à l’Ecole desarts de l’Université des Andes. D.J. etproducteur, elerreme est un artisteunderground.
  11. 11. Juan José Davila :Etudiant de l’Ecole des médiasaudiovisuels de l’Université desAndes. Spécialiste en direction dephotographie et assistant de caméra.

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