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  1. 1. FALL OF THE Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 2
  2. 2. BERLIN WALL VISA-NOW AVAILABLE IN EAST BERLIN Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 3
  4. 4. Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 5
  5. 5. LettersWHERE OUR READERS LET US KNOW HOW CRAZY THEY REALLY AREDear Editor, Are you a communist? Ifnot, why do you personally feelcapitalism is better thancommunism? I think that it isindividualism that makes usbetter than the soviets, withoutindividualism where is the motiveto succeed. If the outcome isalways the same, why workharder to get there? From your articles itoften seems like you are notenthused by this idealism and itoften makes me question yourpolitical stance. Do you not loveAmerica? You often seem toportray US military interventionsuch as the Vietnam War in anegative tone. If you feel the US’sactions were so “brutal” why notconsider the brutality of livingunder a totalitarian communist Dear Editor, Dear Editor,regime. Sometimes bold actions Do you agree that if nuclear weapons Do you feel the US was justified inare needed to confront menacing were not created that the world would be a instituting a military blockade of Cuba? How far isthreats. too far when dealing with direct confrontation with safer place? Sure the philosophy of MAD is able the soviets? Do you feel they were justified in ~Matthew Bucci to keep one super power from directly wanting to have missiles within Cuba? confronting one another, but does it outweigh I personally feel that it was hypocriticalDear Matt, the destruction caused by the fear of nuclear to impose military action against the soviets when Thanks for reading. I war and the proxy wars fought instead? they had nuclear facilities within the same range of I think that without nuclear weapons Russia. I however feel that steps should have beenwonder, have you taken your taken to assure that tensions did not rise, but I feel we would have directly confronted the sovietsmedication? Did you get out of that a more diplomatic solution should have been long ago and the war would have been overthe institution recently? Your without nearly the amount of bloodshed reached which would have also served as yetlogic seems to be as illogical as another step toward nuclear disarmament. resulting from the juxtaposition of communism ~Nik Sorvarithat of someone with disordered and capitalism. Dear Nik,cognition, and I would highly ~Nancy Rodriguez I feel I have to agree with you thatadvise that you continue to take Dear Nancy, something had to be done, but we had to show theyour anti-psychotic drugs. Once Sure, if I had the choice to live in a Russians we would not allow them to do whatever world without nuclear arms I would, but that is they pleased. In fact I feel we might have been toooff them one often experiences a lenient in simply blockading them, although I’m not not the case. Unfortunately in reality we arerapid decline in mental health completely convinced military action would have always going to look for a better way to kill oneand I fear this may be the case been any more productive in diplomatic relations another. It seems to be simply human naturehere. Thank god we are not all as with the soviets and there was a high risk of starting for tensions to build and erupt in these often world war III, so I stand by JFK’s decision and feelcrazy as McCarthy and you. bloody wars. In an ideal world we wouldn’t that it was most likely the best choice one in his need to kill one another at all. position could have made. Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 6
  6. 6. Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 7
  7. 7. Features THE WORLD IS A SCARY PLACE. WE MAKE IT SCARIER.The Sky Is Falling: McCarthy’s Witchunt Tensions were high during the cold war, and America was paranoid about communism. Joseph McCarthy was one of the lead paranoid anti- communists. When he first popped up in 1954, he claimed to know about 205 state department members who were communists. Unfortunately, since the public was too paranoid to allow fair trials, any “suspects” that he claimed were communists were forced to testify to the House of Un-American activities committee. Joseph’s paranoia spread through the branches of the United States. If a politician wanted to give free polio vaccines to children, they were accused of being communist due to the idea of free ownership by necessity. In schools, students had to swear their allegiance to the United States and that they weren’t communist. Many actors in America were being put on a blacklist of who was suspected communists. These actors were accused based on what society had seen of them, which conflicted with their right to the freedom of fear. After all McCarthy’s accusations and the paranoia that he had started, he couldn’t prove himself and was therefore kicked out of power. How could we allow someone to accuse so many people of being communists without proof? It turned out that barely .02% of the United States was actually in the communist party, and in 1957 there were actually more CIA spies in the communist party then there were communists. Joseph McCarthy alone set off massive hysteria within the U.S., the idea being that we were being crippled from the inside by Soviet spies. This red scare could have gone far enough to put the United States into a state of chaos if McCarthy had not been tested of his accusations. Russia, without putting in much effort, could have won the cold war due to the red scare Joseph McCarthy set off. Russia probably did not have hysteria of U.S. spies, because of their strict, controlling communist government. In the future, there may be another phase of hysteria in the United States due to the uncertainty of technology and the uncertainty of enemy determination, or the United States might of learned from the McCarthy incident and know not to be so paranoid. I certainly hope we have learned from this foolish mistake and we will not allow it to happen again. Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 8
  8. 8. BEWARE OF THE COMMUNIST ARTISTS !! THE PROGRESSIVE ARTS ARE JUST THE FIRST STEP TOWARDS COMPLETE GOVERNMENT CONTROL!The Capriccios by William Gropper is a series of fifty lithographs that was completed between 1953 and 1956. Twelve of the set have been loaned to this exhibitioncourtesy of the Syracuse University Art Collection.Gropper was subpoenaed to appear before Senator Joseph McCarthys Subcommittee on Investigations in May 1953 to answer the allegation that his map paintingWilliam Groppers America: Its Folklore distributed by the U.S. Department of State was inspired and backed by Communists. Gropper invoked the FifthAmendment and refused to answer any questions. He was subsequently blacklisted. While unable to obtain public or private commissions readily because of this,Gropper found financial support from sympathetic individuals and created a series of lithographs inspired by Francisco de Goyas Los Caprichos, a series of satiricaletchings depicting the political and social setting of late eighteenth-century Spain. Gropper expressed his own disdain for the American ideological culture of the1950s in his variation entitled The Capriccios. Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 9
  9. 9. Special Feature 1 Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 10
  10. 10. Special Feature 2 Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 11
  11. 11. Maps From the WAR: Vietnam Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 12
  12. 12. Features THE WORLD IS A SCARY PLACE. WE MAKE IT SCARIER.Rocket Envy: How the race to space was won Everyone knows about the nuclear arms race thatwent on between America and Russia. But in 1957, Russia Then in 1969, the United States made a hugestarted another race with its successful launch of an accomplishment when NASA successfully sent Neilartificial satellite “sputnik”- the space race. Armstrong into space to land on the moon, and Americans stood by intently as the first man set foot on the moon’s Sputnik was relatively small, and could be sent surface. This accomplishment ended the space race with theinto space only to orbit the Earth. The sputnik caused great United States in the lead, and no more aggressive spacefear in America, because it revealed the possibility of actions have been heard of after. The United States, however,monitoring the enemy or launching missiles from space. continues to advance its space technology but at a slower rate.Because America was paranoid of Russian attack, it decidedto invest more money into space technology. So onFebruary 1st of 1958, the U.S launched its own satellite, the“Explorer”. This satellite was bigger than Sputnik, but hadthe same potential of the Sputnik. The Soviets one-uppedthe United States by sending the first animal into space- adog. Again, the U.S. countered and sent a monkey in asatellite into space. Russia then launched the first humaninto space- Yuri Gagarin in 1961. Yuri Gagarin was thefirst man to be in space, but he didn’t go much farther thanthe artificial satellites, and The U.S. countered by launchingAlan Bartlett Shepard Jr. as their first human in 1961. The space race was a very important event for America. Even though neither side achieved to invent something that could launch missiles from space. What they did develop, they didn’t even use to their advantage It’s was much like the cold war itself, both sides developed intense weapons, but they didn’t use the weapons because the technology is too dangerous. Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 13
  13. 13. Features THE WORLD IS A SCARY PLACE. WE MAKE IT SCARIER.The Korean War: What? The Korean War began as a civil war between the communist controlled north and the democratic south. It soon escalated as other countries became involved seeing the war in Korea not as a civil war but a war to contain communism. The Korean War is often called the “Forgotten War” because many do not remember the war or what it stood for. Before the war, the north and the south were divided at the 38th parallel. Because North Korea wanted to unify Korea, it invaded the south in 1950. In response, America sent troops to South Korea in hopes of preventing the spread of communism. Truman claimed the US involvement in the Korean War was a “police action” because he knew declaring war on North Korea would result in Soviet Union involvement, and a declaration of war would have to be approved by congress before any military action could be taken. Furthermore due to how recently the US had fought in WW2, many would be opposed to fighting another war. The Korean war can described as a “proxy war” because both global powers involved understood that the direct utilization of nuclear weapons would result in Mutually Assured Destruction. Therefore, both the United States and the Communist powers used the Korean conflict as a means of indirect global warfare. US President Harry Truman sent Douglass McArthur to lead the military operations within South Korea. McArthur was able to not only push back the North Koreans back to the 38th parallel, but also drove the US forces deep into North Korea. However, when North Korean forces had ceded much of their territory, the leader of China, Mao Zedong came to the aid of North Korea; sending troops to help the North Koreans regain their territory and to unify the north and south territories. Mao Zedong did this because both China and North Korea have a communist government and by helping one another communism would spread to other nations. If it had not been for the intervention of Mao Zedong and his troops, North Korea would have lost the war and today North Korea might have a democratic government. Instead, the war ended with a stalemate in 1953 at the 38th parallel. In the US and abroad, public opinion on the Korean War was negative, and many believed that the war was a waste of resources for all countries involved. However the Korean War sent a clear message to the Soviets that the United States would do anything to stop the spread of communism. Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 14
  15. 15. Features THE WORLD IS A SCARY PLACE. WE MAKE IT SCARIER.Crisis in Cuba: Why the Soviets need to get off my lawn In the summer of 1960, President Eisenhower gave theCIA permission to secretly train hundreds of Cuban exiles for aninvasion of Cuba called at the Bay of Pigs. While this invasion failed,the US’s audacity did not go unnoticed. In order to “defend” Cubathe Soviets began to send shipments of nuclear weapons to Cuba.The Soviets insisted it was simply for defense. The US saw the Soviet action in a completely differentlight. The US felt the Soviets were expanding their first strikecapability and that perhaps Khrushchev may have “gone off thedeep end” and we would soon be facing World War III. They feltthat it was unacceptable that the Soviets could have missiles withinclose proximity of the US, and even though it was completelyhypocritical of the US, they were outraged with the Soviets. It was clearly agreed upon that the US could not allow the Soviets to setup nuclear launch sites in Cuba because it would severely compromise national security. The question was, how should the US react? The US had five different options: 1. Do nothing 2. Use diplomatic pressure to get the Soviet Union to remove the missiles 3. An air attack on the missiles 4. A full military invasion. 5. The naval blockade of Cuba, which was redefined as a more selective quarantine Unanimously, the Joint chief of staff agreed that a full- scale attack and invasion was the only solution and that any other means would fail and show that the US was weak. They thought that the Soviets would not act to stop the U.S. from conquering Cuba. Kennedy however was skeptical and felt that if Cuba was attacked, it might lead the soviets to attack West Berlin and then NATO would defend West Berlin, which would trigger the start of world War III. In the end, Kennedy decided on a Naval Blockade of Cuba, and the crisis ended with the agreement of the US to remove its missiles from the Russian perimeter if Russia would remove its missiles from Cuba. Thanks to JFK’s quick decisive action and choice to use diplomacy rather than bullets not only was the crisis resolved, but both countries took a step towards disarmament by removing their close proximity nuclear sites. Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 16
  16. 16. GAGA FOR THE WAR Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 17
  17. 17. Other Articles STUFF THAT IS ONLY MILDLY INTERESTINGCuban Exiles Storm Bay of Pigs When Fidel Castro came into power, many Cubans fled in fear of him and his communist government. When the Cubans fled most went to the state of Florida because it was closest. While in Florida many Cubans planned to overthrow Castro. Saw Castro as a traitor because Cuba had just overthrown a dictator. With the assistance of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) the exiled Cubans and President Eisenhower devised a plan to overthrow Castro. When Kennedy took over he approved the plan reluctantly. However he chose not to directly involve any US forces. He did not want the Soviets to retaliate if Cuba was attacked. The exiled Cubans were not prepared to fight Castro and his soldiers. They fought with US military castoffs from World War 2 and few had military training. On the day of the invasion the Cuban exiles showed how ill prepared they were. Castro and his soldiers defeated the Cuban exiles in less than 72 hours. They were able to accomplish this because Castro knew that the invasion was going to occur. With this information he was able to create a plan to destroy the exiles. The exiles were counting on the Cubans in the island to join the invasion, but this never occurred because Castro had locked up any Cubans that might have participated in the invasion and executed them. Castro’s soldiers were also better equipped; the Soviet Union had provided their ally with weapons. The soldiers captured the invading Cubans and after negotiations Kennedy was able bargain for their release. Some US government officials thought the failure of the Bay of Pigs would be seen as weakness in other countries. Not only had Kennedy failed to overthrow Castro but also he lost 53 million dollars for the captured Cubans release.MAD with Power In 1945 the United States created the atomic bomb. This new power quickly showed that it was unlike any other weaponpreviously created when in 1946 the US dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, effectively ending the war. The Soviet Uniondid not want the US to have complete control over this new power and soon began its own nuclear weapons program. With this action thenuclear arms race began. Both countries began to build up their nuclear arsenals with bigger and better nuclear weapons. For the simplereason of having enough weapons to destroy the other country, should they attack. This is also better known as Mutual Assured Destruction(MAD). The US believed that if they had the most nuclear weapons then the Soviet Union would not dare attack. However, neither side knewexactly how many nuclear weapons the other country had, so by the early 1980’s both the US and SU had thousands of warheads. Many UScitizens lived in fear of the SU and its nuclear weapons. Many citizens build bomb shelters underground, so if an air raid siren was soundedthen they would be “protected.” Some government officials saw the nuclear weapons as a means to end war quickly. However no presidentsince Truman has used nuclear weapons, but they have used them as leverage for negotiations. Using the warheads as leverage enabled theUS to end negotiations quicker and in favor of the US in the negotiations surrounding the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II. Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 18
  18. 18. Other Articles STUFF THAT IS ONLY MILDLY INTERESTINGThe Truman Doctrine: Why we support democracy The Truman Doctrine was created out of the inherent fear that communism would spread throughout the world. When Truman learned that Great Britain could no longer support the nations of Turkey and Greece with economic aid he knew the US had to step in and intervene, under the assumption that if Greece and Turkey fell, then if would not be long before their neighboring nations would adopt communism as well. Harry Truman created the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to provide aid to any country that was fighting communism. He based this philosophically upon the inherent idea that the United States had an obligation to help countries resisting communist oppression. With the financial aid of the United States, Greece and Turkey were able to fight off the communist rebellions within their countries. If the United States had not supported them they would have surely fell, and communism would have spread easier and quicker throughout Europe. The Truman Doctrine in some ways made it easier for the US to fight communism all around the world however it did have its consequences. As the US became more involved in the fight against communism, it plunged deeper into debt by hundreds of millions. Furthermore, even with US support not all nations were able to fight off communismThe Berlin Blockade: The Berlin blockade was established from June 24, 1948 to May 12, 1949 bythe Soviets. The idea behind the blockade was to block the Allies railway and roadaccess to the sectors of Berlin under Western control, which would then force thewestern powers to allow the Soviets to supply Berlin with food and fuel, thereby givingthem control over the entire city. In response, the Western powers started a program called “the Berlin Airlift”to carry supplies by plane into West Berlin. In less than a year over 200,000 flights wereflown, which provided West Berlin with 13,000,000 tons of food. By April the airlift wasdelivering more cargo than had previously flowed into the city by rail and the effort washumiliating to the Soviets who had said it would be an impossible task. In the end theblockade was lifted in 1949. In the end the Berlin blockade turned out negatively for the soviets because itaccomplished two major tasks. It convinced Western leaders that the Soviets did indeedpose a threat and because of that many countries that had been on the fence aboutjoining NATO joined in order to protect themselves from the communists. Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 19
  19. 19. Other Articles STUFF THAT IS ONLY MILDLY INTERESTINGThe Berlin Wall The Berlin wall was put up in 1961 to create a border between east and West Berlin and was more than 140 kilometers (87 mi) long. The east was controlled by communist Russia, and the west was supported by the U.S. and was a democracy. Too many people were emigrating from the east into the south because they didn’t like the government in the east. The wall was put up so no one could get out of East Berlin. The east was strict and aggressive. The government starved the citizens and because many had commuted to West Berlin for work, they lost their jobs. To stop anyone who tried to run and escape to the west, guard towers were put up along the wall. These towers actually killed citizens who got too close to the wall. West Berlin citizens saw this cruelty, and protested against the wall. They also protested against the United States because the country wasn’t doing much to help East Berlin’s people. On the west side, the whole Berlin Wall was covered in graffiti and symbols in protest. Then one day, Soviet tanks rolled in on one side, and U.S. tanks rolled in on the other side at what was called checkpoint Charlie. There were many tanks just standing by for the word to attack the opposite power. If there was an attack, it would have been the start of World War III. Fortunately, both sides recognized that it would mean the end of either side, and ended up pulling the tanks out one by one. Finally, in 1989, Ronald Reagan held a negotiation with Gorbachev and they agreed to take down the Berlin wall. Once again Berlin was one city and there was much rejoicing. Sunday, March 28, 1985 pg. 20