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Student Halls Project

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Student Halls Project

  1. 1. 2nd Year Design Project Halls Of Residence Module Code ENG2306MGroup 6 Matt Wilson – UB 14022070 Mobien Akhtar – UB 14026710 Saleh Alorani – UB 12014696 Shamraiz Ashfaq – UB 11035645 Stuart Andrews –UB 13025688 Tabish Naveed – UB 12009206 BRADFORD UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OFENGINEERING
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0-Executive Statement...................................................................................................4 1.1-Summary ................................................................................................................... 4 2.0-Introduction ........................................................................................................... 5 2.1-Design Brief............................................................................................................ 5 2.2-Preliminary Site Investigation................................................................................... 6 2.3-Further Site Investigation ........................................................................................ 7 2.4-Desktop Study......................................................................................................... 7 2.5-Site Visit................................................................................................................. 9 2.6-Ground Investigation............................................................................................. 10 3.0-Planning................................................................................................................... 11 3.1-Introduction ......................................................................................................... 11 3.2-Project Plan .......................................................................................................... 11 3.3-Project Planning table........................................................................................... 13 3.3-Design.................................................................................................................. 14 4.0-Concept.................................................................................................................... 15 4.1-Architecture.......................................................................................................... 15 4.1.1-Arkwright House............................................................................................. 16 4.1.2-Commercial Viability....................................................................................... 16 4.2-Summary of design goals:...................................................................................... 17 4.3-Initial Concept sketches......................................................................................... 18 4.4-Concept 2............................................................................................................. 19 4.5-Concept 3............................................................................................................. 20 4.6-Concept 4............................................................................................................. 21 4.7-Final Design Decision: Concept 4............................................................................ 22 5.0-Floor Plan................................................................................................................. 23 5.1-Site Plan ............................................................................................................... 24 5.2-Structural Design ...................................................................................................... 24 5.3-Structural Calculations for Steel Framed Design...................................................... 27 6.0-Interior Layout.......................................................................................................... 34 6.1-Furnished Ground Plan.......................................................................................... 34 6.2-3D Model ............................................................................................................. 35 6.2-Interior Renders.................................................................................................... 38 7.0-Construction............................................................................................................. 43 7.1- Construction Plan Timescale................................................................................. 44
  3. 3. 7.2.1-Construction Phase Plan.................................................................................. 47 7.2.2-Welfare and Storage Facilities.......................................................................... 48 7.3-Method Statement................................................................................................ 48 7.3.1-Foundation Method Statement ....................................................................... 49 7.3.2-Timber Frame Method Statement.................................................................... 52 8.0-Foundation .............................................................................................................. 56 8.1-Introduction ......................................................................................................... 56 8.2-Foundation Calculations ....................................................................................... 58 8.2.3-Method 1....................................................................................................... 58 8.3-Method 2 ............................................................................................................. 63 9.0-Sustainability .......................................................................................................... 64 9.1-Introduction ......................................................................................................... 64 9.2-Definition............................................................................................................. 64 9.3-BREEAM ............................................................................................................... 65 9.4-CHP (Combined Heat and Power) .......................................................................... 65 9.5-Solar panels.......................................................................................................... 67 9.6-Rain Harvesting..................................................................................................... 67 9.7-U-values .............................................................................................................. 68 9.8-Solar Chimney....................................................................................................... 69 10.0-Construction materials ........................................................................................... 70 10.1-Timber Frame ..................................................................................................... 70 10.2-Timber Flooring & CLadding................................................................................. 70 10.3-Concrete ........................................................................................................... 71 10.4-Masonry ........................................................................................................... 73 10.5-Steel................................................................................................................... 73 10.6-Metal roof .......................................................................................................... 74 10.7-Material Costs..................................................................................................... 75 11.0-References ............................................................................................................. 76
  4. 4. 4 1.0-EXECUTIVE STATEMENT This report contains information on the project schedule, building systems,pricing, client information, project delivery system and method statement. The new student accommodation on the university campus will have accommodate 20 students and will lead to a better quality student learning experience with an emphasis on own personal areas. By using a sustainable and environmental friendly timber frame in the hopes of driving down construction cost, the new student accommodation will be built under budget and delivered within a year. Each bedroom contains a second level to provide a personal are for the student. Dining and kitchen areas will be provided in a communal area for socialising with other residents. The actual Building is being built in accordance with the university’s sustainable development plans with an emphasis on sustainable energy sources CHP systems and solar panels. The facility is being built to enhance student experience with an idea of own personal space and should be scheduled to be built in 1 year and should be open for 2017-2018 academic year. 1.1-SUMMARY 1 The aim of this project, was to design a halls of residence from ideas to a fully designed building with structural calculations to back up the integrity of the structure. Once having an idea of the brief provided by the client, ideas can be passed around for different ways to achieve what the client is looking for. This will bring about the making of different sketches, which will be developed into the concept design once a specific design idea has been approved by everyone. The client is looking for a halls of residence that has a minimum of 20 rooms per floor, which should also have the welfare facilities to accommodate. The client has also requested that the building have a maximum height of 16m and we are able to accommodate the building around the site investigation, which gives an outline of the depths of the material. Since sustainability is high on the agenda throughout the University of Bradford campus, proof that our building will fit the principles of sustainability is a must, especially as the Green campus is highly sustainable. Timescale of the construction of any building is highly important, so, planning ahead will greatly reduce risks, this will be shown by the creation of a construction phase plan and a method statement. The best way to show timescale in construction, is a Gantt chart. To also show professionalism, a 3D design model will be incorporated into the project, as well as structural design, building layout and floor plans, having a 3D model can really help the client see the ideas that are being put forward. 3D modelling is mainly used in the construction industry, especially now that BIM is being incorporated into the design of every building/structure. 1 Shamraiz& Matt
  5. 5. 5 2.0-Introduction2 Due to a higher demand for students to come to the University of Bradford, the university wants to expand on their student accommodation. Availability of good quality and affordable accommodation is important to attract students from outside the immediate area and is an additional source of income for the university. Privately owned student halls and shared housing are readily available in the area surrounding the University Campus, of varying price and quality. Providing good quality accommodation that offers value for money has allowed the University’s own developments to compete with local companies and private landlords The University have recently constructed the Green, which is situated on the North East of the University campus, but still wanting to expand, they have requested to build another halls of residence along Richmond Road, where the ice cream factory used to be. It is important that this new development meets the high standards of sustainability and student lifestyle that The Green has become so well known for. Some additional factors must be considered during the planning of the new building:  Site location: The location of the site is positioned very near the University campus and severallocal businesses including a technology park. The surrounding roads are relatively small and there is a high volume of pedestrian and road traffic in this area, especially during term time. Careful consideration should be given to Health and Safety during the construction of the new building as well as disruption to University activities and parking. Due to the small area of the site, the location of the welfare facilities, storage and offices locations will have to be assessed.  Ground Conditions: The ground conditions of the site are quite soft, especially due to the fact that from 1-3m deep is alluvium soil. Alluvium soil is loose unconsolidated soil or sediments. Alluvium soil is formed by the reshaping and eroding of water which is then redeposited in a non-marine area. This means that cost effective foundations will have to be carefully considered. 2.1-DESIGN BRIEF A short design brief has been supplied for the project:  Student accommodation suited on the university campus, comprising of student bedrooms, storerooms, study/dining room.  Each floor has to have a minimum of 20 bedrooms per floor level. Other facilities such as storage,kitchen, dining, study, common room should also be provided on each floor level. The land area of the building is 60m x 15m at the location shown in figure 1.0.  Columns are not permitted within any bedrooms, or other including common areas  16m is the maximum height of the overall building and each floor is to have a height of 2.6m from floor to ceiling. There should also be a 150mm raised floor void required for services. The total area of the site is 900m2 , which should be fully utilized to be able to meet the requirements of the design brief. Figure 1.0 shows that the building has to be a simple 2 Matt
  6. 6. 6 rectangular shape,which puts constraints on the architectural side of the design. Innovative use of the internal space would be required to make the most of the site while staying within the requirements of the brief. Figure 1.0-Proposed area of site 2.2-PRELIMINARY SITE INVESTIGATION3 The design brief, included a preliminary investigation of the site. This allowed the possibility to make predictions for foundations and a timescale for groundwork. Figure 1.1 shows the depths of the different soils within the site, it clearly shows that the top layer; top soil, is found to a depth of 1m. After top soil, alluvial deposits occur to a depth from 1m – 3m; as mentioned in the summary, alluvium is a soft river based soil, which could cause a few constraints in the latter part of this project, there are many possible approaches if alluvium becomes an obstacle. From a depth of 3m – 8m sand and gravel follows, this material is much more versatile due to its properties, and could be used to support the foundations if the Alluvium proved too weak for the weight of the building. The layer of clay is quite deep at a depth of 8m, but its firmness will become a great benefit if pile foundations are needed for our building. The site investigation also mentioned that water was found at a depth of 4m. 3 Matt
  7. 7. 7 Our first course of action based on the preliminary information was to seek some professional advice from a geo-technical professional, Simon Tyrell, who advised us on the limitations of the ground to support larger steel structures. See Appendix 2 1 2 5 Clay 8m and below Sand + gravel Alluvial Deposit Top Soil Figure 1.1-Site Investigation Material Depths Diagram4 2.3-FURTHER SITE INVESTIGATION5 A site investigation is carried out before construction to gather information and to assess whether ground conditions are suitable for the proposed development. This goes on to assist both the design elements of a project and construction phase of the said project; for instance the effect of ground water conditions to the construction phase of a certain design. A site investigation is then a very important aspect of a design project, as it helps to identify the suitability of a site to a design therefore saving both time and money if a project is not suitable for it. In our design project our site investigation consisted of 3 stages; desktop study, site visit and ground investigation 2.4-DESKTOP STUDY6 The desktop study was the first stage and one of the key part of the site investigation as it enabled us to gather information on the location, topography and history of the site. Using 4 Matt 5 Shamraiz 6 Shamraiz Figure 1: Aerial Viewof the site highlighted inred Figure 2: Aerial View of the site highlighted ingreenin1938.
  8. 8. 8 tools such as google maps we were able to analyse our site from an aerial view and gather knowledge on the current state of our site. From the elevated view (Figure 1.3) we were able to see observe the site had a warehouse situated in the centre of the site and was located next to road and was also accessible from the private university entrance. Also accessing historical maps abled to see the site had previously had a building on it in 1938 (Figure 1.4) therefore we were able to assume that the ground had some previous excavation, and also that the present warehouse may be situated on top of the old foundation. Also using a geology map (Figure 1.5), rough information on the type of soil conditions that is apparent on site such as alluvium deposits and bedrock geology. Figures 1.3 & 1.4-Elevated view and Historical map Figure 1.5- Geology of the site marked in red
  9. 9. 9 2.5-SITE VISIT7 The site visit was a key aspect of the site investigation as it gave an insight on current site condition which was not available from information gathered from the desktop study. The site visit allows the team to confirm decisions on the design of the project, accessibility, and demolition of the site. Figure 1.6- View of the site The site visit allowed (Figure 1.6) us to confirm final decisions of the design which may have been susceptible to change. For example, due to our design having an emphasis on the use of the sun as a natural light source,to maximise the exposure of the building to the sun we orientated the building so forth. However an unexpected circumstance that can only be acknowledged from a site visit, such as the shadows of nearby trees or building, may have had an impact on the design of our building so our design would have to adjust accordingly. This demonstrates how a simple act of visiting the site discloses key information that can have an effect on the design of a project. The site visit also allowed us to approve how we would access the site when construction commenced. With the site nearby the road, a decision was made that there wouldn’t be a need to construct an alternative access point as the site was not an isolated area. However due to the narrow nature of the roads precautions would have to be made to allow the access of heavy duty vehicles to the site. Also a decision was made to store the construction materials needed for the site nearby the site on university premises to allow easy accessibility for workers. From the site visit an idea was made on what would be needed to be demolished would have to be dealt before and in construction. With the site having an industrial warehouse, proceedings would have to be made to demolish the building and surrounding fencing before construction could be done. Also the industrial warehouse foundations would have to be excavated due to the lack of documentation of the foundation used and what effect time has had on the foundation. 7 Shamraiz
  10. 10. 10 2.6-GROUND INVESTIGATION8 Once the desktop study and site visit stages were completed it was time to analyze internal site conditions. Analyzing the ground conditions of a site ultimately decides the suitability, constraints and what foundations can be applicable to a site. A ground investigation typically includes geology and an analysis of any contamination of the land. To gain information of the geology of the site, boreholes would be drilled on the site to extract a soil sample. The sample extracted by said bores would be analyzed by external labs and processed into information that engineers can analyze and use to calculate the ultimate bearing capacity of the groundwork. Also boreholes can uncover the presence of water in the soil that may affect the physical properties of the soil therefore saving time and money in the long-term. From the borehole analysis we were able to categorize the soil layers and properties (figure 1.7). Figure 1.7- Soil Analysis of site Being aware of the site previous uses a strategy can be completed on what contamination would have to be dealt before and whilst constructing the project. Depending on previous usage of the site land can be contaminated by heavy metals (e.g. lead), chemical substances, gases,asbestos,or radioactive substance. From the information that was uncovered by the desktop study, the site has been occupied by a building since the early 19th century and due to the fact that neighbouring buildings have an industrial background we have to assume that there has been some form of contamination. Due to this we have to take precautions and test the ground for any seepage that may have taken place overtime. 8 Shamraiz
  11. 11. 11 3.0-PLANNING9 3.1-INTRODUCTION When starting any project, planning is a vital to ensure the project is runs to schedule and to keep up to date on tasks. It also shows others the start dates for task, the duration, who is assigned to which particular task and when it needs to be finished. ‘Productivity is never an accident. It is always the result of a commitment to excellence, intelligent planning, and focused effort.’ By PaulJ. Meyer Committing to a plan can result in higher productivity to the project, functionality can increase,as well as morale; as stated in the quote above by Paul J Meyer. A true project manager can produce a realistic schedule and plan, whilst also having back-ups in case any unnecessary circumstances delay certain tasks. For any big contracts and projects (like the construction and design of a halls of residence) they will need a good plan to designate task to push the project forward at a reasonable pace, while also achieving the best practicality for workers. Communication between departments is also a crucial part of reducing risk in any project. This does depend on what stage the project is at; for example, at the beginning the client and architect must work together to be able to create what the client is looking for. The next step is to select a method of procurement, this will be completed by the client and construction manager, with which they will compose a strategy which will fit the long term objective of the project, which includes; speed, cost, quality, specific project constraints, risk, asset ownership and financing. 3.2-PROJECTPLAN For the beginning of this project, a plan for getting the project started was needed. First of all, someone was required to take control of the planning to get others that would be less willing; or even not sure what to do, directed into their specific tasks. Also when commencing a new project, persons that may have never worked together before, will need to get to know each other, this can help them by getting the best out of each other’s strengths, while also helping out on the group weaknesses. The best way to start off any project is research. This allows everyone to work together and discuss what they have found and bring their own ideas to the table. Research is normally a long period that can carry on for long durations of time throughout the design stage,this is because of the ever evolving design of the building, resulting in more research of certain ideas, which will need to be backed up to be pushed through the group. This has happened many times during the project and will continue till the concept design has started. The plan for this project had 12 stages,starting off with research,which then proceeds to architectural and structural design. To ensure that everyone is fully aware of the evolving plan, an updated schedule with a checklist is sent to every member at the end of each week. 9 Matt
  12. 12. 12 This allows every member to see the progress of the project and shows if the project is falling behind schedule.
  13. 13. 13 3.3-PROJECTPLANNING TABLE Task Assigned Checklist Date Start Date Finished Set Days Predecessors Duration Research Everyone Finished 18/01/16 17/02/16 31 23d Main Building Sketches Stuart Finished 24/01/16 29/01/16 7 6d Final Building Discussion Everyone Finished 01/02/16 01/02/16 2 2 1d Design Stuart, Saleh and Tabish 02/02/16 12/02/16 12 3 9d Structural Design Stuart and Matt 04/02/16 11/02/16 8 6d 3D Design (Revit) Mobien and Shamraiz 07/02/16 17/02/16 11 9d Applied Load Equations Matt, Tabish and Mobien 18/02/16 19/02/16 4 6 2d Soil Equations Saleh and Shamraiz 18/02/16 18/02/16 1 1d Foundation Design Stuart, Saleh and Shamraiz 22/02/16 23/02/16 4 7, 8 2d Landscape Design Matt, Shamraiz and Mobien 24/02/16 24/02/16 1 9 1d Presentation Everyone 25/02/16 02/03/16 7 10 5d Individual Reports Everyone 01/03/16 14/03/16 14 10d
  14. 14. 14 3.3-DESIGN10 Design stage is a phase in the project where the development of the design brief given by the client, becomes a more detailed specification. The detailed specification is to allocate the requirements into in fully implemented model to satisfy the client. There are different stages which evolves from the original sketch while defining the specification. Architectural design takes the client’s design brief, and makes an adapted model with floors plans for an artistic approach to please the client, while also putting the model within its proposed scenario. The architect also proposes some of the building materials, for example the roof, internal and external walls, this is so the architect can work out the U-values of the building; which becomes important for sustainability. The architect has a major role in the design stage, the role of the model is just one part of their contribution. Once the rough sketches are approved by the client, the architect refines the drawing to a more detailed design, this involves the structure, ventilation, plumping and electrical. This allows the architect to apply for permit and budget marketing. The detailed/concept design allows for the structural, mechanical and electrical engineers to create their side of the building drawings. For engineers to work efficiently, communication has to be developed between each faction, especially due to them not normally being in the same companies. The structural engineer creates a structure that will support the building, while also keeping with the clients and architects brief, yet sometimes, compromises have to been made between the two for structure stability or the building’s aestheticism. These drawings have to be very detailed, enough that a contractor will be able to build from them, one of the reasons why all parties should keep in communications and have regular meetings (normally a monthly bases). Finally the architect has to create documentation, a budget and financing of the project. For financing, the architect has to compare the estimated project’s expenses so far,with the actual cost to makes sure that they reflect each other, while also estimating any future costs including any risk factor that may cost extra. The budget is the amount of the overall cost of the project with risk assessment incorporated, similar to the financing process. The documentation of the project is making sure that none of the paperwork has not been missed out, which is one of the reasons why BIM is being made a necessity with any project. Some of these documents have been made by the quantity surveyor, which will be bills for quantities from the materials, production and other construction needs the architect had compiled. One of the most important is contracts,these are very important documentations, which shows that all contractors have agreed to perform a certain job to a standard; while also keeping with the vision of the project and fines are implemented if contractors do not live up to the contracts obligations. 10 Matt
  15. 15. 15 4.0-CONCEPT11 4.1-ARCHITECTURE Bradford University campus includes many modern, sustainable developments that influenced our design concepts. The Green: ‘The Green’ is a purpose built student village which provides accommodation for over 1000 students in a sociable environment. Most notably, it is one of the most sustainable developments of its kind in the world and the first halls of residence in the UK to achieve a BREEAM accolade of ‘outstanding’. Our aim was to design a new building which would achieve a similar standard. (Bradford.ac.uk, 2016)1.7-1.7-1.7- Figure 1.8-Re:Centre The Re:Centre is one of the most visually striking buildings on campus, with a large glass front, exposed wooden beams and contrasting white and wooden cladding. It is also built with sustainability in mind, with an innovative approach to energy management, air flow and heating. (Bradford.ac.uk,2016) 11 Stuart
  16. 16. 16 4.1.1-Arkwright House Figures 1.9-1.12-Arkwright House This private development on the edge of the campus offers a more luxurious option for student living. It offers more privacy then other student accommodation, with 2 to 6 students sharing a flat, but also provides spacious social areas. (Prodigy Living, 2016) 4.1.2-Commercial Viability Bradford University offers some of the cheapest student accommodation in the country. To be commercially successful, the final design would need to be cheap to build, economical to run, and either offer many low priced rooms, or a smaller number of “luxury” rooms that could attract a higher rental price.
  17. 17. 17 4.2-SUMMARYOF DESIGN GOALS:12  Sustainable & Green Design to achieve BREEAM accolade of“outstanding”  Compliment modern campus architecture.  Commercially Viable.  Offer something Different/Unique.  Privacy and personal space,integrated within a social environment. 12 Stuart
  18. 18. 18 4.3-INITIAL CONCEPTSKETCHES13 Our initial concept sketches can be seen in the project notebook (see appendix). These ideas were condensed into 4 main conceptual designs. Concept 1:14 Figure 1.13- Design 1 The initial design took elements of existing campus buildings such as the green and Arkwright House. It offers 60 en-suite rooms over 3 floors, linked by a glass stairwell front and rear. Each floor would have a shared kitchen and living space,which would look out over an indoor garden area at the southern end of the building. Roof mounted solar panels would be used for water heating. There is an area allocated for a small number of parking spaces or a secure bike storage. 13 Stuart 14 Stuart
  19. 19. 19 The design was later rejected due to the long hallways which may feel crowded when shared between 20 rooms and would require people living at the northern end of the building to walk up to 40m to reach the kitchen. 4.4-CONCEPT 215 Figure 1.14-Design 2 The second design split the building into two separate blocks with a connecting bridge between them. Each block provides 10 rooms, a kitchen and living area per floor, providing a total of 60 rooms. Dividing the building in this way would slightly reduce the room size and increase construction cost, but the facilities would be shared between fewer people and would feel less crowded. The green wall cladding and glass stairwells compliment the other halls of residence nearby and the roof space could again be used for green features such as solar panels and rainwater collection. Balconies on every floor would give residents an outdoor/garden space without taking up a large area of land. 15 Stuart
  20. 20. 20 4.5-CONCEPT 316 Figure 1.15-Design 3 Our third option was a centralized living area and kitchens which surrounded an internal courtyard. 60 rooms are spread over 3 floors. Each corridor of 10 rooms would have its own kitchen and living space. The courtyard and surrounding balconies connect the living areas on each floor and give a sense of community and allow plenty of natural light into the center of the building. 16 Stuart
  21. 21. 21 4.6-CONCEPT 417 Figure 1.16-Design 4 Our geo-technical research highlighted that a tall steel& concrete structure may require significant ground work and expensive piling foundations. This design moved away from the conventional multistory design, in favour of 4 linked ‘barns’, each housing 5 student rooms and an open plan kitchen and living space. Each of the 20 rooms would consist of a bedroom and en-suite, with a study room above it which opened out onto a small balcony area. This provides the residents with ample privacy and a comfortable living space,with a large social area and outdoor areas. The parking facilities included in previous designs were removed in favour of maximizing room sizes and living areas. 17 Stuart
  22. 22. 22 4.7-FINAL DESIGN DECISION:CONCEPT 418 Concept 4 was chosen as the design which most closely met the design goals. A timber frame building provided severaladvantages. It would significantly reduce the cost of construction and provided a much lighter design that could be built on simple pad foundations, avoiding the need for expensive groundworks. A timber framed building would also be substantially quicker to build which would minimize disruption around the campus, and start generating an income sooner. Sustainable materials would be used throughout the building which also provides excellent u values, making the building energy efficient and keeping running costs low. Numerous green design features would be included, such as roof mounted solar panels for water heating, rain water recycling, a CHP system and innovative ventilation. A combination of wooden cladding and white rendered walls, with large glazed sections across the front of the building complements other buildings on campus. The unique room layout offers privacy and personal space within a social community environment, offering residents their own apartment instead of the standard cramped rooms of other accommodation. An alternative design was also proposed which used a steelframe and concrete flooring. 18 Stuart
  23. 23. 23 5.0-FLOOR PLAN19 19 Stuart
  24. 24. 24 5.1-SITE PLAN20 (Google.co.uk, 2016) 20 Stuart
  25. 25. 25 5.2-Structural Design21 Figure 1.17-Plan view showing pad foundation placement (undereach column) Figure 1.18-Front view of the structural elements with the pad foundations showing 21 Tabish
  26. 26. 26 Figure 1.19 & 1.20-Front and Rear viewof structural members22 22 Tabish
  27. 27. 27 5.3-STRUCTURAL CALCULATIONS FOR STEEL FRAMED DESIGN23 23 Mobien
  28. 28. 28 24 24 Mobien
  29. 29. 29 25 25 Mobien
  30. 30. 30 26 26 Mobien
  31. 31. 31 27 27 Tabish
  32. 32. 32 28 28 Tabish
  33. 33. 33 29 29 Tabish
  34. 34. 34 6.0-INTERIOR LAYOUT30 6.1-FURNISHEDGROUND PLAN Figure 1.21-Ground plan The full model can also be found at http://www.homestyler.com/userprofile/stuart-andrews/floorplan-designs 30 Stuart
  35. 35. 35 6.2-3D MODEL31 Figure 1.22-Bedroom 31 Stuart
  36. 36. 36 Figure1.23-Study32 32 Stuart
  37. 37. 37 Figure 1.24-Living Area 33 33 Stuart
  38. 38. 38 6.2-INTERIORRENDERS34 Figure 1.25-Living area viewed from entrance 34 Stuart
  39. 39. 39 Figure 1.26-Breakfast Bar & Kitchen 35 35 Stuart
  40. 40. 40 Figure 1.27-Lounge 36 36 Stuart
  41. 41. 41 Figure 1.28-Bedroom 37 37 Stuart
  42. 42. 42 Figure 1.29-Study38 38 Stuart
  43. 43. 43 7.0-CONSTRUCTION39 Construction stage is where all the pre-construction planning time and effort is put into reality, all operations are now on-site and left to the site management which comprises of the site and project manager, who keep the project going. But they still have regular meetings with other parties, such as the architect, structural engineer, client and other major contractors, to make sure the project is going as scheduled. A timescale to know how long the construction stage will take is essential, this is done by breaking down the work and defining a scale to those particular operations, this is done in order in which the construction will take. Due to some operations starting before some jobs are finished; such as internal work, these can be separated into different timelines to stop any confusion. The timescale for the operations can help the planning and keep the project on track, this is important due to the fact that all construction runs over time, it gives the managers a visualization of how the project is scheduled, just like a PERT diagram. A PERT diagram is normally used for smaller projects, but it’s a good way of breaking down and giving an understanding of critical operations and path, while also offering an average time frame. A construction plan was created for this project to show the direction the construction is going and the amount of planning put in, up to this point. Section 8.1 shows this process. Due to how big the project are, and the amount of operations, a PERT diagram would not be feasible; instead, a Gantt chart (see appendix) has been created which also shows the critical path by having arrows joining up to the relevant tasks. The critical path is exhibited in the predecessor’s column. This column has a number in the task row, meaning that this particular number represents the task that’s needs to be completed before this task can start (the number in this column represent the task number), this is similar to how a PERT diagram would work, using the predecessor column to identify the different branching paths and finish with the overall critical path. 39 Matt
  44. 44. 44 7.1-CONSTRUCTION PLAN TIMESCALE40 Task Date Started Date Finished Predecessors Duration External Work 30/05/16 02/11/16 113d Break Ground 30/05/16 30/05/16 1d Excavation 31/05/16 07/06/16 6d Remove soil 31/05/16 01/06/16 2 2d Lay Fill 02/06/16 03/06/16 4 2d Compact Fill 06/06/16 07/06/16 5 2d Foundations 08/06/16 04/08/16 3 42d Excavate for Foundations 08/06/16 10/06/16 6 3d Concrete Forms 08/06/16 16/06/16 7d Pour Foundation Wall 17/06/16 21/06/16 9 3d Concrete slab Pour 22/06/16 27/06/16 10 4d Allow for Concrete to Cure 28/06/16 04/08/16 11 28d Utilities 20/06/16 24/08/16 48d Sewage 20/06/16 05/07/16 12d Water 06/07/16 21/07/16 14 12d Gas 22/07/16 08/08/16 15 12d Electric 09/08/16 24/08/16 16 12d Framing 04/08/16 20/09/16 34d Set up Crane 04/08/16 04/08/16 1d Erect Timber Columns, Beams and Joists 05/08/16 09/08/16 12, 19, 7 3d Assemble Frame 10/08/16 16/08/16 20 5d Erect Frame 17/08/16 23/08/16 21 5d Erect Roof 24/08/16 30/08/16 22 5d Stairs 31/08/16 06/09/16 23 5d 40 Matt
  45. 45. 45 TFS (Timber Framing System) 07/09/16 13/09/16 24 5d Windows 14/09/16 20/09/16 25 5d Roofing 14/09/16 27/09/16 10d liner panel 14/09/16 15/09/16 25 2d Acoustic Fillers 16/09/16 19/09/16 28 2d Insulation 20/09/16 21/09/16 29 2d VCL (Vapour Control layer) 22/09/16 22/09/16 30 1d Aluminium Top Sheet 23/09/16 23/09/16 31 1d Eaves Details 26/09/16 26/09/16 32 1d Downpipes 27/09/16 27/09/16 33 1d Rainscreen Cladding 28/09/16 25/10/16 20d Cementicious Board 28/09/16 30/09/16 34 3d Tophat Bracket System 03/10/16 07/10/16 36 5d Taped Insulation 10/10/16 13/10/16 37 4d Helping Hand Brackets 14/10/16 19/10/16 38 4d Cladding Panels 20/10/16 25/10/16 39 4d Lightning Protection 26/10/16 02/11/16 6d 1st Fix 26/10/16 28/10/16 40 3d 2nd Fix 31/10/16 02/11/16 42 3d Internal 28/09/16 21/03/17 125d Plumbing 28/09/16 07/10/16 8d 1st Fix 28/09/16 03/10/16 27 4d 2nd Fix 04/10/16 07/10/16 46 4d Mechanical Systems 10/10/16 29/11/16 37d 1st Fix 10/10/16 14/10/16 45, 47 5d 2nd Fix 17/10/16 29/11/16 49 32d Lighting and Electrical 30/11/16 19/01/17 37d 1st Fix 30/11/16 06/12/16 48 5d 2nd Fix 07/12/16 19/01/17 52 32d Insulation 20/01/17 02/02/17 53 10d Dry Wall 03/02/17 16/02/17 54 10d Flooring 17/02/17 02/03/17 10d
  46. 46. 46 Screed 17/02/17 20/02/17 55 2d Curing Time 21/02/17 22/02/17 57 2d DPM (Damp Proof Membrane) 23/02/17 24/02/17 58 2d Vinyl 27/02/17 28/02/17 59 2d Carpet 01/03/17 02/03/17 60 2d Erect Room Pods 03/03/17 16/03/17 56, 55 10d Walls 03/03/17 09/03/17 56 5d Ceiling 17/03/17 21/03/17 62 3d Stairs 03/03/17 09/03/17 56 5d External 10/03/17 28/03/17 13d Doors 10/03/17 14/03/17 63 3d Windows 15/03/17 28/03/17 63, 67 10d Internal 10/03/17 27/04/17 35d Decorations 10/03/17 17/03/17 6d Mist Coat 10/03/17 16/03/17 5d Painting 17/03/17 17/03/17 71 1d Tiling 10/03/17 16/03/17 63 5d Finish Lighting and Electrical 17/03/17 27/04/17 73 30d Finish Plumbing 17/03/17 27/04/17 73 30d External 15/03/17 28/04/17 33d Hard Landscaping 15/03/17 04/04/17 15d Soft Landscaping 05/04/17 25/04/17 77 15d Snagging 28/04/17 28/04/17 74, 75 1d Modifications 01/05/17 02/05/17 80 ?
  47. 47. 47 7.2.1-Construction Phase Plan41 One of the construction planning component is the construction phase plan, this involves the health and safety aspect. The basic principle of a construction phase plan is to ensure that the health and safety regulations are properly considered with every task; even the most minor risk to health and safety, to allow for the projects development to proceed with all risks reduced. The construction phase plan is broken up in to different areas:  Overall health and safety aims – meaning, reduce risk which could lead to any accidents, this involves keeping the site clean and tidy as well as facilities. Health and safety should be enforced by all management and breaches should be dealt with adequately.  Site Rules (see appendix for an example site rules) – all sites should have rules, these are the company’s on-site laws that should be followed by all workers. Site rules normally comprise of these; Hard hats and hi-vis should be warn at all times, Each worker is responsible for keeping their work area clean and tidy, smoking only allowed in designated areas, all workers must be inducted before working on site, appropriate PPE must be worn, all accidents and near misses must be reported and recorded, etc.  Regular monthly meetings between project team members which normally happens on the site itself for progress purposes, weekly meetings should be held for site management team, to update on work progress  Site induction – site induction is extremely important, all sites enforce that all workers must be inducted before they work on site, this includes copying their CSCS card, which tells them that the worker has passed the CITB health and safety test. A site induction can last from a few hours to a week, depends on the company, but the site induction goes through the essential knows for the worker, this is done by explaining the site rules, showing them the welfare facilities and areas of danger, alarms that will be sounded for particular fire and evacuations while also showing them the fire assembly point, all workers must them sign and have proof they have been inducted by this particular site, normally a sticker is put on the hard hat  By law, all sites should provide welfare facilities, these include rooms for changing, eating/relaxing and toilets, also offices need to be provided for site, to accommodate for the management team.  Fire and emergency procedures – this means that a step by step guide of what happens when there is a fire or emergency. The Full Gantt chart of the Construction Phase Plan can be found in Appendix 41 Matt
  48. 48. 48 7.2.2-Welfare and Storage Facilities42 Due to the size of the site for this project, it will be a struggle to fit in the welfare facilities, so a proposed plan has been implemented, which can be seen in the image below. University parking areas just off Longside Lane are conveniently positioned next to the site (bordered in red), if the university gives permission, the car park can be used for storage and for the welfare facilities. Another proposal is the wasteland area opposite the site (bordered in purple), if the owner allows the use of the area for a fee, then a contract can be composed and the land can be used for the purpose of welfare and storage facilities. Proposed Area for Welfare and Storage Facilities 7.3-METHOD STATEMENT A method statement details how particular tasks are carried out, while also detailing possible associated dangers and risks to these tasks and the methods of control to reduce the risks (safe system of work). Method statements are used a lot in the construction industry, by sub-contractors given the contractors their method statements, all sub-contractor’s employees must sign to say that they will perform their task to the steps within the method statement, which will reduce any dangers and risk posed to them. Another 42 Matt & Stuart
  49. 49. 49 reason why method statements are used a lot, is because of the detailed guide of how the company operate. They demonstrate how the company provides a good service while also accomplishing these task in a safe and secure manor. Attached to an appendix, is a method statement example provide by health and safety works NI and also, where the template was founded to produce a method statement for particular tasks within this project. 7.3.1-Foundation Method Statement43 Method Statement Title: Foundation Site details Contractor name and contact details: N/A Project name and site address: University of Bradford Site manager name and contact details: N/A Transfer of information from client / contractor to relevant sub- contractor - Site Investigation should be provided prior to start of work including the engineering properties of the ground and provide bearing capacity. - Any contamination identified on the site investigation should be provided. - Where work is carried out close or beneath overhead lines, enquires will be made to make sure the overhead lines can be made dead or diverted. Where lines are still live make sure the right plant (Machine) is selected or modified so it can't reach the lines. Ground works sub-contractor to comply with guidance note GS 6 ‘Avoidance of danger from overhead power lines’. - All details must be provided to the sub-contractor Attendances Prior to any work taking place on site the client / contractor shall: - - Any cables or services are located by a detection tool - Ensure that vehicle routes are clearly marked so the plant doesn't approach the edge of the excavation. - Consider site access from the public road for the regular visits of vehicles by taking in account of traffic management. - Make sure there are designated areas for delivery vehicles and materials, which should be clearly 43 Matt
  50. 50. 50 communicated to sub-contractors - Welfare facilities available for sub-contractors Work activity Pre-start checks: Ground conditions should be checked,plant availability and proximity hazards. Description of the contract: Casting of foundations Sequence of work:  Layer of blinding laid at a thickness of 150mm, no admittance while concrete is being poured, rack once all of concrete has been poured to create even layer.  Mark outline of foundations on top of blinding.  Lay and erect wooden casting walls on foundation outline on top of the blinding, making sure walls are to the height of the foundation and place reinforced cage making sure everything is secured properly.  Pour concrete into casting using concrete mixer and smooth out to top of foundation, take concrete cubes for testing.  Remove casting walls  Leave to cure for 28 days Plant details: 360 digger for inserting steel cages, concrete mixers, concrete rig Deliveries and site access: Concrete deliveries via concrete mixer Personnel Foreman: N/A Operatives, Banksman, chippies, rig driver: Training: All operatives must be trained in their appropriate field with their CSCS card Health and safety management and control measures Personal protective equipment: All operatives will wear the following when working with concrete: Safety wellington boots, gloves and safety glasses, all operatives at all times must wear a safety helmet and a high visibility vest Site rules: All operatives must go to office to be inducted before working on site and
  51. 51. 51 apply to contractor’s site rules Specific site hazards: Bits of timber and steel maybe lying around Access to the work area: Access to site will be monitored by the foreman/gatesman Welfare facilities: Welfare facilities will be provided Amendments and additional information Amendments to the method statement: Should any part of this method statement require amendment or alteration, this must be notified for agreement to all relevant parties prior to it being enforced. Communication of method statement: Communicate this method statement to all relevant parties (via toolbox talk) and ensure it is signed by all personnel. This method statement was prepared by: Matthew Wilson Date: 13/03/2016dstatement record Please sign to confirm you have read and understood this method statement. Name: Company: Signature: Date:
  52. 52. 52 7.3.2-Timber Frame Method Statement Method statement Title: Timber Frame Site details Contractor name and contact details: N/A Project name and site address: University of Bradford Site manager name and contact details: N/A Transfer of information from client / contractor to relevant sub-contractor Attendances - Person responsible for crane must be agreed - Where work is carried out close or beneath overhead lines, enquires will be made to make sure the overhead lines can be made dead or diverted. Where lines are still live make sure the right plant (Machine) is selected or modified so it can't reach the lines. Ground works sub-contractor to comply with guidance note GS 6 ‘Avoidance of danger from overhead power lines’. - Traffic Management must be arranged prior to crane arrival. - Any obstacle which will hinder or foul the safe operation of the crane must be removed and replaced by the contractor who is responsible for obtaining approval from the structural engineer. - Weather conditions which could effect safe conditions will be agreed by trained personnel. Work activity Pre-start checks: - Provide and maintain hard access roads, hard standing for the crane (a 12m x 8m consolidated, level hard standing, capable of carrying the outrigger loads as specified in the Lifting Plan) and stacking area / off-loading area. - Consider site traffic management plan from public road onto and around the site before crane arrives, also designated work area and storage area,clearly identify and communicate to the flooring sub-contractor. - Provide and maintain perimeter scaffolding of the working area,together with handrails, guardrails, platforms or staging required for safe access and to prevent operatives from falling. - Welfare facilities shall be made available to the flooring sub-contractor.
  53. 53. 53 - The provision of passive fall protection must be agreed and in place – this can be achieved by working platforms, staging, crash decks,safety nets, air bags or other soft landing systems. Description of the contract: Erecting of a timber frame structure Sequence of work: - Beam/column must be fastened securely to the crane and fall precaution measures must be activated - Place beam/column in accordance to the drawing, making sure there is a banksman watching out for obstacles and other personnel. - Workers must be fasten with a harness when working at height place the beam/column in the place accordance to the drawing and bolt each component together. - A pole and zip line should be erected to the trailer and a harness with a fixed lanyard be worn to create a work restraint system, if no other fall system is in place. Crane details: Details of the crane type will be provided give details such as, weight, contract lift or plant hire, name of crane supplier. Communication to crane driver and banksman must be through a two way radio. Approved lifting equipment with a test certificate to be used. Documents must be inspected before use by the crane foreman. Maximum component weights and crane working radius: Maximum weight/radius for each component must be stated and recommendation on lifting techniques must be considered from crane supplier. The heaviest lift must be within the crane safe lifting radius. Deliveries and site access: Timber beam/columns to be delivered to site and storedat designated areas by directing the delivery drivers. The contractor is to give details of number of deliveries and access requirements. Structural Stability Stability: The contractor must test and sign off that the frame meets the structural requirements and results. Personnel Foreman: N/A Crane Driver, Banksman: N/A Training: All operatives will be trained and certificates of their training will be provided.
  54. 54. 54 Health and safety management and control measures Personal protective equipment: All PPE will be worn by the operatives: - safety helmet, high visibility vest, gloves and safety footwear. Site rules: All operatives will be have a site induction and comply with the site rules. Specific site hazards: All hazards must be identified and dealt with prior to lifting operations commence on site. eg. provide suitable protection to up-standing steel reinforcing starter bars or provide adequate bearing for props. Positioning of components: Consideration to the robustness of the bearings to withstand the standard methods of positioning to determine the need for properly designed temporary support to the components or additional bracing of the bearings. Work at heights: Perimeter scaffolding must be provided within high working areas, together with handrails, guardrails, platforms or staging required for safe access and to prevent operatives from falling. Leading edge protection: This is provided by using a passive and collective system e.g. safety nets / air bags etc. Air bags and associated inflation equipment to be installed by flooring sub- contractor. Air bags must be installed so as to ensure appropriate coverage of the work area. The absolute minimum coverage should be 4.8m ahead of the leading edge and 2.4m behind or to the side where the storey height is less than 4m. The system must be continually monitored during the operation to ensure the air bags are fully inflated and work suspended immediately in situations of non-compliance. Welfare facilities: Welfare facilities will be provided Amendments and additional information Amendments to the method statement: Should any part of this method statement require amendment or alteration, this must be notified for agreement to all relevant parties prior to it being enforced.
  55. 55. 55 Communication of method statement: Communicate this method statement to all relevant parties (via toolbox talk) and ensure it is signed by all personnel. This method statement was prepared by: Matthew Wilson Date: 13/03/2016dstatement record Method statement record Please sign to confirm you have read and understood this method statement. Name: Company: Signature: Date:
  56. 56. 56 8.0-FOUNDATION 44 8.1-INTRODUCTION Foundation is the main structure of the building, it is the connection between the ground/soil and the building. It is used to transmit the load from the support of the building (columns, walls, and sometimes beams) directly to the under layers of the ground (rock, sand, gravel, clay). Foundation is divided into different types and sizes, it is based on the type of the soil, how deep in the soil it is going to be and size of the columns. The main 2 parts of foundations are shallow foundation and deep foundation. Shallow Foundation Shallow foundation is used to transfer the loads of the building to the soil, those founded near the fished ground surface,it mostly depends on the surface loading or any other surface conditions will have an effect on the bearing capacity of the soil. There are 3 main types of shallow foundation that can be used for early surfaces of the soil which are strip foundation, raft foundation, and pad foundation. Strip Foundation Strip foundations are concrete structure that is spread over the entire perimeter if the project, it goes all along the project in one attached piece, it is usually used for light/average project loads and in good bearing capacity soils and doesn’t need to be placed deep in the soil. Placing strip foundation is simple and easier than other types of foundations, but it acquires a lot of construction work and invested large material. The main function of the strip foundation is to spread the concentration of the load sideways over the foundation to reduce the load over one point. There are different type of strip foundation, the main ones are the masonry, plain and reinforced, and the rectangular and tee beam strips. Raft foundation Raft foundation is a large concrete slab the support columns and walls of the building, it is mainly used for poor bearing capacity soils as is spread the load over the whole pad. One of the most advantages of the raft foundation is that it doesn’t require a lot of excavation in the soil, saves time and material, and easily installed, they are commonly used in the UK for commercial buildings more than houses, and offices but can still be used for both. Pad Foundation Pad foundation can be under both shallow foundations and deep foundations, it depends on the properties of the soil and how good/poor the soil conditions are. They are used to support individual or multiple 44 Saleh & Shamraiz
  57. 57. 57 columns by placing the pad under the point loads from the columns. There are more than one type/shape of pad foundations, but the most common one is the square one. Deep Foundation/Pile Foundation Deep foundations are different from the shallow foundations that they need to be excavated into deeper layers in the earth to transfer higher loads of buildings. The main deep foundation used is the pile foundation, which is basically a long cylinder of a strong material, mostly used as concrete,the is excavated deep in to the ground, usually it goes down to the clay based on the UK standards,and acts steadily to support the whole structure. Pile foundation are commonly used for big buildings as every pile, that is hammered and casted in the ground, has its own zone of influence in the ground. There 2 main types of piles, end bearing pile and friction pile. End bearing pile End bearing piles behaves as a normal column that is placed deep inside the soil and the end of the pile rests on a layer of rock, which takes most of the load. The key principle of the end bearing pile is the pile intersect with the strong layer creating a pass for the load to go from the weak layer, the pile, into the strong layer, which is the rock. Friction Bearing Pile Friction piles differs from the end bearing piles by having a different principle of transforming the load of the building, the friction piles depends on the friction to transfer and decrease the load through the height of the pile. The main key of the friction pile is the length of the pile and how much deep inside the soil it can be, the higher the length the more load it could take. Summary Based on the calculations of the building and the low load applied on the foundations, pile foundations wasn’t needed as it will take more time, increase the cost and waste the material, in the other hand the pad foundations were the best fitted option for such a structure. Based on the designed structure the foundation will be excavated 4 to 5 m in the ground to the second soil layer (sand and gravel) as given In the brief, that has an acceptable bearing capacity for the load given and based on previous calculations of the columns load on the foundation as will be shown in the calculations below.
  58. 58. 58 8.2-FOUNDATION CALCULATIONS 45 For the calculations there were more than one method, the first method was based on assuming the Length, width and depth of the pad to work out the bearing capacity of the soil and reconsider if the dimensions of the pad are acceptable for the load of the building, while the 2nd method is about considering the numbers and values of the bearing capacity from the Euro code (euro code 7) and working it way up to the dimensions. 8.2.3-Method 1 In this method it was assumed that the foundation would be placed 5 m into the ground, in the sand and gravel layer with that included of water in it, which was taken into consideration. The minimum area of the foundation equation: 𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝐴𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 Based on previous calculations the columns total load was = 79 KN per column Given the penetration test value of the sand and gravel soil in the brief (N=15), the allowable bearing capacity was calculated through 11 steps as shown below Assume the depth, width, and length of the foundation just for initial calculations, these are usually not 100% correct based on different needs of foundation or columns sometimes. Width: 0.424 m = 42.4 cm Length: 1 m = 100 cm Depth: 1 m = 100 cm 45 Saleh & Shamraiz
  59. 59. 59 Apply the ‘N’ value with the diagram to get the value of the penetration resistance. Figure 1.23-Graph Showing Standard Penetration Resistance Based on the diagram with the given ‘N’ value = 15, the penetration resistance ‘ϕ’ = 32 degrees, which is approximated to 35 degrees for safety and calculations reasons. Calculating the effective surcharge of the base level of the foundation, q = ϒ*Df where, q = he effective surcharge Y = the unit weight of the soil = 1922 kg/ca.m provided Df = depth of foundation = 100 cm q = 1922*100 = 192200
  60. 60. 60 Using the penetration resistance (ϕ) = 35 degrees,the bearing capacity factors can be obtained from the table shown below. Figure 1.31-Table Showing Bearing Capacity Factors Nc= 46.12 Nq= 33.30 Ny= 48.03 Since isolated square pad footings was decided the shape factors are the followings, Sc= 1.3 Sq= 1.2 Sy= 0.6
  61. 61. 61 Calculating the depth factor: dq = dϒ = 1+0.1(Df/B)(Nϕ)1/2 (for ϕ>100 ) For Nϕ = tan2 [(π/4)+(ϕ/2)] = tan2 [(π/4)+(35/2)] = 0.33 So, dq = dϒ = 1+0.1(Df/B)(Nϕ)1/2 = 1+0.1(100/100)(0.33)1/2 = 1.01089 Calculating the inclination factors using the following formulas. iq = (1-a/90)2 & iy = (1-a/ϕ)2 a = 45o iq = (1-45/90)2 = 0.25 iy = (1-45/35)2 = 0.08 Calculating the correction factor for the water table (which is located 4.0 m below ground level) W’ = 0.5+0.5[Dw/(Df+B)] = W’ = 0.5+0.5[400/(100+100)] = 1.5 Calculating the ultimate bearing capacity using the following formula: qd = 19200*(33.3-1)*1.2*1.01089*0.25 + 0.5*100*1922*48.03*0.6*1.01089*0.08*1.5 qd= 2218648 KN/cm2 = 222 KN/m2 So with taking the approximations into consideration the ultimate bearing capacity is = 222 KN/m2 Calculating the allowing bearing capacity. Since the building is only about 2 floors of height and doesn’t have a high load existing and the max design load is unlikely to happen, the factor of safety taken is 2.0.
  62. 62. 62 Allowable bearing capacity = Ultimate bearing capacity*factor of safety = 222/2.0 = 111 KN/m2 Finally using the formula above for the minimum area required, 𝑀𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝐹𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝐴𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 Minimum area of foundation = 250/111 = 2.252 m2 Since its square shaped, √2.252 = 1.5 𝑚 Each side ofthe pad (square) is going to be around 1.5 m long, to satisfy a depth/thicknessof1 m of the pad and carry the load.
  63. 63. 63 8.3-METHOD 2 46 In this method it was assumed that the foundation will be placed between 3.0 m to 4.0 m without getting close to the water in the depth of 4.0 in the ground to avoid a water table calculation. Most of the calculation was based on given numbers from Eurocode 2 based on the usage of sand and gravel soil in this case. From table 5, Eurocode 2 and according to BS: 8004 the bearing capacity of sand and gravel should be equal or less than 200 KN/m2 Area = Load/Bearing Capacity = 250/200 = 1.25 m2 Which gives the minimum dimensions of the pad of the square root of the are = 1.12 m By increasing the dimensions to reduce the pressure of the load on the bearing capacity from ultimate to allowable, 1.12*1.12 to 1.2*1.2 which gives an area = 1.44 m2 1.44 is acceptable as its higher than the minimum which is 1.25 'Qu' bearing capacity = 200/1.44 = 138.8 which is approximated to 140 KN/m2 The thickness of the pad was calculated using the following formula: H = P/Y ( 1-sinϕ/1+sinϕ) For 'Y' the unit density of the soil it was given to be 1920 for sand and gravel H = 250/1920 ( 1-sin(35)/1+sin(35)) H = 0.12 m So based on the 2nd method the length and width of the pad are equal to 1.2 m and the depth/thickness ofthe pad is equal to 0.12 m. 46 Saleh & Shamraiz
  64. 64. 64 9.0-SUSTAINABILITY 47 9.1-INTRODUCTION History shows, engineering has always progressed to meet the needs of a more demanding and growing population. Because of increasing pressures new goals are being developed that embrace economic, social and environmental issues in a mutual way. In recent years,many engineers and architects have focused primarily on prolonging the service life and design life of structures. They have gone about this idea by considering an eco-friendly design- i.e. putting sustainability on the forefront. With the knowledge and understanding gained from background reading an attempt will be made to apply knowledge to the student accommodation building in attempt to fulfil the clients’ requirements- to embody the principles of sustainable development. 9.2-DEFINITION There is no clear definition of the term sustainability; however many researchers have come up with ideas in how to achieve sustainability within a design concept. Sustainability can be broken down into two key terms ‘Sustainable Development’ and ‘Sustainable Construction’. "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." Bruntland Report for the World Commission on Environment and Development (1992) The pressure state response model illustrates the environmental impacts of humans on the planet and links well with Bruntland’s definition in the sense that there are pressures on the natural resources caused by the growth in human population. How people respond to these pressures is what is becoming increasingly important, especially in the building industry as mentioned in the introduction, an attempt to define new policies is an example of a response to environmental impacts Sustainability in construction i.e. building industry is dependent upon social, environmental and economic factors as illustrated in figure 1. How well these factors have been taken into consideration in a design, can help clients decide whether or not a particular design is sustainable, and possibly weather permission is given to build it. The architects and engineers have their say in designing, but environmentalists will also have an input at an early stage of the project life cycle. 47 Mobien
  65. 65. 65 Economic sustainability The aim is to keep the costing of the building to a minimal, as well as making it look aesthetically pleasing and installing new technology. In this instance, since Bradford is relatively cheap in comparison to other cities keeping the construction costs minimal will help to reach breakeven. Since the location of the site is so close to the university and the fact that it would be a new build allows high price for rent to be charged. Social sustainability The aim is to try and design a building that is new but also needs to ‘fit in’ with the surrounding environment. For this case our proposed design is located side by side with the Green student accommodation located on the university campus, which suggests that it would look appropriate. Renewable Energy Methods Renewable energy, is energy generated from sources that will never run out i.e. they come from natural resources. This includes sunlight, wind geothermal heat etc. In general the installation costs are relatively high for all renewable energy methods, but can be beneficial in the long run. Below are some examples of methods that have been incorporated into the student accommodation. 9.3-BREEAM Building Research Establishment Environment Assessment Method is world’s leading sustainability assessment method; it inspires designers and developers to make effective use of current resources. We are confident that our proposed sustainability features would achieve a BREEAM rating of “Outstanding” 9.4-CHP (COMBINED HEAT AND POWER)48 This is a method which involves the use of a heat engine to generate electricity and heat at the same time. We know in most energy conversion processes heat is given as a by-product, this system enables the heat to be reused,for example, for space heating or water heating. Electricity from traditional sources is a relatively high cost, high emission energy due to distribution losses and the poor efficiency of most power stations. Only around 40% of the energy used in electricity generation is delivered as electricity. By generating electricity on site, these distribution losses can be drastically reduced. These two factors make CHP systems very efficient. 48 Stuart & Mobien
  66. 66. 66 CHP systems are most efficient when used in situations where demand for heat and power is relatively constant throughout the day, and where there is a demand for heat all year round. This is an ideal system for a Student residence as the distribution of lecture times and a busy student lifestyle means that the building will almost always be occupied and requiring heat and power. The building will not be in use during much of the summer, when demand for heat is at its lowest, and the CHP system will not be in operation. Bradford University already operates a Biomass fueled CHP system and it was our initial aim to include a biomass system in our building, however there is not sufficient site space to accommodate the fuel storage,and so a gas powered unit was included in the final design. The CHP system would be installed in the small external room located under the balcony walkway at the southern edge of the building. Based on a case study at Elizabeth House in Rochester,where CHP was used to power and heat 21 sheltered accommodation flats, we estimate our building would require a 10 kW CHP system such as the Synchro 10kw unit pictured right. (www.cwp-ltd.com)
  67. 67. 67 9.5-SOLARPANELS A solar water heating would be installed on the roof of the building. Flat plate collectors would be used to collect solar energy to partially heat water which is then stored in hot water cylinders. The CHP system would then heat the water further to the required temperature if necessary. (www.energysavingtrust.org.uk) 9.6-RAIN HARVESTING This involves collecting water from surfaces on which rain falls and subsequently creating a channel for the water to flow so that it can be stored for later use. Our building design incorporates 2 large pitched roof areas which are ideal for collecting rainwater and a small exterior room at the north end of the building will house the water storage tank. The water can then be used for toilet flushing NOTE: A green roof was considered, however research suggested that it is not suitable for a timber frame structure due to moisture being absorbed by the timber frame,also maintenance can be expensive, time consuming and the design had no easy roof access.
  68. 68. 68 9.7-U-VALUES 49 U-values give a good indication of how good a building can retain heat. They are measured in watts per square metre per degree Kelvin (W/m²K),so that is the amount of power transmitted over a square metre. A low U-value suggests that heat is lost a lot slower through the material which means that it acts as a better insulator and less energy is required to maintain comfortable conditions for those living inside the building. The timber frame design of our building offers significantly better U-values than a steelframed or brick building. 49 Stuart & Mobien
  69. 69. 69 9.8-SOLARCHIMNEY50 The final design incorporates a solar chimney in the roof of each barn to assist in efficiently ventilating the building. A solar chimney uses convection currents generated by passive solar energy to naturally ventilate a building. During the day, solar energy heats the chimney, aided by south facing glass panels, to creat an updraft of air. The suction created at the base of the chimney, pulls cool air in through windows or exterior vents, whilst warm air is drawn upward and is eventually expelled. Louvers can be automatically operated to control the air flow and to sealoff the chimney on colder days and at night. The louvers and vents are the only mechanical components, making this a very energy efficient system. (Arup.com, 2016) Airflow within the proposed building design 50 Stuart
  70. 70. 70 10.0-CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 51 10.1-TIMBER FRAME One of the benefits on timber construction is that it can be assembled quickly. There is no setting time involved. The material can be cut to size on site or can be prefabricated before construction starts. This reduces the time wasted because of having wait for the equipment to arrive etc. Also this means that other workers for example plumbers painters plasterers can be brought in earlier hence speeding up the process further. Reduced time of construction means that the worker and everyone related to the build is exposed to hazards of a building site for a shorter period of time. It also reduces the noise and traffic disruption caused. Since timber is significantly lighter than steel, it requires less machinery and labour to assemble. For example where a big crane might be needed for the steelbeam, a similar sized timber beamed be moved into position using manual labour. This saves on cost of equipment hire as well. Timber is easier to source locally since steelproduction plants are less common and spread further apart than forests. Also the energy consumption for production of a wood component is far less. A steelbeam would require mining, transport, the smelting and refining and then forming. A timber component will simply have to be cut to size and machined. In addition as the tree grows it absorbs a lot of carbon dioxide making consumption of trees carbon neutral. One of the keys to sustainable design is for building to last a long time. Timber can be expected to last safely upwards of 60 years. This is plenty of time for the build to break even as well as reduce the impact that would be if the building lasted longer and needed replacing. The timber inherently has a high u value meaning it will be well insulated even without use of insulation. Also since the thermal mass is low the building is faster to heat up and cool down. This is useful, given the life style of student that often involves short stays throughout the day, moving between university and residences. A key sustainable feature of timber is the fact that is renewable. It can be replaced simply by planting more trees while cutting trees for consumption and results in zero carbon footprint 10.2-TIMBER FLOORING & CLADDING Aesthetics- The main reason for choosing timber as the material of choice for the outer cladding and most of the interior not structural elements is aesthetic. Its looks can be cheaply enhanced through application of varnish. Even without it exposed would create a light atmosphere perfect for almost any residential setting. Light weight-Wood is around 4 times less dens than masonry so for purely architectural components like divider walls and cladding it is ideal when it comes to saving weight while 51 Tabish
  71. 71. 71 improving aesthetics. It can be used on its own unlike masonry that would require further plastering and tiling etc. to looks pleasing as wood would on its own. Environmental- Wood is a renewable source that will have minimum impact specially when incorporated with forest plantation schemes. A good source of such wood is FSC approved wood. Such wood is sourced in a way that the environmental and ecological effects of logging in a particular forest are kept to a minimum. The closest FSC approved forest to the location is West wood forest as indicated on the map. The wooden cladding on the exterior would need to be treated every other year to ensure maximum lifespan for the minimum cost. The treatment is not expensive but does carry health and safety risk for the user which can be avoided with the correct safety procedures. It would add slightly to the cost of the maintenance but this would be offset by cheaper running costs due to its U-values, and savings in the construction phase. 10.3-CONCRETE 52 Concrete is used in the foundations of our primary design, and would be a primary construction material in the alternative steel framed design. Concrete is almost the default material for foundations. This means that doing so is often much more convenient as well as economical compared to other options like steel foundations. Which could be a viable option for a heavier building. For a building our size they would be far too expensive. In addition the repairs that could arise considering the existence of a water table, the repairs are extremely expensive. Reasons for choosing it as foundation material as below; Durability and long life- Concrete on its own is a renowned durable material. It is resistance to much of chemical and weathering attack offered in the condition of the sight. It will be further enhanced by the use of admixtures. This does add extra cost to the build but it is a worthy investment as foundations are a critical part of the building. Admixtures-Furthermore admixtures can be used to accelerate the setting of the concrete. This costs more but a suitable trade off can be found between cost of admixture and extra cost associated with waiting around for it to set. The extra cost can be incorporated in the pert diagrams (foundation stage). Corrosion resistance can also be improved with admixtures but it won’t be required in the soil conditions we have. Strength- the compressive strength of concrete is high at around 20-40 MPa. It is however weak in flexure and tension at around 2-5 mPa. Since the building is only one story high; average strength of 30mPa is sufficient. Regardless of the loads being generally vertical, there is bound to be flexure and tension. To remedy the low tensile strength the foundation concrete will be reinforced. Using previous knowledge the ideal position to place the reinforcement bars is close as possible towards the bottom of the element assuming the loads are being applied form the top. This ensure maximum tensile of the steelbar is use, hence lower 52 Tabish
  72. 72. 72 steel requirement which translate to a more economical design. The diagram, shows the generalpositioning of the reinforcement bars,ties and the cage of the reinforcement for concrete foundations. Workability- Concrete is easily poured into almost any shape. Increasing water content generally giving a more workable concrete. Optimum water and other content’s ratios can be found using the guidelines attached in the appendix. The shapes the concrete need to take for foundation are simple meaning relatively low workability is sufficient. On site the workability would be determined using a slump test,requiring basic equipment. The criteria for choosing the flooring that spans between beams of the first floor was different to that of concrete. The properties making it ideal are listed below; Sound proofing- Concrete has good acoustic performance. It will not necessarily be good at stopping noise traveling between rooms but it will however reduce the amount that is reflected around. Also the slabs are hollow core, meaning there are voids in the slab structure further improving acoustic performance like foam insulation. Fire resistance- Concrete retains its strength even at very high temperatures and is often the material of choice for constructing vessels operating at high temperature. The first thing to fail in concrete would be the steel reinforcements. Since none are used, the concrete will retain most of its strength in case of a fire. Thermal performance- Concrete has good insulation and has a high U value of around .75 for a slab around 150mm. the slab we used boasts a great U value of 0.35 This ensure minimum heat is lost. The more significant value of concrete however is the k value. This is often known as the admittance, or in simple words, the amount of energy a material absorbs per metre square W/m2  K. This means that in summer the concrete absorbs the heat and releases it slowly over time when it gets cold. The same applies to colder temperatures in winter. The over effect is regulation of temperatures at a comfortable level. Since speed of construction is a main aspect of our design, quick setting concrete is also considered as an option that could be used.It is the ‘accelerated’ option that would be taken in our foundation stage of the PERT diagram. That being said quick setting cement does have a lower strength compared to one of similar content. The precast concrete floor slabs will also save significant amount of time in assembly. Light weight concrete is anotherconsideration for the design but its cost is not likely to be worth the relatively small weight saving and its effect on overall build. Also the heavier conventionalconcrete has betterthermal performance in the case of the floor slabs.The floor slabs themselves will be precast and this will dramatically increase build speed. The sight has a water table as a depth of 4m. This will mean that the concrete will need to be water proof. This can be done by reducing the water cement ratio. This will result in smaller pores and hence the concrete is less open to water or chemical attack. Also the increased workability will aid pouring. Combined with addition of admixture like those use in Hanson concrete and proper compaction effects of surrounding water can be minimized.
  73. 73. 73 10.4-MASONRY 53 Masonry is used in the low retaining wall that runs around the exterior walls of our design. Masonry shares many of the benefits of concrete like, fireproofing, acoustic performance, high compression strength and good thermal performance. In addition to that masonry is rot, mould and fungus proof. This is ideal since the bottom30 cm of all the exterior walls will be masonry. One of the overarching aims of the building was to be light weight. Masonry is heavy compared to timber for example, however the protection it offers against water mould etc. outweighs the increase in weight. Masonry is also very low maintenance. If the bottom30 cm of the exterior walls was to be wooden cladding this would result in costly repair due to mould, fungus and even expansion of wood which can exert unexpected pressure on adjacent component. An example would be a door opening becoming fractionally narrower due to wood expansion rendering the dooruseless. In addition one of the criticisms of the building design was will it be heavy enough to withstand the horizontal loading from the wind and would this uproot the building. This is partially remedied by use of masonry adding more weight, though not enough to significantly change the foundations. One of the disadvantages ofmasonry however is that its construction speed if slow and also vulnerable to changes in weather. For instance newly laid bricks would need to be protected until they have sufficiently set otherwise there optimal strength will not be achieved. Also as a general rule on site construction is slower and more labour intensive than offsite like the precast concrete slabs. 10.5-STEEL Steel is the key structural component of our secondary design. It is used to form the beams, columns and girders of the building. Steel is heavy, but its advantages far outweigh the additional weight. The properties that make steel the ideal material for our build are listed below; Strength per unit mass- The strength the steel provides per unit mass is far better than many others like concrete and timber. The average steelbeing around ten times stronger for the same weight than concrete. Uniform quality- Steel is a material whose strength is very reliable fluctuating only around 5%, giving its safety factor of 1.05. This is mainly down to the fact that it is fabricated offsite in condition far better controlled then that of a construction sit as is the case for concrete. Fabrication speed- Steel is currently the preferred method of choice in commercial construction, and this strand has been steadily becoming more prevalent. This is because more often than not tight deadlines need to be met. There is no setting time or waiting for it to achieve it’s a maximum strength. It can simply be craned into positioned and bolted and welded into position with relative low labour costs. This means are more reliable construction schedule because there are no delays that can be caused by adverse weather conditions. 53 Tabish
  74. 74. 74 Durability- In most cases the steelused is stainless steeland if not it can be treated with coating to get the same results. It does not entail the problems associated with timber like rot and termites. Span length- spans lengths can be much larger then concrete off timber. This means less number of individual components we need to be put together saving time and hence money. This aligns perfectly with our concept of cheap accommodations of high standards that will break even and even generate income for the client. Transportation and storage- steel can be stored and transported in relative compact spaces. This is due to its uniformity, that means it can be stacked in a compact manner saving the amount of space required for storage and in case of transportation the amounts of trips required for the delivery of the required amount of building material. Also since the site is in a busy location, it is ideal to minimise traffic hence disruption to other road users and also the surrounding student accommodations. 10.6-METALROOF 54 Majority of the suppliers of metal roof provide a warranty of around 30 years reflecting the longevity of such roof. They are protected against rot, mildew, insects etc. They also much better at reducing the accumulation of snow due to its slippery surface. Light weight-they are around 1/3 of the weight of roof of comparable performance. Despite metals having high densities, since the thick off the roofing material is small the weight is much less. This complies with our aim of a lightweight building requiring the minimum amount of work of foundation whc9ih are a major cost Fabrication speed- The speed of installation is almost insignificant compare d to other of types. It simply needs to be joined in its correct potion once the structural components are installed. This reduces build time and cost. Also since its installation isn’t effected by adverse weather it will save even more time. Fire resistance- In case of fire the roof is going to be the cause of least concern as metals are practically fire proof especially as a non-structural component. 54 Tabish
  75. 75. 75 10.7-MATERIALCOSTS55 Primary Structural Timber Costing for oak Fresh sawn Construction (QPA) Cross section Quantity Price each (£) Line Price (£) 200 x 200 x 5000 21 160 3360 200 x 200 x 2500 21 80 1680 200 x 200 x 3250 21 104 2184 (http://www.iwood.co.uk) Material Costing for Concrete Steelwork and windows along with cladding. Material Cost (£) Reference QuicksetConcrete 22kg 6.15 http://www.diy.com/departments/blue-circle-ready-to-use- premixed-concrete-22kg-bag/135766_BQ.prd Normal SettingConcrete 4.79 http://www.homebase.co.uk/en/homebaseuk/concrete-mix- --25kg-782078 AirDriedOak Featheredge cladding150mm x 22mm/5mm 23.99 perm^2 http://www.uk- oak.co.uk/product/Air_Dried_Oak_Featheredge_Cladding ReinforcedConcrete Slabs (36” x 53”) $109.34 http://www.oldcastleprecast.com/plants/Enclosures/Priceli sts/Documents/OM00v04.pdf Metal roof alluminium EnquiryBased http://www.vieoroof.com/ WICKESNON STRUCTURAL HARDWOODPLYWOOD 5.5X607X2440MM £8.64 perSQM http://www.wickes.co.uk/Wickes-Non-Structural- Hardwood-Plywood-5-5x607x2440mm/p/164520 WindowsDouble Glazing 1800mm x 1200mm 259 http://www.justdoorsuk.com/diy-windows.htm BLOCKLEYS WREKIN DARK RED MIXTURE BRICK 65mm 143.64 (300 per pack) http://www.huwsgray.co.uk/bricks/blockleys-wrekin-dark- red-mixture-brick-65mm.html Steel Beams UC 203 x 203 x 52 (3m length) 322.06 https://www.metals4u.co.uk/mild-steel/universal-beams- rsj/203-x-203-x- 52/p13687&showvat=true?gclid=CIWWsv3KwssCFRITG wodIWkM3A GreenOak Beams 3000mm x 150mm x 150mm 41.99 http://www.uksleepers.co.uk/product/150_x_150_Green_ Oak_Beams 55 Shamraiz
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