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High tech materials #SciChallenge2017

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Published in: Technology

High tech materials #SciChallenge2017

  1. 1. High-tech materials Matyáš Pospíšil, Adéla Novotná
  2. 2. GENERAL OVERVIEW • Imagine a material that shifts and moves according to the temperature of the outside air - like a flower opening up for sunlight and closing its petals at night. New high-tech smart materials have allowed this idea to thrive and the possibilities are endless.
  3. 3. CARBON FIBER
  4. 4. GENERAL INFORMATION • a carbon fiber is a long, thin strand of material about 0.005-0.010 mm in diameter (composed by carbon atoms) • high tensile strength, high chemical resistance, high stiffness, low thermal expansion, and low weight properties • carbon Fibre is very rigid, reinforced plastic is over 4 times stiffer than Glass, corrosion resistant and chemicaly stable, Carbon fiber is Electrically conductive
  5. 5. FABRICATION • 90% of the carbon fibers produced are made from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) • 10% are made from rayon or petroleum pitch • variety of gases and liquids are used (some designed to react and achieve a special effect or prevent certain reactions) • Carbon fibres are made in 5 cycles • Spinning (Acrylonitrile plastic powder is mixed with another plastic) • Stabilizing (heating the fibers in air) • Carbonizing (for several minutes in a furnace filled with a gas mixture without oxygen) • Treating the surface (surface is slightly oxidized) • Sizing (coated to be protected from damage)
  6. 6. UTILIZATION • Automobile industry (i.e car maker Pagani started making thier new Zonda F and by using carbon and magnesium fiber they reduced the weight by 40% to 1000 kilograms) • Aircraft industry: (i.e aircraft maker Boeing is using carbon fiber for their new type of machine called „the dreamliner“ and they claim that is the lightest aircraft for public ever made) • Aerospace industry (They are spending financial resources on research and development of carbon fiber. They are trying to improve the quality of these carbon fiber) • Tour de france ( Carbon fiber for its specific abilities has forever changed the way profesionals ride their vehicle)
  7. 7. GRAPHENE
  8. 8. GENERAL INFORMATION • a thin layer of pure carbon • a single, tightly packed layer of carbon atoms that are bonded together in a hexagonal lattice • the slimmest compound known (one atom thick) • the lightest material • the strongest compound discovered (100-300 stronger then steel) • the best conductor of heat • the best conductor of electricity • unique level of light absorbtion • The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2010 was awarded for experiments regarding graphene
  9. 9. FABRICATION • many techniques 1. Mechanical exfoliation (exfoliating graphite with sticky tape and depositing it on a substrate) 2. Chemical vapor deposition on copper (a substrate is exposed to several precursor gases containing reactive elements) 3. Substrate layout (the most common nanofabrication techniques used to fabricate graphene)
  10. 10. UTILIZATION • Biological engineering: bioelectric sensory devices with the ability to monitor glucose levels, haemoglobin levels, cholesterol and even DNA sequencing • Optical electronics: phone makers (Samsung, LG) are working on flexible displays made of graphene. Soon we will see graphene in touchscreens, OLEDs and LCDs. • Ultrafiltration: gaphene can be use as a ultrafiltration medium to act as a barrier between two substances (water filtration systems) • Composite materials: graphene can replace steel in the structure of aircraf, coat aircraft surface and measure strain rate • Bill Gates funds scientific research to develop the thinnest and strongest condoms ever
  11. 11. MAGNESIUM ALLOY
  12. 12. GENERAL INFORMATION • the strenght to weight ratio is better than other alloys • despite the active nature of the metal, magnesium and its alloys have good resistance to corrosion • merits are similar to alluminium such as: low specific gravity with satisfactory strenght • Magnesium casting proof stress is typically 75-200 MPa, tensile strength 135-285 MPa and elongation 2-10%. Typical density is 1.8 g/cm3
  13. 13. FABRICATION • Hot and cold working (Magnesium alloys harden rapidly with any type of cold work) • The percipationally hardened alloys are used in casting • Then welding, soldering, and riveting are taking part • A particular attraction of magnesium alloys lies in their extraordinarily good machining properties, so machining is taking part. • Not much pure magnesium is extruded, for it has somewhat poor properties, especially as regards its proof stress, so we heat it up….
  14. 14. UTILIZATION • Magnesium is used for camera lightings • it is also used in car industry for its strenght and lightnes • we can find it very often in sport equipment • In aircraft industry it plays a crucial role • the most interesting usedge of alluminium is how alloys are used for replacing human body parts
  15. 15. ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT • We think, that the inviromental impact done by advanced materials is very positive. Thanks to the advanced technology production we no longer have to mine so many mineral resources and it also opens a brand new way to their recyclation.
  16. 16. RESUMÉ • From the research that we have done, we conclude that the discovery of advanced materials went hand in hand with the biggest milestones of modern history.
  17. 17. SOURCES • Carbon fiber [online]. [cit. 2017-01-29]. Dostupné z: https://www.google.cz/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjN7diqvOfRAhUCD5oKHV NrA7YQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fnptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F116102026%2Fhigh%2520performance%2520fibers- m8%2Frecent%2520developments%2520of%2520polymeric%2520high%2520performance%2520fibers.htm&psig=AFQjCNHOSh MvbIUwa0750rxMLK405ekqJA&ust=1485783218806287 • Carbon fiber [online]. [cit. 2017-01-29]. Dostupné z: http://zoltek.com/carbonfiber/the-future-of-carbon-fiber/ • https://www.slideshare.net/RaviAgrahari1/graphene-16472788 • Grafen [online]. [cit. 2017-01-29]. Dostupné z: https://www.google.cz/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjN7diqvOfRAhUCD5oKHV NrA7YQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fnptel.ac.in%2Fcourses%2F116102026%2Fhigh%2520performance%2520fibers- m8%2Frecent%2520developments%2520of%2520polymeric%2520high%2520performance%2520fibers.htm&psig=AFQjCNHOSh MvbIUwa0750rxMLK405ekqJA&ust=1485783218806287 • Magnesium alloy [online]. [cit. 2017-01-29]. Dostupné z: http://zoltek.com/magnesiumalloy/the-future-of-magnesium-fiber/ • Google.com/images

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