-The Americans moved west because of a hat. The “High Hat” made of water-repellent beaver fur. It was popular in the U.S. and in Europe. -John Jacob Aster created one of the largest fur businesses, the American Fur Company, after the “High Hat” was made. -Mountain Men were fur traders and trappers. They traveled by canoes, flat boats, horseback, and by riding trains.-There was a yearly meeting called „Revendous‟where fur trappers sold there fur to fur-companyagents.-Easterners poured into Oregon County in the1840‟s.
The Oregon Trail was • The Mormon trail is 1,300 miles long •The Santa Fe Trail was about 780 miles 2,000 miles long and it and it took 536 days to make the initial trip. and it usually took about 6 weeks to usually took 4-6 months travel. to travel. •In 1830, Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in Western New •It led from Independence, Missouri, to•The cost was about $600 per family of York. The members were knows as Mormons. Santa Fe,four, which was high at the time when New Mexico.a typical worker usually made $1.50 •The book of religious teachings were called theper day. ‘Book of Mormon’ •American traders loaded their wagon •An anti-mormon mob murdered Smith in 1844. trains with•They gathered in wagon trains , there •Brigham Young took his place. cloth and other manufactured goods tocould be as many as 10 wagons or as •Young chose Utah for the Mormons new home. exchange for horses, mules, and silvermany as several dozen in a wagon fromtrain. The wagons were pulled by Mexican traders in Santa Fe.oxen, mules or horses. Pioneers oftenwalked to save there animals strength. •The U.S. government helped protect traders by Sending troops to ensure that Native Americans were not a threat. •The Old Spanish Trail was 2,700 miles long and usually took 180-225 days. •The trail to California which has become known as the Old Spanish Trail apparently was not opened until 1829. The misnomer arose from the fact that parties going from New Mexico to California by the northern route naturally traveled as far as the Colorado River along the Old Spanish Trail, and were, therefore, said to have gone to California by way of that trail. The name thus became applied to the entire trail to California instead of just to the first portion of it.
•In September 1810,Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Mexican priest,led a rebellion of about 80,000 poor Indians and Mestizos, or people ofIndian and Spanish ancestry.•Hidalgo’s revolt failed, but the rebellion he started grew.•In 1821 Mexico became independent.•At the time empresarios were called agents.•In 1822, one young agent, Stephen F. Austin, started a colony on thelower Colorado River. The first 300 families became known as the oldthree hundred.•Mexico’s general was Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. He soonsuspended Mexico’s republican constitution and turned his attention tothe growing unrest in Texas.
•On March 2,1836, Texansdeclared theirindependencefrom Mexico.•Texas electedtheir ownpresident, DavidBurnet, andLorenzo deZavala as vicepresident.•Sam Houstonwas head of
-Jackson did recognize Texas In the Battle of San as in Independent nation. Jacinto, the Texans France did so in 1839. captured Santa Britain in 1940. Anna and forced him to sign a treaty giving Texas its independence. Alamo; an abandoned mission near San Antoniothat became an important battle site in the Texas Revolution.-Volunteers from the U.S, including frontiersman Davy Crockett andColonel Jim Bowie, joined the Alamo’s defense.-Mexican Army overcame the Texans
•Acquiring NewManifest Territory Destiny, or •In 1846, Great Britain obvious fate, and the United States to settle signed a treaty that gave the United land all the States all Oregon way to the land south of the Pacific Ocean forty-ninth parallel. in order to This treaty drew the spread border that still democracy. exists today. Oregon became an organized U.S. territory in February of 1848.
•During early Spanish rule the mission system had dominated much of thepresent-day southwest.•Some Native Americans were willing to the missions, others were not. Theywere not allowed to leave once they arrived. They had to adopt the clothing, food,and religion of the Spanish priests.•In 1833, Mexico ended the mission system in California. Mission lands werebroken up, and huge grants were given to some of the wealthiest Californiasettlers, including Vallejo.•They created vast ranchos, or ranches, with tens of thousands of acres of land.•Vaqueros or cowboys, managed the large herds of cattle and sheep.
•California only had about , colonistsby the early 1820’s. They were calledCalifornios.•Mariano Guadalupe Vallego•He was the richest man in California,owning enormous amounts of land andlivestock.•Vallego served at the stateconstitutional convention, as well as inthe first state senate.
• General Taylor led troops to Rio Grande Mexican commander told Taylor to withdraw from Mexican territory.• Taylor refused.• Two sides clashed and several U.S. soldiers werekilled.• Two days later, congress declared war on Mexico. The president at the time was James k. polk . • August 18, General Stephen Kearney, took Santa Fe, the capital city, without a fight. He claimed New Mexico for the United States.
•Bear Flag Revolt, the Americans declared California to be an independentnation.•Above town, rebels made a flag with a grizzly bear facing a red star.•John C. Fremont, U.S. army captain, joined American settlers in there revoltagainst Californios.•During revolt, Californios were taken prisoner. Mariano Vallego was. Afterrelease wrote a history of California, that included his time as a bear flagprisoner.•Bear Flag was quick to fall.•In August, U.S. Navy commodore Robert Stockman claimed California for theU.S.
•Battle of Buena Vista- 2day battle, American army •In February 1848, The U.S and Mexico signedgained control of northern the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which officially ended the war and forced Mexico toMexico. turn over much of its Northern territory to the U.S. known as the Mexican Cession, this land included California, Nevada, and Utah, and some of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming. •U.S. also won area claimed by Texas north of the Rio Grande. •Mexican Cession increased size of U.S. by 25%.
Gadsden Purchase was when the U.S. government paid mexico$10 million.. In exchange the U.S. received the southern partsof what are now Arizona & New Mexico.With this purchase, the existing boundary with Mexico wasFinally fixed.
CULTURAL Water RightsSURGE OF AMERICAN ENCOUNTERSSETTLERS There was a lot of Bringham Young A lot of Americans trade with Indians. established a strict moved southwest The Navajo created code for the after the war. blankets to sell. Morman community. It was hard to get Americans, brought food. manufactured Sometimes Indian & goods and money Americans fought to the southwest. over land.
When Mexicans controlled California they gave swiss immigrant John Sutterpermission to start a colony.-The Donner party was a group of western travelers who went to California but werestranded in the sierra Nevada mountains during winter.-Rescue party found the starving and freezing group in February 1o847. of theoriginal 87 travelers,42 died.
In January 1840,Sutter sent carpenter James Marshall to build a sawmill beside a nearby river. He found gold. They agreed to keep it a secret. A native american found gold too. He was shouting “oro” (gold) Oro! Oro! In 1849, about 80,000 gold seekers came to California, hoping it to strike rich. These they were called 49-ers. It was hard to get to California. California had a huge population increase, by like 25,000 by 1850.
The 49-ers would be prospect, or search for gold, along the banks of streams or in shallow. The first person to arrive at a site would “stake a claim”. Plaur miners used pans or other devices to wash gold nuggets out of loose rock and gravel. To reach gold deposits buried in the hills miners had to dig shafts and tunnels. These tasks were usually pursued by mining companies rather than by individuals. In 1853 California’s yearly gold production peaked at more than $60 million.
Mining camps sprang up wherever enough people gathered to look for gold. These camps had colorful names, such as Hang man or Poker Flat. Miners in the caMps’ caMe froM Many cultures and backgrounds. Most miners were young, unmarried men in sedum of adventure , only around 5% of gold-rush immigrants were women or children.
The lure of gold in California attracted miners from around the world.Many Chinese men came to California hoping to find wealth, them return home to China.They were known as gam, saan haak, or ”travelers to gold mountain”.Chinese immigrants soon discovered that many American’s did not welcome them. In 1852, California forced immigrants to paya high monthly tax if they wanted to search for gold.Some Chinese men opened businesses, as well other foreigners.In 1849 alone, about 20,000 immigrants arrived in California. Most left, but some made businesses, like Levi Strauss, aGerman immigrant earned a fortune by making tough denim pants for miners known as “Jeans”.
IMPACT ON CALIFORNIA California‟s booming California faced an obstacle to population made it eligible growth. The state has isolated from the rest of the country. It was for statehood only 2 years difficult to bring in and ship out after being aquired by the goods. U.S.. In 1850 California The answer to the isolation became the 31st state. problem was to bring the railroad all the way to California. Californians had to wait almost 20 years for that. Completion of the Transcontinental railroad in 1869 gave Californians the means to grow a stronger economy.