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  1. 1. PHYSICAL FITNESS ASSESSMENT Deepali Jain M.P.T. Sports
  2. 2. Fitness and Health  The word health is often associated only with physical fitness, but there are other components of health.  FITNESS means “readiness”. Fit people are better equipped than non-fit people.  The level of fitness includes all aspects of health and life.  It affects physical, mental, and social health.
  3. 3. What is Physical Fitness?  Physical Fitness is the ability of your body systems to work efficiently.  A fit person is able to carry out the typical activities of living, such as work, and still have enough energy and vigor to respond to emergency situations and to enjoy leisure time activities.
  4. 4. Physical Activity and Exercise  Physical activity is a general term that includes sports, dance, and activities done at work or at home, such as walking, climbing stairs, or mowing the lawn.  When people do physical activity especially for the purpose of getting fit, we say they are doing exercise. Physical Fitness is the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively. It consists of Health Related Fitness and Skill Related Fitness, which have different components, each of which contributes to total quality of life
  5. 5. What is a Fitness Assessment? • A fitness assessment is a series of measurements that help determine physical fitness • It is a comprehensive assessment of health related fitness administered by professional, trained staff.
  6. 6. A fitness assessment provides a baseline measurement of • 1-cardiovascular endurance, • 2- body composition, • 3- muscular endurance, • 4-muscular strength • 5- flexibility. Fitness assessment provide an accurate measure of the current fitness and health level of an individual.
  7. 7. • Assessments are recommended prior to beginning an exercise program • These tests are often the starting point for designing an appropriate exercise program.
  8. 8. • To determine the health status and physical fitness of an individual through the assessment of the 5 components of fitness • To help develop and establish an effective fitness program • To establish goals and motivation • To evaluate progress • To identify the strengths and weaknesses in relation to the physical fitness Objectives of fitness assessments
  9. 9. The Parts of Physical Fitness  Health - Related Physical Fitness  Skill - Related Physical Fitness • It helps you stay healthy • It helps you perform well in sports and activities that require certain skills
  10. 10. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)  Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) reflects the functional capabilities of the heart, blood vessels, lungs, and skeletal muscles to perform work.  There are many different terms that have been used to describe this measure of physical fitness, including: • Maximal aerobic capacity • Functional capacity • Physical work capacity (PWC) • Cardiovascular endurance, fitness, or capacity • Cardiorespiratory endurance, fitness, or capacity • Cardiopulmonary endurance, fitness, or capacity
  11. 11. 1.Cardiovascular endurance assessment • 1-Cardio-respiratory Endurance or Resting Heart Rate: Indicator of aerobic fitness and cardiac efficiency • Cardio-respiratory endurance: the ability to perform large-muscle, dynamic exercise of moderate to high intensity for prolonged periods
  12. 12. • Cardiovascular endurance is the ability of; the heart, the blood, the blood vessels the respiratory system to provide the required oxygen and fuel to the muscles for carrying on a particular exercise for specific period of time at a steady rate Cardiovascular Endurance
  13. 13. Cardiovascular Endurance  Factors to consider  VO2 max – volume of O2 (ml O2 kg-1 min-1)  Heart rate  Blood pressure  Measures efficiency, work load and force of the heart
  14. 14. VO2 max Test  GOLD STANDARD  Treadmill  Tube  HR monitor  Cables  Stop when O2 levels plateau  Impractical
  15. 15. Maximal Oxygen Consumption test (VO2 Max) According to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), cardio-respiratory fitness is determined by oxygen consumption, technically called VO2. This is measured by how much oxygen (in milliliters) your body can use per kilogram of body weight per minute. Cardiovascular endurance assessment
  16. 16. VO2max The formulas: Male: 108.844 - [lbs./2.2 (0.1636)] – [time (1.438)] – [HR (0.1928)] Female: 100.5 - [lbs./2.2 (0.1636)] – [time (1.438)] – [HR (0.1928)] Calculating
  17. 17. • Determining appropriate maximum heart rate in a fitness assessment should also take into account blood pressure • A person with high blood pressure should be evaluated by a physician prior to proceeding with an exercise program. Cardiovascular endurance assessment
  18. 18. • Another common test in a fitness assessment is aerobic fitness. the main goal of any aerobic exercise is to provide an increased amount of oxygen to the body. • Aerobic exercise involved three specific types of exercise including; cycling, swimming, and running. • Aerobic exercise can also include skiing, jogging, running on a treadmill using an elliptical trainer, Cardiovascular endurance assessment
  19. 19. Treadmill Elliptical trainer
  20. 20. CV testing: Field Test  Beep Test  20m distance  Job/run/sprint according to the beep  Miss 1x its ok, but beat the next beep
  21. 21. 2- Muscular endurance • Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to contract without becoming exhausted • is very important for people playing sports and who have to sustain an activity for long periods of time.
  22. 22. Muscular endurance is assessed by counting the maximum number of repetitions of a muscular contraction a person can perform to fatigue (Repetition Maximum Testing 1 RM) The term used to describe the maximal amount of weight that can be lifted with one contraction is called the repetition maximum (RM). The 1-RM is typically considered the gold standard measure of muscular strength Muscular endurance
  23. 23. Muscular Endurance  Push-up test  Max of push-ups  Sit-up test  1min for Max  Wall Sit  Max squat along wall
  24. 24. YMCA Submaximal Bench Press Test  This test provides a standardized method to quantify muscular endurance using the bench press exercise.
  25. 25. Muscular endurance  Requires Max testing  Squats and bench press  Very unsafe for inexperienced individuals  Typical Tests:  Vertical jump  Leg press  Handgrip dynamometers
  26. 26. 3: Flexibility
  27. 27. 3- Flexibility test The capacity of the joints to move through a full range of motion; • the ability to bend and recover without injury • Flexibility is an important component of fitness and physical performance • Evaluates flexibility of lower back and posterior leg muscles
  28. 28.  Similar to the HRPF assessment of muscular endurance, there is no one single measurement that provides an overall measurement of flexibility.  Fortunately, goniometer assessments are quite feasible
  29. 29. Goniometers & Inclinometers Goniometers are used to test and measure the flexibility of a joint. Small joint goniometers are used for fingers and toes while larger goniomters are for measuring range of motion in large extrimities like the arms, shoulders or legs. The Baseline Bubble Inclinometer accurately measures complete range of motion. Flexibility test
  30. 30. DISTANCE TESTS FOR ASSESSMENT OF FLEXIBILITY  Sit and reach (hamstrings)  Measures hamstring flexibility  Legs out straight  Reach as far as you can  Zipper test (shoulders)  One hand over head  One hand around back
  31. 31. 4-Body Composition Assessment Body composition is the study of the components of the body and their relative proportions. From a health-related physical fitness (HRPF) assessment point of view, body composition is defined as the relative proportions of fat and fat-free tissue in the body, typically expressed as a total body fat percentage.
  32. 32. 4-Body Composition Assessment The evaluation of body composition can be done through measure of the two-component (fat and fat- free mass) assess by;- • Height & Weight (Body Mass Index) • Skin folds, • Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), • Hydrostatic weighing • Circumference Measurements • Waist Girth & Waist-to-Hip Ratio
  33. 33. Body Composition Hydrostatic weighing: Because it’s based on the Archimedes principle of fluid displacement, this method is often called underwater weighing. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) has called it the gold standard because of its high accuracy. People are submerged under water and weighed
  34. 34. Body Composition: DEXA Scan The dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a body composition test. It’s a fast, relatively noninvasive technique that can measure bone density for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, whole-body composition and regional composition.
  35. 35.  Body Mass Index (BMI) •  Distribution of mass based on your height  Waist to hip ratio  Circumference of waist versus the hips  Shows the distribution of fat  Sum of skin folds  Shows where fat is stored around the body
  36. 36. Body Mass Index  Body Mass Index (BMI = kg/m2)  Compares your mass to your height  Not accurate for “athletic” individuals
  37. 37. Skin-fold test • Skinfold measurements can be used to estimate body fat percentage based on the assumption that the amount of subcutaneous fat in a particular skinfold is proportional to the total amount of overall body fat. • At first glance, pinching a fold of skin and applying a set of calipers to measure the distance appears to be a simple skill. However, consistently obtaining accurate skinfold measurements requires a good- quality skinfold caliper, specific training, and a significant amount of practice.
  38. 38. 5-Muscular Strength test • Muscle strength: the ability of muscles to work against resistance • Muscular Strength; tests muscular strength of the upper body, (Push Up Strength Test)
  39. 39. Skill - Related Physical Fitness  Different sports require different parts of skill -related fitness.  Many sports require several parts. For example, a skater might have good agility, but may not posses good power.  Some people have more natural ability in skill areas than others.  Good health does not come from being good in skill-related fitness.
  40. 40. Agility • Agility is the ability to change the position of your body quickly and to control body’s movements. People with good agility are most likely to be good at activities such as: diving, soccer, ice skating, wrestling, etc.
  41. 41. Balance • Balance is the ability to keep an upright posture while standing still or moving. People with good balance are most likely to be good in activities such as gymnastics, ice skating, rhythmic gymnastics, ski- jumping, surfing, etc.
  42. 42. Power • Power is the ability to use strength and speed. People with good power might have the ability to put the shot, throw the discus, high jump, play football, speed swim, speed skate, etc.
  43. 43. Coordination  Coordination is the integration of hand and/or foot movements with the input of the senses  Examples of activities that require coordination include: • CrossFit • Group fitness classes (i.e., Zumba, Body Pump, Body Attack, Bootcamp) • Baseball • Basketball • Golf • Jumping rope • Martial arts (i.e., karate, judo, taekwondo) • Skiing/Snowboarding
  44. 44. Reaction Time • Reaction time is the amount of time it takes to move once you realize the need to act. People with good reaction time are able to make fast starts in track or swimming, or to dodge a fast attack in fencing or karate.
  45. 45. Speed Speed is the ability to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time. People with leg speed can run fast, while people with good arm speed can throw fast or hit a ball that is thrown fast.
  46. 46. THANKYOU