APPH 1050 Ch 4 and 5 strength training and flexibility


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  • – HPER 6720
  • Good: body in alignmentHolding positions placing least amount of strain on supporting muscles/ligaments of jointBad: body out of alignmentHolding positions stretching muscles on one side of joint, while shortening them on other sideOver time leads to pain/joint damage
  • – Studio 10 Pure Barre
  • APPH 1050 Ch 4 and 5 strength training and flexibility

    1. 1. Chapter 4: Strength Training Email: Reminder: Part I Ex. Program Due Fri Feb 21 **Office Hours: Tue 11:30 – 1:00**
    2. 2. Learning Objectives • • • • • • • • • Explain the benefits of developing muscular strength and endurance Describe how muscles contract Distinguish between the muscle fiber types Classify the types of muscular contractions Identify the changes that occur in response to strength training List the factors that determine muscle strength and endurance Outline the principles used in designing a strength and endurance program Distinguish between the types of training programs Design a program for improving strength and endurance
    3. 3. Strength Training in Daily Living • • • • Reduces joint and/or muscle injuries Reduces low back pain and age-related decreases in strength Helps prevent osteoporosis Increases resting energy expenditure
    4. 4. Muscle Structure and Function Primary function: provide force for movement, maintain posture, and regulate temperature As they shorten or lengthen, movement occurs Motor Unit: Motor nerves and the muscles it innervates
    5. 5. Types of Muscle Contractions Important Prefixes/Terminology for Muscle Contraction: -Iso = same -Metric = movement -Kinetic = velocity -Tonic = tension Isotonic -Same tension -Most exercises and sports Isokinetic -Same velocity Isometric -no movement - Useful in rehab
    6. 6. Major Muscles of the Body Quadriceps
    7. 7. Positive Work Shortening against gravity Negative Work Lengthening against gravity
    8. 8. Agonist vs. Antagonist & Muscle Balance Agonist: Muscle which causes movement stemming from contraction Antagonist: Acts opposite of agonist
    10. 10. Muscle Fiber Types Fiber Type Force Generation Fatigue Slow (Type I) Slow and minimal Very Resistant Fast (Type IIb) Fast and Great Very Little Intermediate (Type IIa) Fast and Great Resistant - Mostly genetically determined - What are differences in elite endurance runners vs. elite sprinters? - Some transient fiber type conversion with specific training
    11. 11. Fiber Recruitment Recruitment Principle 1: More muscle fibers = increased muscle force Recruitment Principle 2: Slower muscles recruited before faster muscles
    12. 12. Adaptations to Strength Training Hypertrophy – Increase in muscle fiber size Hyperplasia – Increase in muscle fiber number - Very minimal; does not contribute to adaptations Muscle Fiber Recruitment Steroid Use Strength Hypertrophy Increase in muscle innervation Time
    13. 13. Endurance Training and Muscle Changes Trappe et al. 2006 J Appl Physiol Fiber Type Pre-Training % Post-Training % Type I 48% 57% Type IIa 30% 30% Hybrids 22% 13% Take Home: -With 16wk endurance training, there was an INCREASE in TYPE I fibers, a DECREASE in Hybrids, and NO CHANGE in Type IIa. -The Type I fibers also DECREASED in SIZE but INCREASED in FORCE Muscles change with any type of training
    14. 14. Rate of Improvement -Depends on initial strength level -Rapid strength gains in relatively untrained beginners -More gradual gains in trained people with high levels of strength Gender Differences -Little difference in initial responses to strength training -After long-term training, men show greater gains due to higher testosterone levels -Women DO NOT exhibit bulky muscles
    15. 15. Safety Concerns •Use spotters •Don't drop weights •Always warm up •Breathe during exercises •Use slow movements •Start with light weights and work up gradually
    16. 16. Chapter 5 FLEXIBILITY
    17. 17. Learning Objectives • • • • Discuss the value of flexibility Identify the structural and physiological limits to flexibility Describe the three categories of stretching techniques Design a flexibility exercise program
    18. 18. Benefits of Flexibility -Increased joint mobility -More efficient body movement -Better posture -Prevents lower back pain -hypokinetic disease
    19. 19. Structural Limitations of Movement 1. The shape of the bones 2. Stiffness of the muscle 3. The connective tissue within the joint capsule 4. Tendons (connect muscle to bone) 5. Tight skin
    20. 20. Benefits of Good Posture Minimize: - Joint Wear and arthritis - Spine Alignment Stress -Spine nerve stress -Muscle fatigue and pain -Overuse problems and strains Contributes to good appearance
    21. 21. Evaluating Flexibility Flexibility is joint specific Sit and Reach Test: -Measures ability to flex the trunk -Focuses on lower back muscles & hamstrings Shoulder Flexibility Test -Measures range of motion at the shoulder
    22. 22. Improving Flexibility Dynamic Stretching • Goal is to prepare body to exercise • Conducted prior to exercise and highly recommended • Fluid, controlled motion of joint through full ROM • Increases blood flow to muscles/joints • Increases neuromuscular activity between CNS and PNS Ballistic Stretching • Rapid, forceful, bouncing movements • More likely to cause injury and thus not recommended Static Stretching • Goal is to increase flexibility and recover from exercise • Most effective method to increase flexibility at end of exercise, not prior to exercise • Slow lengthening of muscles, held for fixed periods
    23. 23. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Series of motions combining stretching with contraction and relaxation of muscles -relies on contract-relax (CR) and contract-relax/antagonist contract (CRAC) stretching **PNF and Static stretching should not be completed BEFORE a muscular strength or muscular endurance exercise session**
    24. 24. Applying the FITT Principle to a Flexibility Exercise Prescription • Prescription will vary depending on initial flexibility level • Exercises should be static or PNF stretches • Recommended sample program might include the following Starter Phase • Frequency: 1 session • Intensity: 5-minute session/hold for 15 seconds/mild discomfort • Time/duration: 1 week Slow Progression phase • Frequency: 2–5 sessions per week/add one session per week • Intensity: 10–30-minute sessions/hold for 20–30 seconds (add 5 seconds per week)/mild discomfort • Time/duration: 6–12 weeks Maintenance Phase • Frequency: 4–5 sessions per week • Intensity: 30-minute sessions/hold stretches up to 30 seconds • Time/duration: start after about week 7 depending on progress
    25. 25. Avoid Stretching Injuries
    26. 26. Sample Exercise Prescription for Flexibility: Beginner
    27. 27. Sample Exercise Prescription for Flexibility: Intermediate
    28. 28. Sample Exercise Prescription for Flexibility: Advanced
    29. 29. Maintaining Flexibility • • • • • • Make a commitment to regular stretching Use time management Set aside time for 3–5 sessions per week Stick to your schedule Build in stretches during everyday activities Make it fun: listen to music, watch TV while stretching
    30. 30. Exercise Myth #1: Barre Workout • Question: Will a concentrated effort towards “small movements” actually make a difference? “Experience a class”
    31. 31. Overload and Specificity Applied to Strength Training 1)Resistance 2)Sets x Repetitions
    32. 32. Muscle Architecture Convergent (Fan Shaped) Muscle: Attachment is wider than point of insertion (i.e. Pectoralis Major) Pennate Muscle: Muscle has diagonal fibers in relation to tendon (i.e. rectus femoris) Parallel Muscle: Muscle fibers run parallel to each other (i.e. Biceps)
    33. 33. Muscle Architecture 90 degree angle 30 degree angle Most overall activity of pectoralis muscle Most overall activity of upper part of pectoralis muscle 140 degree angle Most overall activity of lower part of pectoralis muscle