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Creative Commons in Higher Education

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This presentation is based on talks given to the University of Otago and Lincoln University libraries.

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Creative Commons in Higher Education

  1. 1. The Situation Today
  2. 2. Most publically funded research cannot be accessed and reused by the public (including me)
  3. 3. Most publically funded research cannot be accessed and reused by the public (including me) Libraries are spending an exorbitant amount on journal subscriptions
  4. 4. Most publically funded research cannot be accessed and reused by the public (including me) Libraries are spending an exorbitant amount on journal subscriptions Many younger educators are building their teaching resources from scratch (with no training)
  5. 5. Most publically funded research cannot be accessed and reused by the public (including me) Libraries are spending an exorbitant amount on journal subscriptions Many younger educators are building their teaching resources from scratch (with no training) Higher education is struggling to make the case for more public funding, especially for non-commercial research
  6. 6. Most publically funded research cannot be accessed and reused by the public (including me) Libraries are spending an exorbitant amount on journal subscriptions Many younger educators are building their teaching resources from scratch (with no training) Higher education is struggling to make the case for more public funding, especially for non-commercial research Our publically housed cultural heritage is becoming more accessible, though is still difficult to reuse
  7. 7. On the other hand: The potential of the Internet
  8. 8. Potential to: find and build on global research
  9. 9. Potential to: find and build on global teaching resources
  10. 10. Potential to: distribute work to a (much) wider audience
  11. 11. Potential to: stop reinventing the wheel
  12. 12. Potential to: actively remake our common culture
  13. 13. So, what's the problem?
  14. 14. What is Copyright?What is Copyright?
  15. 15. Copyright is: Bundle of rights Automatic Copy, distribute, perform, adapt *applies online* Lasts for 50 years after death
  16. 16. What Is the Purpose of Copyright?
  17. 17. To Expand the Commons
  18. 18. Statute of Anne, 1710: “For the encouragement of learning”
  19. 19. USA Constitution: “To promote the progress of science and useful arts.”
  20. 20. Copyright was intended to be a pragmatic solution, balancing the interests of authors, publishing AND the public Authors
  21. 21. IT’S MEANT TO WORK LIKE THIS: The commons is a public good
  22. 22. IT’S MEANT TO WORK LIKE THIS: The commons is a public good + People need an incentive to create
  23. 23. IT’S MEANT TO WORK LIKE THIS: The commons is a public good + People need an incentive to create = Limited monopoly, i.e. copyright
  24. 24. IT’S MEANT TO WORK LIKE THIS: The commons is a public good + People need an incentive to create = Limited monopoly, i.e. copyright = A vibrant culture
  25. 25. However...
  26. 26. 1710 Statute of Anne 14 years
  27. 27. 1994 New Zealand Copyright Act Life + 50 years
  28. 28. So what?
  29. 29. Nearly all of our (publicly funded) intellectual work cannot be easily accessed or legally reused
  30. 30. Your (publicly funded) work may not enter the commons for over 100 years (...)
  31. 31. ‘All Rights Reserved’ copyright restricts the potential of digital technologies and the Internet
  32. 32. Open Access is not enough
  33. 33. What to do? “Grayson, Westley, Stanislaus County, Western San Joaquin Valley, California. Seventh and eighth grade class in Westley school after lesson in Geography” 1940, US National Archives 83- G-41445, via Flickr. No known copyright.
  34. 34. Pragmatic solution Creators retain copyright Permission in advance
  35. 35. Public Domain Few Restrictions
  36. 36. Public Domain Few Restrictions All Rights Reserved Few Freedoms
  37. 37. Public Domain Few Restrictions All Rights Reserved Few Freedoms Some Rights Reserved Range of Licence Options
  38. 38. Four Licence Elements
  39. 39. Attribution
  40. 40. Non Commercial
  41. 41. No Derivatives
  42. 42. Share Alike
  43. 43. Six Licences
  44. 44. More free More restrictive
  45. 45. More free More restrictive
  46. 46. More free More restrictive
  47. 47. More free More restrictive
  48. 48. More free More restrictive
  49. 49. More free More restrictive
  50. 50. More free More restrictive
  51. 51. More free More restrictive
  52. 52. Go to creativecommons.org/choose
  53. 53. Layers Licence symboll Human readable Lawyer readable
  54. 54. More than 700 million works
  55. 55. General: search.creativecommons.org New Zealand: digitalnz.org
  56. 56. CCANZ argues that CC should be used to share all publically funded works, including culture, research, data and educational resources.
  57. 57. CCANZ argues that CC should be used to share all publically funded works, including culture, research, data and educational resources (Unless there is a good reason not to, such as privacy)
  58. 58. How will this work in higher education?
  59. 59. 1. Open Access and Open Licensing to Research
  60. 60. All research outputs should be CC licensed, for four reasons
  61. 61. First, the public should not have to pay twice
  62. 62. Second, the current structure of academic publishing is economically unsustainable
  63. 63. Third, all cultural and intellectual work builds on other work
  64. 64. Fourth, the opportunities of the Internet & digital technologies for higher ed. are massive
  65. 65. But what does OA even mean?
  66. 66. Basic distinctions: Access: Gold & Green Copyright: Libre & Gratis
  67. 67. CC licensing will reduce transaction costs of publishing, decentralise distribution & enable new research
  68. 68. Different models have been adopted by research funders in the US, UK, EU the World Bank.
  69. 69. What form will NZ take?
  70. 70. 2. Open Educational Resources
  71. 71. Reinventing the wheel is particular frustrating for young academics
  72. 72. Major commitment to towards OERs in nearly every nation US: $2 billion on open textbooks Latin America: Project LATIN Mongolia: OER portal UNESCO Paris Declaration on OER
  73. 73. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Oct 2011: 127 million visits to OCW content 1,018 courses translated and 290 mirror sites globally
  74. 74. Source: Brandenburg, U., Carr, D., Donauer, S., Berthold, C. (2008) Analysing the Future Market – Target Countries for German HEIs, Working paper No. 107, CHE Centre for Higher Education Development, Gütersloh, Germany, p. 13. “Accommodating the additional 98 million students would require more than four major universities (30,000 students) to open every week for the next fifteen years.” Stamenka Uvalić-Trumbić of UNESCO
  75. 75. Also major potential in the compulsory education sector (53,000+ teachers; 2500+ schools)
  76. 76. 3. Open GLAM
  77. 77. Heritage institutions have digitised a great deal of content
  78. 78. Heritage institutions have digitised a great deal of content But there are some tensions between kaitiaki and OA
  79. 79. Regardless, most people have no idea what the GLAM sector has
  80. 80. “Start from the other direction”
  81. 81. However, not everything is suitable for licensing
  82. 82. The infamous 'low hanging fruit.' 1. Public domain works → clear usage rights statements 2. Materials with easy permissions → CC friendly donors 3. Institution's own copyright → release under CC-BY
  83. 83. So, I've referred to 'public funding.'
  84. 84. What is the government doing?
  85. 85. NZGOAL (2010) Government guidance, approved by Cabinet Declaration on Open and Transparent Government (2011)
  86. 86. Framework for release using CC BY Advocates release using CC BY
  87. 87. Many public agencies are now using CC
  88. 88. Open Government GIS Data (LINZ)
  89. 89. Open (Local) Government GIS Data (WCC)
  90. 90. Open Scientific Data
  91. 91. Open Heritage (Upper Hutt CL)
  92. 92. Open Culture (Te Papa)
  93. 93. Open Government
  94. 94. What about students? Banks College students playing leap frog. Wellesley College :Photographs relating to Wellesley College, Banks College and Croydon School. Ref: 1/2-147264-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22901144
  95. 95. Creative Commons is a great way to teach students about copyright
  96. 96. Creative Commons shifts the conversation from what students can’t do, to what they can.
  97. 97. Too often, young people are labelled ‘pirates’
  98. 98. And teachers become ‘copyright police’ ‘
  99. 99. But remix should be encouraged
  100. 100. Mix & Mash 2013: The New Storytelling mixandmash.org.nz August 9 and November 10 Prizes of $50, $500 and $2000
  101. 101. THANKS CREATORS ‘THE PIRATE KING. The Kaiser hoists the "Jolly Roger" and announces his intention of sinking every merchant ship on the seas!’ “Wanganui Chronicle, Issue 20354, 14 May 1915, Page 3, via Papers Past. No known copyright. “2500 Creative Commons Licences” by qthomasbower, via Flickr. Made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 licence. YOUNG FEMALE FOX NEAR GALBRAITH LAKE CAMP, 08/1973.” ARC Identifier 550432 / Local Identifier 412-DA-7947. Item from Record Group 412: Records of the Environmental Protection Agency, 1944 – 2006. No known copyright. “Caxton Showing the First Specimen of His Printing to King Edward IV at the Almonry, Westminster,” by Daniel Maclise, 1851. Out of copyright. ‘The worker K. G. Persson in Gottfridsberg, Linköping. Born in 1860.’ By Einar Erici, 1932. Via Flickr. No known copyright. “Grayson, Westley, Stanislaus County, Western San Joaquin Valley, California. Seventh and eighth grade class in Westley school after lesson in Geography” 1940, US National Archives 83-G-41445, via Flickr. No known copyright. Photograph of Card Catalog in Central Search Room, 1942, US National Archives, via Flickr. No known copyright. Wikihouse NZ at the Makertorium at Te Papa, 27 April 2013, via WikihouseNZ/SpaceCraft. Used with permission. Teacher, outside with a blackboard, taking a geography class. Northwood brothers :Photographs of Northland. Ref: PA1-o-394-05. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22829561 Out of copyright. Beehive, Wellington, NZ. Creative Commons Attribution Non Commerical No Derivatives by stewartbaird via Flickr. Traffic squad police’ by Bain News Service, July 20, 1911. Library of Congresss, LC-B2- 2298-16. via Flickr. No known copyright. Screenshot of “Manny’s Story” by Casey Carsel, via Youtube. Made available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence Screenshot of Wellington City Harbour, Wellington City Aerial photography, by Wellington City Council, via Koordinates. CC-BY “Keene Grammar School Class, Keene, New Hampshire” by French, J.A., Keene NH, via Flickr. 1896 Keene Public Library and the Historical Society of Cheshire County. HS259-P819. No know copyright restrictions. “Teacher, Lorraine Lapthorne conducts her class in the Grade Two room at the Drouin State School, Drouin, Victoria,” by Fitzpatrick, Jim. 1944. National Library of Australia, via Flickr. nla.pic-an24229822. No known copyright restrictions. Screenshot of Nelson and surrounds, “NZ Mainland Topo50 Maps” by LINZ, via LINZ Data Service. CC-BY
  102. 102. www.creativecommons.org.nz @cc_Aotearoa admin@creativecommons.org.nz facebook.com/creativecommonsnz This work is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand Licence. QUESTIONS?

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