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Networking & Negotiating
Matthew L. Eisenhard, Psy.D.
Week 10: Psychology for Business & Industry
• The ongoing process of
▫ Purpose is for politicking and socializing.
• Networks are:
▫ Clusters of people joined together by a variety of
▫ Primary and secondary connections.
• To get a job – or a different one.
• To perform better at your current job.
• To advance in your organization.
• To stay current in your field.
• To maintain mobility.
• To develop and
– professional and
• Self-assessment exercise 10.1.
• Five basic tasks:
1. Perform a self-assessment and set goals.
2. Create a one minute self-sell.
3. Develop a network.
4. Conduct networking
5. Maintain the network.
Self-Assessment & Setting Objectives
• Helps clarify your skills, competencies, and
• Gives insight to what is important to you.
Write down at least 2 to 3 that define your skills and
abilities – include in your resume.
▫ Tying accomplishments to job interview
When asked to describe yourself, use the
accomplishments statement in your resume.
▫ Set networking objectives
Clearly set goals – break it down into specific tasks.
Your One Minute Self-Sell
• An opening statement used in networking that
quickly summarizes your history and career plan
and asks a question.
▫ Should be 60 seconds or less.
▫ Be concise – clear – compelling.
Summary of highlights of your career to date.
What you are seeking – be specific.
Ask question to open two-way communication.
Develop Your Network
• Start with primary contacts – people you know.
▫ Document these contacts.
• Ask for secondary contacts – keep growing the
▫ Include people you do not know.
▫ Get involved with the community – clubs,
organizations, volunteer work, etc.
▫ Meet and greet.
Use the one minute self-sell.
• Informational interviews are
designed to help learn specifics
about your field of interest.
▫ Can be a phone call.
Better if face to face.
▫ Ask for 15-20 minutes of their time.
▫ Most people are willing to help you.
Do not go over your allotted time – unless asked to
Leave business cards and resumes.
Networking Interview Process
• Establish rapport.
▫ Praise and read the person.
▫ Thank them for their time.
▫ State your purpose clearly.
• Deliver your one minute self-sell.
▫ Even if it is a repeat – it leads into
• Ask prepared questions.
▫ Have a short list of concise and relevant questions.
• Get additional contacts.
▫ Always ask for names of other people to contact.
• Ask how you can be of help to them.
▫ Or better yet bring something that may interest them – reciprocity.
• Follow-up with thank you note and status report.
▫ Good idea to document meetings and follow-up calls.
Maintaining & Coalitions
• Keep everyone in your network informed of your
progress and status.
▫ If someone was particularly helpful, let them
• Always continue to grow and update your
• A coalition is a short-term network used to meet
a specific goal.
▫ Use it to help you influence the people in power
that you need to further your aspirations.
• Follow the same rules as
• Think about using
LinkedIn for business
▫ Businesses are using
social networking to
increase their business.
▫ Follow the company
policies about using work
hours for networking,
social or otherwise.
• Process in which two or more parties have something
the other wants.
▫ An attempt to come to an exchange agreement.
▫ It is also called bargaining.
• Power, influence tactics, &
politics can all be used in
the negotiating process.
• Self-assessment 10.2
examines your negotiating
When & Where?
• We negotiate when there is
a conflict of interests.
▫ Union bargaining (others
bargain for us).
▫ Accepting a job.
▫ Getting a raise.
• If there is no set price or “wiggle” room, then no
negotiation/bargaining can/will take place.
▫ Can you name some acceptable and unacceptable
times and places?
Two Negotiating Strategies
• Distributive Bargaining
▫ Negotiating over shares of a fixed pie.
▫ Creating win-lose situations.
▫ Zero-sum game = any gain made at another party’s expense.
• Integrative Bargaining
▫ Negotiating to give everyone a good deal.
▫ Creating win-win situations.
▫ Trust is a major factor.
Must be open, honest, and flexible.
The “good deal policy.”
▫ Good negotiating skills can be learned – and are in high
Good leaders are good negotiators.
Process of Negotiating
• 3, maybe 4 steps.
3. Maybe a
4. Agreement – or
• Success or failure depends on a good plan.
▫ Research the other party.
Know your opponent well.
▫ Set goals.
Have a specific target and be willing to walk away unless you get it.
Open with something higher that what you will settle for.
▫ Anticipate questions and objections from your opponent.
Be ready to answer everything that could possibly come up from them.
▫ Develop options and trade-offs.
If you have to give up something, be ready to ask for something in
• Develop rapport.
▫ Read the other person.
▫ Focus on obstacles.
▫ Never attack the other person on a personal level – no name
• Let the other party make the first offer.
▫ Use this as a starting point.
• Listen and ask questions about the other party’s needs.
▫ Remember people want control and respect.
• Do not move too fast.
▫ Ask for something in return.
▫ Do not look desperate or intimidated.
▫ Make the first concession (it makes them feel obligated), but do
not make unilateral concessions.
To Postpone or Not?
• Honesty and integrity are imperative for a good
• Do not create a sense of urgency.
▫ Unless it is really true.
• Know when to pressure and when to let it go.
▫ Sometimes agreeing to let
▫ someone sleep on it may be best.
▫ You need to read between the
lines, read the nonverbals.
Agreement or Not
• Everyone agrees on the terms.
▫ Or… no agreement can be made.
• If an impasse is met, consider bringing in a 3rd
party or mediator.
▫ Difference between good and not so good
negotiators is how they respond to failure.
Learn from your mistakes.
Maintain your enthusiasm.
Maintain your optimism.
Come back another day.
Networking and Negotiating Globally
• Be alert to cultural differences.
• Variations for global negotiating:
▫ Time to reach an agreement.
▫ Focus on relationships versus task.
▫ Use of power tactics.
▫ Verbal and nonverbal communication.
▫ Correct greetings and rituals.
Global Negotiating Examples
• Israeli’s like a good argument.
• Japanese prefer being civil.
• French like to take their time and like conflict.
• Chinese like to drag things out.
• Americans and impatient and want quick results.
• Japanese and Chinese expect to exchange gifts.
• Russians view concessions as a sign of weakness.
• Japanese expect to do business over dinner and drinks.
• Islamic cultures ban alcohol.