These are just three examples of this 21st century technology innovation that is sweeping the global village. As a technology scholar practitioner, one has to get involve in this process of technology innovation. This involvement may include choosing an innovative technology tool that should make an impact on the world, in particular the technology world that I choose to call the global village.
This quick feedback helps the teacher to be able to use the time gained, if these tests were graded manually, to focus on the evaluation of the assessment, thereby planning for the needs of different students within the classroom. This technology device would certainly be welcomed by the classroom teacher, and by extension the school, as time saving is an important factor of the education system. http://www.cimav.com/store/products/gradecam-camera
According to The Journal: Transforming education through technology , teacher input is important in this decision-making, and one teacher stated ‘the iPad definitely has a place in the classroom, but with the devices set to launch at $499 to $829 a piece, she worries they could be cost-prohibitive’. This is not the case with the GradeCam, as according to EdNET Insight: Insight networking success , they would only cost $1.50 per student per year online. With respect to utilization, all the teachers would be able to use the GradeCam, as all teachers are involved in testing. For the iPad, only some subject area teachers would benefit. For example, the teachers of language arts (English Language) would benefit more than the mathematics teachers, due to the nature of the respective subjects, as the iPad is more of a reading tool, with less, if any, numerical data and solution. The selection of the Gradecam over the SMART Response interactive response systems is due to its easy accessibility and simplicity. The teachers, some of whom are not versatile in the use of technology, would, at this time, appreciate the GradeCam over the SMART Response interactive response systems. After becoming proficient in the use of the GradeCam, with its simple assessment and grade recording, then the SMART Response interactive response systems could be introduced. This set of systems, produced by the organization that created the popular SMART board technology tool, is much more detailed in assessment and provide more needed information for the teacher about the students.
Tami Porter was a teacher who felt overwhelmed by the grading of students’ work. It demanded much of her time and attention. One day, on her way home from the school where she taught, she stopped by the grocery. Watching the clerk scan her purchases, she thought, “Wouldn’t it be wonderful if teachers could grade and record student work that easily?” She did not realize, at the time, that the idea for GradeCam had just been born. For example, after a 10 year review of approximately 250 studies on assessments, British professors Paul Black and Dylan William reported: “Firm evidence shows that formative assessment is an essential component of classroom work and that its development can raise standards of achievement. Indeed, we know of no other way of raising standards where such a prima-facie (evidence-based) case can be made.” It came directly out of the classroom experience of the husband and wife team of educators, Tami and Rick Porter. They worked with a team of computer programmers led by their son, to develop GradeCam, and put it through extensive field testing. Not all kinds of camera can be used. GradeCam is geared to classroom teachers, with the intention of easing their excessive work load and improving instruction through timely feedback. GradeCam uses the Internet, technology conferences and expositions, as well as word of mouth as its main tools for marketing. This word of mouth is in the form of feedback for those teachers who have experienced its use. The innovation is distributed through software vendors. The product is relatively inexpensive when compared with other almost similar products on the market.
GradeCam can reduce the stress that the teachers at my school are undergoing. It is a solid and reputable organization that can be trusted. It will also offers free support to the teachers if they are having trouble using it. The teachers will be convinced, and will appreciate the gesture, if given the opportunity. Performance of the students will improve overtime, as the teachers will now have more time to be engaged in tutoring, a badly needed focus, at this time. As I have been emphasizing, GradeCam is relatively inexpensive, so its affordability will not harm the school’s budget. So, members of the school board, I implore you to take up the offer and adopt this innovation for, not only the teachers, but the school, knowing that in the long run we will all benefit as the main stakeholders of this prestigious institution. It’s worth mentioning that since 2008, Rick Porter has been CEO of the GradeCam Corporation, operating out of California. On January 13, 2010. the company launched GradeCam Online, a new Internet GradeCam product. Also, later that year, August 24, 2010, the company formed a strategic partnership with Califone, another technology company that has been in existence since 1947, to promote informed instruction. Members of the board, as I mentioned above, Internet access is now available with the use of GradeCam. Therefore, if you are wavering, still not knowing whether to adopt the offline innovation, the online one is now available, and the cost is extremely inexpensive. It only cost $1.50 per student per year. Now, that’s what I called a bargain.
The GradeCam software experienced that curve, in that when it was first introduced to the commercial market in 2003, at technology conferences, it did not show signs of growth or gratified recognition. The first sign of innovation, being adopted by innovators, was at the beginning of 2004. The rate of innovation was slow then, and that affected the sales of the GradeCam software during the year 2004 – 2005. During the ensuing years, sales started to increase at a rapid rate, as not only innovators were involved in its promotion, but the early adopters of the innovation saw the need for the GradeCam in the classroom. That rapid rate decreased the following year, 2007 – 2008, but there was still and increase in the sale of the software, as the early majority became the latest adopters. To date, the software has achieved approximately 80% of its innovative adoption, as the late majority adopters now see the need to use the software. However, before the laggards get involved in this diffusion process, which would signify the timely death of the technology, the original inventors, introduced a modified version at the start of 2010. This new version is called GradeCam Online, where teachers can now grade the papers at a reduced cost than the previous ‘offline’ version. I suppose this modified version is now a new product which may go through the diffusion phase once more, but probably at a faster rate, knowing that the product was prior introduced.
The trialability attribute is used when GradeCam Inc. participates in technology conferences and expositions. Friability, according to Rogers, is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis. Attendees at the conferences and exhibitions are given the opportunity to test the innovation. Rogers also said that a personal trial can dispel uncertainty about a new idea, and that trialability by a social system is positively related to the rate of adoption of the innovation. GradeCam is no exception, as was seen on the Sigmoid function/curve, commonly called the S-curve, of last week’s wiki update. In addition to the perceived attribute of trialability, the GradeCam inventors also use the compatibility attribute in trying to persuade potential adopters of the innovation. Compatibility, according to Rogers, is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters. Educators value their job, so whatever instrument that can be introduced to improve performance is welcoming. For example, the task of grading student work can be tedious and time consuming, so the adoption of an innovation that can lessened the burdensome load, would be heart warming to educators. According to the innovation’s inventors, GradeCam does that and more. It not only grade papers, but it is a tremendous teaching tool, as well as a powerful paper-management device. (About GradeCam). However, not all educators would readily accept this innovation as soon as it is made public. Some educators would wait for a long time before adoption, or would even reject the idea. These educators are who Rogers called laggards In my opinion, the laggards of the GradeCam innovation are the educators who are not versatile in the use of technology, and who are more traditional in the future perspective of the route of education. To best assist this group of adopters, training programs and/or professional development should be held, so as to promote the use of technology as a tool for educational improvement. Also, these innovators should be encouraged to attend technology conferences and expositions to get a first-hand view and knowledge of the use of technology and its impact on education. Simultaneously, at these conferences and expositions, the trial use (trialability) of GradeCam could be done. Having leveled off at approximately 80% of the niche market (as can be seen on the S-curve of last week), the GradeCam innovation needs to include the perceived attribute observability, if it wants to meet the critical mass in the education sector. Why observability? The diffused innovation needs to be widely observed by other members of the education sector who knows nothing of its existence. According to Rogers, the observability of an innovation, as perceived by members of the social system, is positively related to its rate of adoption. With this attribute in place, GradeCam could increase its potentiality within the classroom, thereby diffusing in depth in the education sector.
However, before addressing these two scenarios, the Board might ask the question: If we were to adopt GradeCam, which method do you think would be a better choice; a centralized or a decentralized approach? I think that a centralized approach would be much better, because that would cost the organization much less. Instead of distributing a GradeCam to each teacher after the adoption of the innovation, the concentration of the equipment could be done departmentally. For example, the six teachers of the mathematics department would receive one instrument that would be used by only the members of that department. There would be no exchange among departments, unless it’s absolutely necessary. To oversee the operation of the GradeCam from the time it was adopted to the update of its latest software, I would recommend some key personnel to the position of change agents.
First, the faculty, especially those who are not technology proficient, would be trained in the use of the innovation spearheaded by GradeCam Inc., the intention of which is to make the adoption process real. Secondly, as change agents, we would share the latest information about the innovation with the faculty on a regular basis, as soon as it is made known to us by innovation’s creators. Thirdly, recognizing and diagnosing the issues or problems of the faculty with respect to the innovation will be one of our priorities. Fourthly, while processing the faculty’s adoption and use of the innovation, our intention would be to transform the entire faculty as to the usefulness and necessity of GradeCam. Fifthly, our intention would be made known to these users of the innovation, as they see the real necessity of it. That is, the purpose of not just grading tests, but analyzing them for student evaluation, which, in turn, would drive lesson planning, making it more manageable than before. All these would be done, so as to stabilize the adoption of GradeCam, preventing a discontinuity. Finally, this whole process would really not be a success if new change agents are not emerged from the adopters. These new change agents would then play our role, as new teachers join the faculty. This change agent transformation would terminate the relationship of GradeCam adoption between the principal, me, and the new change agents, formerly the adopters of GradeCam.
Defense of the Innovation Innovative technology has impacted the world ever since technology was first launched. In this, the 21st century, that impact is constantly making a debut in different technology launches . Innovation Technology Tools Selection - GradeCam - iPad - SMART Response interactive response systems (SMART Rirs) Of the three innovative technology tools identified, my selective innovation would be the GradeCam.
Defense of the Innovation continues What is GradeCam? This technology tool is a student-performance scanner that can be used in the classroom by both teachers and students to grade multiple choice tests. The GradeCam image-recognition software works with a camera to grade tests from bubble forms and to generate statistics and reports on student performance to the teacher’s electronic gradebook, all within a second.
More Defense of the Innovation Justification of Selection Technology innovations are good, and they serve the purpose for which they were designed, however, not all technology innovations can be adoptable, as there are factors which hinder their acceptance . <ul><li>Not easily </li></ul><ul><li>accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Not simple </li></ul>SMART Rirs <ul><li>High cost </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>use across </li></ul><ul><li>subjects </li></ul>iPad Reason for Rejection Rejected Innovation
Generation of the ideas for Innovation Pre-Diffusion of GradeCam The GradeCam package consists of a 300 DPI scanner with a special built in camera, GradeCam score credit labels, and GradeCam bubble sheets. In addition, the user must include a computer (desktop/laptop), and the downloaded GradeCam software. GradeCam was developed over years of collaboration with technology experts experienced in designing productivity tools. In diagnosing the problem with GradeCam during its development, the developers were careful in using the camera that is compatible with the software. Research idea: Started with Tami Porter, cofounder of GradeCam Inc. Research background : The research on the benefits of formative assessments seems to be convincing. Teachers at my school are inundated with work: Preparation of lesson & unit plans; grading of test, H/W, quiz; tutoring; bulletin boards; inter-visitations; student work analysis, etc. COMMERCIAL- IZATION DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH NEED
Commercialize GradeCam Package includes the following: OR +
Innovation-Decision Timeline The husband and wife team, Tami and Rick Porter, founders of Grade-Cam, has been developing educational products for over ten years. Grade-Cam was conceived in 2003. by Tami Porter former middle school teacher. She, along with her husband and their son, fully developed Grade-Cam over the next three to four years. The goal of Grade-Cam is to improve education by reducing the stress of everyday teaching. This has been the organization’s theme, as it developed Grade-Cam as can be seen in the timeline below. Internet Technology conferences and expositions Individual (Teachers’ feedback) Internet Technology conferences and expositions Individual (Teachers’ feedback) Internet Technology conferences and expositions Individual (Teachers’ feedback) Technology conferences and expositions Individual (Teachers’ feedback) Technology conferences and expositions COMMUNICATION CHANNEL CONFIRMATION IMPLEMENTATION DECISION PERSUASION KNOWLEDGE INNOVATION-DECISION 2008 – Present 2008 2006 – 2007 2004 – 2005 2003 TIMELINE
Grade-Cam S-Curve In the process of diffusion, the innovation adoption experience a phase that relates to the statistical shaped bell-curve , except that, emphasis is not placed on the latter part of this curve. Rogers (2003) said ‘the time element of the diffusion process allows us to classify adopter categories, and to draw diffusion curves’. He further said of these curves, ‘when plotted over time on a frequency basis, the cumulative numbers of adopters plotted, results in an S-shaped curve’.
The Perceived Attributes/Rate of Adoption of GradeCam <ul><li>The GradeCam innovation was targeted at the education sector, particularly the classroom environment. As the inventors of the product said ‘GradeCam is a student-performance scanner for the classroom’. ( GradeCam website). The innovators and early adopters of this innovation were, indeed, the classroom teachers. Rogers (2003) identified five perceived attributes/strategies of innovation: Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. He associated each of these attributes with the rate of adoption of an innovation by the social system. The GradeCam inventors use some of these attributes in diffusing the innovation. The strategies that are most persuasive in convincing the adoption of the GradeCam are trialability and compatibility. </li></ul>
GradeCam’s Critical Mass and Change Agents As I continue my proposal to the Board of Directors in considering the adoption of the GradeCam Innovation , the focus will now be on the ‘point’ of critical mass and on some of the key personnel in the organization.
GradeCam’s Critical Mass and Change Agents <ul><li>A change agent is who Rogers (2003) called ‘an individual who influences clients’ innovation-decisions in a direction deemed desirable by a change agency’. This agency, ladies and gentlemen of the Board, is our organization, or better yet, our school. In addition to myself, as the technical expert on this innovation, I would include the principal the main leadership of the institution. Both of us will lead the way in this adoption as we aimed at fulfilling the duties of a change agent. </li></ul>MORE Rogers also identified the roles of this agent, and listed them as follows : 1) The need to change clientele 2) Establishing an information exchange relationship 3) Diagnose problems 4) Create intent to change in the client 5) Translate intent into action 6) Stabilize adoption and prevent discontinuance 7) Achieve a terminal relationship But, how can these seven roles effect positive social change within this school? (See notes)
This occurred between the years 2005 and 2006, at 10%, when a steep rise in the curve began . At this phase of the Innovation over 10% of the ‘early majority’ of classroom teachers exposed to the Innovation started to adopt it. Members of the Board as you have seen on the Sigmoid function , or the S-curve, the GradeCam has already achieved its point of critical mass within the social strata of the education system.
Innovation-Decision Types <ul><li>Adopting the GradeCam as an individual would be more than welcoming, but I am not the only one who will be utilizing this software, so it would be better if the organization adopts it. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization innovation-decisions are two-fold; it may be done collectively or authoritatively </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers said ‘collective innovation-decisions are choices to adopt/reject an innovation that is made by a consensus among the members of a system, and authority innovation-decisions are choices to adopt/reject an innovation that are made by a relatively few individuals in a system who possess power, high social status, or technical expertise’ </li></ul>
Innovation Champion <ul><li>The GradeCam innovation is expected to be adopted by the authority of the organization, the Board of Directors, who is being advised by me, the instructional technologist of the organization, who is also their technology expert. </li></ul><ul><li>As the individual with the highest technology position in the organization, I am automatically the innovation champion. </li></ul><ul><li>An innovation champion, according to Rogers, is an individual who throws his/her weight behind the innovation, thus overcoming indifference or resistance that the new idea may provoke in an organization. </li></ul>PC Inventor
Reasons for Adoption <ul><li>Increase the speed with which the teachers grade tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain accurate record of students’ scores </li></ul><ul><li>Do immediate analyses of student-work </li></ul><ul><li>Give immediate feedback to students on their performance </li></ul><ul><li>Plan lessons in a timely manner as soon as feedback is given </li></ul><ul><li>Plan differentiated lessons that will meet the needs of different students, effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Use the time spent on grading test as tutoring hours </li></ul><ul><li>Improve and enhance the teachers’ skills in the use of technology </li></ul>
A Win-Win Situation <ul><li>It behooves you that the adoption of the GradeCam innovation by this organization will be worthwhile for its continued improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>All stakeholders will reap the benefits and success that this innovation will bring to us. </li></ul>
REFERENCE <ul><li>GradeCam corporation announces new version of GradeCam online. (2010, January). Retrieved December 19, 2010, from Multimedia and Internet @ schools. http://www.mmischools.com/Articles/News/Breaking-News/GradeCam- Corporation-Announces-New-Version-of-GradeCam-Online-60668.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring the iPad’s potential for education. Retrieved December 19, 2010, from The Journal: Transforming education through technology. http://thejournal.com/articles/2010/01/27/measuring-the-ipads-potential-for- education.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>New version of GradeCam is first online assessment solution to use a document camera to grade paper-based quizzes and tests (2010, January). Retrieved December 19, 2010, from EdNET Insight. http://www.ednetinsight.com/news-alerts/technology-headlines/new-version-of- gradecam-is-first-online-assessment-solution-to-use-a-document-camera-to- grade-paper-based-quizzes-and- tests.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Rivero, V. (2010, January). Extra credit: Gradecam. Tools for learning: Assessment tools. Retrieved December 19, 2010, from Multimedia and Internet @ schools. http://www.mmischools.com/Articles/Editorial/Features/TOOLS-FOR- LEARNING-Assessment-Tools-60442.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>SMART Response interactive response systems. Retrieved December 19, 2010, from SMART Technologies. http://smarttech.com/us/Solutions/Education+Solutions/Products+for+education/Complementary+hardware+products/SMART+Response </li></ul>
REFERENCE <ul><li>Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press. </li></ul><ul><li>United States Trademark application http://xrint.com/trademarks/us/78780001 </li></ul><ul><li>Nagel, D. GradeCam takes test scanning online. The Journal. http://thejournal.com/articles/2010/01/13/gradecam-takes-test-scanning-online.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>2011 NSBA Annual Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit guide at the Phoenix Convention Center </li></ul>
GradeCam Resources <ul><li>Video 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Video 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Video 3 </li></ul><ul><li>GradeCam Scan </li></ul><ul><li>GradeCam Wiki </li></ul><ul><li>GradeCam Company Background </li></ul><ul><li>GradeCam Flyer </li></ul><ul><li>GradeCam Manual </li></ul><ul><li>GradeCam Software (Download) </li></ul><ul><li>GradeCam Web site </li></ul><ul><li>GradeCam in the News 1 </li></ul><ul><li>GradeCam in the News 2 </li></ul><ul><li>GradeCam in the News 3 </li></ul>
THANKS to Dr. Almasude (Class Instructor) Learning Community Members Deborah Forrest Elaine Gagne Nicholas Jarrell Shannon Gray and the other members of EDUC 8841/7101 Diffusion and Integration of Technology in Education