AUSTRALIA
OCEANIA
ANTRACTICA
Prepared for:
 SIR MUHAMMAD DEHYA ZAINAL AZLAN
Presenter:
 AHMADAFIDZ BIN MOHLISIN
 FATINAMIRA BINTI ABDHAMID
 MASWADI...
Natural Enviroment
TROPICAL OCEAN CLIMATES
Island of Oceania nearly situated in the tropical
latitudes
 Temperatures in Oceania are consistently warm
throughout the year.
 Slightly modified by winds, storms and elevation
DISTINCTIVE ECOSYSTEMS
Oceania
 Vegetation in the South Pacific island of Oceania
grows relatively nutrient-poor, sandy s...
NATURAL RESOURCES
Pacific Islands
 Plate collision zone in some Pacific Islands have
mineral resources
Papua New Guinea
 Contain one of the world’s largest copper reserves
New Caledonia
 Third world largest producer of nickel ore.
In Oceania
Coral atoll formation
 The highest parts of some coral atoll island are
only a few meters above sea level.
 M...
POLLUTIONS, EROSION AND MINING
EXCAVATIONS
Oceania
 Dumping of oil
Nuclear testing
 Nauru, uncultivable
skeleton
CULTURAL HISTORY
THE LAND
DOWN UNDER
AUSTRALIA
Cultural History
COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT AND INDEPENDENCE
 Willem Janszoon were the first Europeans discover Terra Australis...
 1800s, established 5 new colonies with :
- main port city
- competitive pride
 The Commonwealth Australia became federa...
AUSTRALIA PEOPLE
> Migrants come from across Pacific  diffused out
the island archipelagos to Aussie
> indigenous include ethnic and cultu...
NEW ZEALAND
Adventure capital of
the world / “Autearoa”
CULTURAL HISTORY
COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT AND INDEPENDENCE
 Maoris resisted British missionaries and whalers.
 Dutch Navigat...
NEW ZEALAND PEOPLE
 Polynesians
 first inhabitants of New Zealand
 settled on both main islands of New Zealand
 named the country Aotearo...
PACIFIC ISLANDS
Melanesian (“black islands” named by Europeans
because presence of dark-skinned people)
Micronesian (“small islands”)
Poly...
 The United Kingdoms was the main colonizer of
the Pasific Islands.
 Guam and the Marianas were Spanish colonies
until t...
GLOBALIZATION & LOCAL
CHANGE
a. POPULATION DYNAMIC
I. natural increase
* slow  total fertility rate less than 2
* advance...
iii. Geographic identity
* ‘white Australia policy’ – European immigrants, neighboring Asian countries.
* increase multira...
GLOBALIZATION & LOCAL
CHANGE
 POPULATION DYNAMIC
I. natural increase
* total fertility rate remain slightly
* advanced in...
iii. Geographic identity
* many young , skilled New Zealanders migrate
* economic opportunities in:
> service industry
> p...
SUBREGIONS
THE LAND
DOWN UNDER
AUSTRALIA
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
CLIMATE
VARIATION
Arid
continental
interior
Regular rainfall
(coastal area)
Monsoon, seasonal
summer r...
Geologic
activities
Gondwanala
nd
Great
barrier
reef
Great
dividing
range
Africa,antarti
ca,south
america,
peninsular
india
Distinctive
ecosystem
Unique
animal
species
marsupialsEucalyptus
& acacia
Unique animal species
Blue tounge
lizard
Frilled
lizard
Kimberl
y tree-
frog
marsupials
kangaroo
quoll
koala
s
wallab
y
Eucalyptus and acacia
Eucalyptus
Natural resources
• Iron ore
• Nickel
• gold
• Platinum
• Uranium
• copper
Ancient rocks
• Coal
• Silver
• Lead
• Zinc
• C...
Environmental problem
• Drought
• Floods
• typhoons
• earthquakes
Natural hazard
• by farmers and miners
• felled trees
• ...
SUBREGIONS
Australia
sovereignty
Southeast
australia
Northern
australia
Interior &
western
australia
Economic trade and development
 Export agricultural products & mined minerals
 Protecting manufacturing & government-owned
enterprises
 Australia dominant mining
* high production of iron and steel
* iron ore (bauxite,nickel, gold)
* natural gas fields.
 ...
FOODS
NEW ZEALAND
Adventure capital of
the world / “Autearoa”
NEW ZEALAND
Adventure capital of
the world / “Autearoa”
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
CLIMATE
VARIATION
Storms/
heavy
rainfall
Snow (
elevation
mountains)
Ex-
Tropical
Cyclones
and Mid-
La...
Geologic
activities
Plate
movement
Distinctive
ecosystem
Unique
temperate
rainforest
Fir trees
and pines
Tropical
fish
varieties
Great walks
Kahikatea Spey valley moss
Natural resources
a) Make fresh water
b) Hydroelectric power
generation
Environmental problem
• Earthquakes
• the eruption of
mount ruapehu
Natural
hazard
• Soil erosion
• Air and water pollutio...
SUBREGIONS
North
islan
d
South
island
Eastern
island
Economic trade and development
ECONOMY
a. Natural resources = fresh water
= hydroelectric power regeneration
= coal
b. ` E...
DEVELOPMENT
 Pastureland replace forest
 replanted large areas “ Radiata Pines and Douglas firs”
 1900s, afforestation ...
FOODS
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
CLIMATE
VARIATION
Storms/
heavy
rainfall
Snow (
elevation
mountains)
Ex-
Tropical
Cyclones
and Mid-
La...
Geologic
activities
Plate
movement
Distinctive
ecosystem
Unique
temperate
rainforest
Fir trees
and pines
Tropical
fish
varieties
Great walks
Kahikatea Spey valley moss
Natural resources
a) Make fresh water
b) Hydroelectric power
generation
Environmental problem
• Earthquakes
• the eruption of
mount ruapehu
Natural
hazard
• Soil erosion
• Air and water pollutio...
SUBREGIONS
North
islan
d
South
island
Eastern
island
Economic trade and development
ECONOMY
a. Natural resources = fresh water
= hydroelectric power regeneration
= coal
b. ` E...
DEVELOPMENT
 Pastureland replace forest
 replanted large areas “ Radiata Pines and Douglas firs”
 1900s, afforestation ...
FOODS
OCEANIA
Island Countries
 Most of South Pacific Islands independence in
1970s
 Although independence, economic difficulty,
inter...
 World poorest countries
 The largest and most populated island
Farm, forest and mine product
Tourism
BY : Fatin amira
ANTARCTICA
• Occupies 10 % of Earth’s land surface and
is larger than either Europe or Australia.
• All assert territorial claims to parts of
the continent
 No population exists but there is constant human
presence
Scientist/Geologist Tourist/Visitor
ANTARCTICA’S HARSH POLAR
CLIMATE
 Antarctic landmass is surrounded by the
Southern Ocean.
 The continent is surrounded b...
Antarctica’s high eastern
plateau
 Frigid
 Temperatures below
freezing
Antarctica’s coastal
areas
 Slightly warmer
 Af...
 Summer high temperature in January average
above 0 C
ANTARTCTICA GLOBAL STATUS
 Expeditions to Antarctica beginning with
Captain James Cook
 Late 1700s, discovering what exi...
Next Exploration
• Late 1800s and early 1900s, explores
wanted to be the first further discovered on
Antarctica
 Establishment of fixed scientific research
stations.
mid-1900
 Gave way to international political claims on
sections o...
Antarctic Treaty
 December 1959, singed by 12 countries
 Non-military scientific cooperation
Antarctic Treaty System
 Protection of seals and marine organisms
 Prohibits any military use or weapons testing
 Encou...
ANTARCTICA AND SOUTHERN OCEAN
 Frozen continent forms its own cold climate with
a heating deficit throughout the year.
 ...
 During summer, glacial ice calves off the
icebergs into the surrounding ocean.
Ozone hole
 Caused by effects pollutants in the atmosphere
destroying stratospheric ozone
 Began to decrease by 2010 bec...
GEOLOGIC ACTIVITIES
 Southern Hemisphere continent is longitudinally
situated in both the Western and Eastern
Hemisphere ...
 The divergent plate margin between the
Indian and Antarctic Plates separates
Australia and Antarctica.
 Transantarctic Mountains divide the continent into
West Antarctica and East Antarctica.
One of the world’s largest conti...
ANTARCTICA RESOURCES
 Is not a country and so does not have an
economy of its own.
 Remain unexploited and somewhat prot...
Antarctica
 Transantarctic Mountains and other areas are rich in
mineral resources ;
 COAL ORES 
COPPER  NICKEL
 SIL...
 Living organisms are dominated by a huge variety
of sea birds, including penguins that rely on the
rich ocean life of pl...
 It was agreed internationally to regulate such
fishing.
 Fish stocks such as cod, together with some of
whales, were de...
 Antarctica’s harsh polar climate and permanent
ice and snow cover support very little vegetation
beyond ;
 Algae
 Lich...
TOURISM
 Grew slowly in 1958 to the early 1990s and
began to grow more quickly through the early
2000s.
 Most tourist reach Antarctica on commercial
cruise ships setting sale from Southern
Hemisphere ports in Australia, New Z...
 As more tourists arrive, the dangers of
environmental damage increase.
 At present, ATS does not have a code regulating...
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
NATURAL HAZARDS
In Antarctica
Anthropogenic activity caused
climate change
 Could open the contin...
POLLUTIONS, EROSION AND MINIONG EXCAVATIONS
Antarctica
Waste from residents scientific community
Fuel discharged from crui...
Q&A
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
OCEANIA
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

OCEANIA

2,102 views

Published on

OCEANIA presentation

Published in: Education, Business, Travel
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,102
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
101
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

OCEANIA

  1. 1. AUSTRALIA OCEANIA ANTRACTICA
  2. 2. Prepared for:  SIR MUHAMMAD DEHYA ZAINAL AZLAN Presenter:  AHMADAFIDZ BIN MOHLISIN  FATINAMIRA BINTI ABDHAMID  MASWADI BINAZIZ  SAIDATULAQMARBINTIMOHDNAZRI
  3. 3. Natural Enviroment
  4. 4. TROPICAL OCEAN CLIMATES Island of Oceania nearly situated in the tropical latitudes
  5. 5.  Temperatures in Oceania are consistently warm throughout the year.  Slightly modified by winds, storms and elevation
  6. 6. DISTINCTIVE ECOSYSTEMS Oceania  Vegetation in the South Pacific island of Oceania grows relatively nutrient-poor, sandy soils that may only support some scrub vegetation and coconut palm.
  7. 7. NATURAL RESOURCES Pacific Islands  Plate collision zone in some Pacific Islands have mineral resources
  8. 8. Papua New Guinea  Contain one of the world’s largest copper reserves
  9. 9. New Caledonia  Third world largest producer of nickel ore.
  10. 10. In Oceania Coral atoll formation  The highest parts of some coral atoll island are only a few meters above sea level.  Many have concentration of settlement on low- lying coasts. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
  11. 11. POLLUTIONS, EROSION AND MINING EXCAVATIONS Oceania  Dumping of oil Nuclear testing  Nauru, uncultivable skeleton
  12. 12. CULTURAL HISTORY
  13. 13. THE LAND DOWN UNDER AUSTRALIA
  14. 14. Cultural History COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT AND INDEPENDENCE  Willem Janszoon were the first Europeans discover Terra Australis (Southland) in 1600s.  British explore  Australia held little economic or settlement potential for Europe.  reports concerning the potential of Australia came from surveys of captain james cook in 1700s.  settlement increased in 1800s after initial problems of food supply effect: -improvements in government administration - issuance of free land grants - encouraged sheep farming  most of the convicts came from the most materially impoverished neighbourhoods of British cities.  a gold-mining boom in the 1850s drew speculators and new settlers to Australia.
  15. 15.  1800s, established 5 new colonies with : - main port city - competitive pride  The Commonwealth Australia became federal country in 1901 and 5 colonies became states.  Australia aborigines died from disease and oppression  1990s integrate Aborigines in Australia life.
  16. 16. AUSTRALIA PEOPLE
  17. 17. > Migrants come from across Pacific  diffused out the island archipelagos to Aussie > indigenous include ethnic and culture groups. > present in the late 1700s > nomadic hunters and gatherers > live in communities or clans across continent  Speaking 200 different language  Animistic  rock paintings  Part of their legacy : - religious beliefs - social organization  three main categories of deity : -Creation Beings -Ancestral Beings. -Totemic Beings
  18. 18. NEW ZEALAND Adventure capital of the world / “Autearoa”
  19. 19. CULTURAL HISTORY COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT AND INDEPENDENCE  Maoris resisted British missionaries and whalers.  Dutch Navigator Abel Tasman, the first European discoverer.  Agreed to respect Maoris land ownership.  Maori signed the Treaty of Waitangi with the British Crown. regarded as New Zealand’s founding document.  More sheep farmers established as technological advances in refrigerated shipping.
  20. 20. NEW ZEALAND PEOPLE
  21. 21.  Polynesians  first inhabitants of New Zealand  settled on both main islands of New Zealand  named the country Aotearoa (Land of the Long White Cloud).  English is the most common language  Maori is also an official language.  indigenous Maori represent about 15 percent of the population.  express their culture by Maori tattooing, also known as Ta Moko.
  22. 22. PACIFIC ISLANDS
  23. 23. Melanesian (“black islands” named by Europeans because presence of dark-skinned people) Micronesian (“small islands”) Polynesian (“many islands”)
  24. 24.  The United Kingdoms was the main colonizer of the Pasific Islands.  Guam and the Marianas were Spanish colonies until taken by the United States as protectorates just after 1900.  French colonizer New Caledonia and the islands around Tahiti.  Political decision made by French government in Paris.  German taking the island in 1880s.  All of the Britain, Australia, New Zealand lost to United States in World War 1.
  25. 25. GLOBALIZATION & LOCAL CHANGE a. POPULATION DYNAMIC I. natural increase * slow  total fertility rate less than 2 * advanced in demographic transition process * slowing in birth after baby-boom period & aging population * concentrated in coastal urban areas ii. Effect of rapid organization * intraregional and interregional trade fueled growth city-regions *Sydney- connected city * have downtowns (state government & financial sectors)
  26. 26. iii. Geographic identity * ‘white Australia policy’ – European immigrants, neighboring Asian countries. * increase multiracial, multiethnic, multicultural population * high unemployment * gives 12,000 refugees permanent residence
  27. 27. GLOBALIZATION & LOCAL CHANGE  POPULATION DYNAMIC I. natural increase * total fertility rate remain slightly * advanced in demographic transition process * slow regeneration of its labor force * losses of working-age males ii. Effect of rapid organization * lived in towns and cities * main cities : port / “hinges” * Auckland : center urbanized * wellington : major port / center gov. * Christchurch & Dunedin : main towns South Island
  28. 28. iii. Geographic identity * many young , skilled New Zealanders migrate * economic opportunities in: > service industry > pride in country’s culture > unique physical landscape * Maoris have professional jobs > contract labourers > shearing gangs for Pākehā farmers. >planting, harvesting, hunting birds, fishing and eeling > rat trapping, canoe building and warfare > Tohunga : carving, tattooing, building and spiritual matters.
  29. 29. SUBREGIONS
  30. 30. THE LAND DOWN UNDER AUSTRALIA
  31. 31. NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE VARIATION Arid continental interior Regular rainfall (coastal area) Monsoon, seasonal summer rain,tropical cyclones El nino fluctuations
  32. 32. Geologic activities Gondwanala nd Great barrier reef Great dividing range Africa,antarti ca,south america, peninsular india
  33. 33. Distinctive ecosystem Unique animal species marsupialsEucalyptus & acacia
  34. 34. Unique animal species Blue tounge lizard Frilled lizard Kimberl y tree- frog
  35. 35. marsupials kangaroo quoll koala s wallab y
  36. 36. Eucalyptus and acacia Eucalyptus
  37. 37. Natural resources • Iron ore • Nickel • gold • Platinum • Uranium • copper Ancient rocks • Coal • Silver • Lead • Zinc • Copper ores Great Dividing Range
  38. 38. Environmental problem • Drought • Floods • typhoons • earthquakes Natural hazard • by farmers and miners • felled trees • Environmental degradation pollution, erosion and mining excavations
  39. 39. SUBREGIONS Australia sovereignty Southeast australia
  40. 40. Northern australia Interior & western australia
  41. 41. Economic trade and development  Export agricultural products & mined minerals
  42. 42.  Protecting manufacturing & government-owned enterprises
  43. 43.  Australia dominant mining * high production of iron and steel * iron ore (bauxite,nickel, gold) * natural gas fields.  Australia’s farm output * wheat,oilseeds,beef,veal,wine * cultivated and livestock grazing  Tourism * attracted by beaches, golf courses, theme park (Gold Coast) * unique wildlife, flora and rock formations
  44. 44. FOODS
  45. 45. NEW ZEALAND Adventure capital of the world / “Autearoa”
  46. 46. NEW ZEALAND Adventure capital of the world / “Autearoa”
  47. 47. NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE VARIATION Storms/ heavy rainfall Snow ( elevation mountains) Ex- Tropical Cyclones and Mid- Latitude Storms drought
  48. 48. Geologic activities Plate movement
  49. 49. Distinctive ecosystem Unique temperate rainforest Fir trees and pines Tropical fish varieties
  50. 50. Great walks Kahikatea Spey valley moss
  51. 51. Natural resources a) Make fresh water
  52. 52. b) Hydroelectric power generation
  53. 53. Environmental problem • Earthquakes • the eruption of mount ruapehu Natural hazard • Soil erosion • Air and water pollution • industrial effluent, • automobile emissions • Construction controversy pollution, erosion and mining excavations
  54. 54. SUBREGIONS North islan d South island
  55. 55. Eastern island
  56. 56. Economic trade and development ECONOMY a. Natural resources = fresh water = hydroelectric power regeneration = coal b. ` Export of farm and forest = wool, lamb, diary product =livestock =agricultural production c. Tourism =outdoor attraction (North and South island) =success of film trilogy *Whale rider * Lord of The Rings
  57. 57. DEVELOPMENT  Pastureland replace forest  replanted large areas “ Radiata Pines and Douglas firs”  1900s, afforestation policy  1980s, The New Zealand government instituted economic reforms: > lower unemployment > lower inflation > tariffs and restrictive port practices removed > government spending reduced  Export to : > Japan > Australia > United States > United Kigdom  Import from : > Australia > United State
  58. 58. FOODS
  59. 59. NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE VARIATION Storms/ heavy rainfall Snow ( elevation mountains) Ex- Tropical Cyclones and Mid- Latitude Storms drought
  60. 60. Geologic activities Plate movement
  61. 61. Distinctive ecosystem Unique temperate rainforest Fir trees and pines Tropical fish varieties
  62. 62. Great walks Kahikatea Spey valley moss
  63. 63. Natural resources a) Make fresh water
  64. 64. b) Hydroelectric power generation
  65. 65. Environmental problem • Earthquakes • the eruption of mount ruapehu Natural hazard • Soil erosion • Air and water pollution • industrial effluent, • automobile emissions • Construction controversy pollution, er osion and mining excavations
  66. 66. SUBREGIONS North islan d South island
  67. 67. Eastern island
  68. 68. Economic trade and development ECONOMY a. Natural resources = fresh water = hydroelectric power regeneration = coal b. ` Export of farm and forest = wool, lamb, diary product =livestock =agricultural production c. Tourism =outdoor attraction (North and South island) =success of film trilogy *Whale rider * Lord of The Rings
  69. 69. DEVELOPMENT  Pastureland replace forest  replanted large areas “ Radiata Pines and Douglas firs”  1900s, afforestation policy  1980s, The New Zealand government instituted economic reforms: > lower unemployment > lower inflation > tariffs and restrictive port practices removed > government spending reduced  Export to : > Japan > Australia > United States > United Kigdom  Import from : > Australia > United State
  70. 70. FOODS
  71. 71. OCEANIA
  72. 72. Island Countries  Most of South Pacific Islands independence in 1970s  Although independence, economic difficulty, internal tension and dependence on continuing economic aid and protection to
  73. 73.  World poorest countries  The largest and most populated island
  74. 74. Farm, forest and mine product
  75. 75. Tourism
  76. 76. BY : Fatin amira
  77. 77. ANTARCTICA • Occupies 10 % of Earth’s land surface and is larger than either Europe or Australia.
  78. 78. • All assert territorial claims to parts of the continent
  79. 79.  No population exists but there is constant human presence Scientist/Geologist Tourist/Visitor
  80. 80. ANTARCTICA’S HARSH POLAR CLIMATE  Antarctic landmass is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.  The continent is surrounded by water
  81. 81. Antarctica’s high eastern plateau  Frigid  Temperatures below freezing Antarctica’s coastal areas  Slightly warmer  Affected by latitudes
  82. 82.  Summer high temperature in January average above 0 C
  83. 83. ANTARTCTICA GLOBAL STATUS  Expeditions to Antarctica beginning with Captain James Cook  Late 1700s, discovering what existed beyond the foggy, ice-filled water.
  84. 84. Next Exploration • Late 1800s and early 1900s, explores wanted to be the first further discovered on Antarctica
  85. 85.  Establishment of fixed scientific research stations. mid-1900  Gave way to international political claims on sections of continent’s territory
  86. 86. Antarctic Treaty  December 1959, singed by 12 countries  Non-military scientific cooperation
  87. 87. Antarctic Treaty System  Protection of seals and marine organisms  Prohibits any military use or weapons testing  Encourage scientific research on climate, oceanographic, geologic and glaciological studies
  88. 88. ANTARCTICA AND SOUTHERN OCEAN  Frozen continent forms its own cold climate with a heating deficit throughout the year.  During winter, ice coverage in the oceans increases as the sea surface freezes.
  89. 89.  During summer, glacial ice calves off the icebergs into the surrounding ocean.
  90. 90. Ozone hole  Caused by effects pollutants in the atmosphere destroying stratospheric ozone  Began to decrease by 2010 because of cooperation from the government around the world
  91. 91. GEOLOGIC ACTIVITIES  Southern Hemisphere continent is longitudinally situated in both the Western and Eastern Hemisphere by International Date Line.
  92. 92.  The divergent plate margin between the Indian and Antarctic Plates separates Australia and Antarctica.
  93. 93.  Transantarctic Mountains divide the continent into West Antarctica and East Antarctica. One of the world’s largest continuous mountain chain  Extension of the South America’s Andes Mountains
  94. 94. ANTARCTICA RESOURCES  Is not a country and so does not have an economy of its own.  Remain unexploited and somewhat protected by international agreements
  95. 95. Antarctica  Transantarctic Mountains and other areas are rich in mineral resources ;  COAL ORES  COPPER  NICKEL  SILVER  TIN
  96. 96.  Living organisms are dominated by a huge variety of sea birds, including penguins that rely on the rich ocean life of plankton, fish, seals and whales.
  97. 97.  It was agreed internationally to regulate such fishing.  Fish stocks such as cod, together with some of whales, were declining.
  98. 98.  Antarctica’s harsh polar climate and permanent ice and snow cover support very little vegetation beyond ;  Algae  Lichens  Mosses
  99. 99. TOURISM  Grew slowly in 1958 to the early 1990s and began to grow more quickly through the early 2000s.
  100. 100.  Most tourist reach Antarctica on commercial cruise ships setting sale from Southern Hemisphere ports in Australia, New Zealand or Argentina.
  101. 101.  As more tourists arrive, the dangers of environmental damage increase.  At present, ATS does not have a code regulating the tourism industry.
  102. 102. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS NATURAL HAZARDS In Antarctica Anthropogenic activity caused climate change  Could open the continent for settlement and resource exploration.  Corresponding sea level rise may inundate low-lying coastal areas around the world.
  103. 103. POLLUTIONS, EROSION AND MINIONG EXCAVATIONS Antarctica Waste from residents scientific community Fuel discharged from cruise ships
  104. 104. Q&A

×