Dating a Robot islike Dating a ManA New Perspectiveon the Turing TestMatthijs Pontier, Johan Hoorn,Elly Konijn, Rens van d...
Overview of this presentation•   Background•   Silicon Coppelia: Model of Emotional Intelligence•   Turing Test / Speed-Da...
Background•   Increasingly, technology mimics humans•   CMC and HCI are merging fields•   Humans treat and experience tech...
Validation Silicon Coppelia• We developed Silicon Coppelia, with the goal to create  emotionally human-like robots• Simula...
Silicon Coppelia
Turing Test• Turing Test was originally text-based• We enriched test with affect-laden communication   • Facial expression...
Speed-dating Experiment
Results• Participants did not detect differences on single  variables• Participants did not recognize significant differen...
Cognitive-Affective StructureRotterdam, Februari 8th 2013   ETMAAL 2013   9
Conclusions• We created simulation of affect so natural that young  women could not discern dating a robot from a man• Imp...
Interactive Stories(Serious) GamesRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013   ETMAAL 2013   11
Virtual CoachRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013   ETMAAL 2013        12
Companion robotsRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013   ETMAAL 2013
Rotterdam, Februari 4th 2013   ETMAAL 2013   14
House robotsRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013   ETMAAL 2013       15
Caredroids: Humanoid Care RobotsRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013   ETMAAL 2013   16
Work in progress:    - Add moral reasoning    - Add model of autonomy    - Build emotionally intelligent robotsMorals Nece...
Questions?                           Matthijs Pontier                          m.a.pontier@vu.nl                          ...
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Dating a Robot is like Dating a Man - A new perspective on the Turing Test - presentation Etmaal'13, Rotterdam, Februari 7-8

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Increasingly, humans communicate through technological devices, such as mobile phones and tablet
PC’s. Insights from interpersonal communication are important for developing communication
technologies. Certain communication technologies use these insights to mimic elements of human
interpersonal communication, or even completely replace the human partner in conversational
exchanges. With these developments, computer-mediated communication (CMC) is moving toward
human-computer interaction (HCI).
At the same time, with increasing knowledge about interpersonal communication and technological
advances, HCI is becoming more social and moving toward CMC. Individuals respond socially toward
computers. Humans, even experienced computer users, are inclined to treat their computers as
largely natural and social and they tend to interact with their computers in affective ways.
Nowadays, embodied computers are designed as socially interactive robots. They are not only
technological supplementary tools for labor-intensive or hazardous tasks anymore, but gradually
become part of our daily lives, fulfilling roles as, for example, pets, nurses, office assistants, tour
guides, teachers, and even emotional companions (e.g., Sony’s AIBO robot dog, or MIT’s Kismet). A
salient aspect of humanness in robots is the expression of emotions. However, compared to human
affective complexity, affective communication of contemporary software agents and robots is still
quite simple.

The original Turing-Test is text-based but we enriched the communication by applying a virtual
human in graphical format, called Tom, capable of speech and facial expressions. Because in
mediated interpersonal communication emotions play a salient role, Tom’s communications were
affect-laden. Our Turing test took the form of a speed-dating session in which we tested the
performance of our Silicon Coppélia software. Female participants were randomly assigned to the
virtual human Tom, who was either controlled by our software (HCI) or by a human confederate
(CMC). In either case, participants were told that they interacted with a robot to see whether human
performance could outdo that idea. Tom could give verbal as well as nonverbal cues.
Results obtained with Bayesian structural equation modeling revealed that, even in an enriched version of the classic Turing-Test, participants did not detect differences between
the two versions of Tom, which is a nice tribute to the Turing Centenary of this year. Participants did
not recognize significant differences in the cognitive-affective structure underlying the emotional
behavior produced by our Silicon Coppélia software and that produced by human confederates.
We can conclude, as far as the testing capabilities of this experiment go, that we created a humanoid
simulation of affect so natural that young women could not discern dating a robot from dating a
man.

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  • Technology mimics humans: speech synthesizers, agents in virtual worlds Tamagotchi, Speaking to your car / person on television screen Treat computer that compliments you differently, hit computer if it frustrates you Cyberball game  feel excluded even when told that computer was scripted to do so, same as if it was a human Daily Lives: AIBO, Paro, pets, nurses, tour guides, teachers, personal companions
  • Silicon Coppelia, based on how humans affectively perceive each other and communicate
  • Theory about humans in computational model Form perception of user. Compare with goals Emotions emerge Make decision / Take action based on emotional and rational influences Regulate emotions if necessary
  • Turing Test: CMC vs HCI More elaborated, because measure on several appraisal dimensions Yes/no problematic, because if Tom not human-like on only one aspect, everyone says no
  • Robot (Silicon Coppelia) vs Human Multiple Choice & Emotions
  • Cognitive structure  How variables are related (as in Silicon Coppelia)
  • Communication technologies: helping autistic patients with recognizing emotions
  • No fixed script Characters make decisions based on model
  • Coach assists with physical exercise Acts human-like and supportive. Can use sensors for doing so
  • Paro improves well-being of people with dementia Project model in people (ToM) to predict reactions on behavior for decision making
  • Recognize what patient wants by projecting model in humans
  • Can be a combination of four functionalities mentioned before, but we mainly focus on: Care broker Companion Personal coach
  • Drones that are shooting on people Care robots or companion robots that monitor behavior of ‘client’
  • Dating a Robot is like Dating a Man - A new perspective on the Turing Test - presentation Etmaal'13, Rotterdam, Februari 7-8

    1. 1. Dating a Robot islike Dating a ManA New Perspectiveon the Turing TestMatthijs Pontier, Johan Hoorn,Elly Konijn, Rens van de Schootm.a.pontier@vu.nl @Matthijs85
    2. 2. Overview of this presentation• Background• Silicon Coppelia: Model of Emotional Intelligence• Turing Test / Speed-Dating Application• Results• Future WorkRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 2
    3. 3. Background• Increasingly, technology mimics humans• CMC and HCI are merging fields• Humans treat and experience technology as other humans • Talk to TV, Talk to car • Hit computer that frustrates you • Cyberball game• Robots are becoming a part of our daily lives • Pets (AIBO/Paro), companions, nurses, tour guides, teachers• But: Affective behavior robots still quite simpleRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 3
    4. 4. Validation Silicon Coppelia• We developed Silicon Coppelia, with the goal to create emotionally human-like robots• Simulation experiments: System behaves consistent with Theory and Intuition• Never tested with human users yet• This study: Compare performance model with performance real human in speeddating experimentRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 4
    5. 5. Silicon Coppelia
    6. 6. Turing Test• Turing Test was originally text-based• We enriched test with affect-laden communication • Facial expressions showing emotions • Capable of vocal speech• Afterwards questionnaire: How do you think Tom perceived you?  Measure made continuous and more elaborated than simply yes/no• Analysis: Bayesian structural equation modelingRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 6
    7. 7. Speed-dating Experiment
    8. 8. Results• Participants did not detect differences on single variables• Participants did not recognize significant differences on cognitive-affective structure• Model in which conditions (1: human, 2: robot) were assumed equal explained data better than model in which conditions were assumed differentRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 8
    9. 9. Cognitive-Affective StructureRotterdam, Februari 8th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 9
    10. 10. Conclusions• We created simulation of affect so natural that young women could not discern dating a robot from a man• Important for: • Understanding human affective communication • Developing communication technologies • Developing emotionally human-like robotsRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 10
    11. 11. Interactive Stories(Serious) GamesRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 11
    12. 12. Virtual CoachRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 12
    13. 13. Companion robotsRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013
    14. 14. Rotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 14
    15. 15. House robotsRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 15
    16. 16. Caredroids: Humanoid Care RobotsRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013 16
    17. 17. Work in progress: - Add moral reasoning - Add model of autonomy - Build emotionally intelligent robotsMorals Necessary, because:• Robots become more autonomous• Robots are already making moral decisions• Military RobotsMoral dilemmas in our caredroids:• Coaching vs Manipulation• PrivacyRotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013
    18. 18. Questions? Matthijs Pontier m.a.pontier@vu.nl @Matthijs85Rotterdam, Februari 4th 2013 ETMAAL 2013

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