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CHiLO: Using an e-textbook to
create
an ad-hoc m- learning
environmentMasumi Hori(CCC-TIES), Seishi Ono(CCC-TIES),
Shinzo Kobayashi(Smile NC),
Kazutsuna Yamaji(NII),
Toshihiro Kita(Kumamoto University),
and Tsuneo Yamada (OUJ)
Frontiers in Education 2015
Outline
• Challenges in Large Scale Online Course
– The geographical digital divide
– General disadvantage of mobile device
– Potentials of e-book and ad-hoc network
• Proposed system: CHiLO
• CHiLO pilot study
• Conclusion and future work
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
2
Few enrollment from developing countries
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
3
UNESCO Institute for Statistic; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx
Developed
countries
18,324,287,
6%
Developing
countries
309,378,871,
94%
Population of the school age
for post-secondary education
Developed
countries
2,530,555,
85%
Developing
countries
443,294,
15%
Worldwide enrollment data
for HarvardX courses
HarvardX Insights; http://harvardx.harvard.edu/insights/splash
Digital Divide by region
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
4
PC penetration demographics
(2012)
Report: Changing PC sector, market share,
emerging markets, forecast considerations
(https://www.ventureoutsource.com/contract-
manufacturing/product-market-segments/pc-
computing/report-changing-pc-sector-market-share-
emerging-markets-forecast-com)
Internet user demographics
(2014)
Mobile Penetration in Developing
Country
5
ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database
Active mobile-broadband subscriptions
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
Mobile Device
– Small screen
– No keyboards
– Network speed and its
reliability
– Application dependent
content formats
E-Book
– Simple operation like
traditional books
• Flipping pages, Per-page
design, …
– No need for Internet
connection while
reading
– Device independent
standard format
• EPUB3
Disadvantages of Mobile Devices
6
Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2007). Mobile usability in educational contexts: what have we
learnt?. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning,
8(2).
Corbeil, J., Valdes-Corbeil, M. (2007). Are you ready for mobile learning?.
Educause Quarterly, 30(2), 51.
Solution!
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
Potentials of E-book and Ad-hoc
Network
• The EPUB3
– Packaging media-rich and interactive learning
resources in a single-file format
Videos, images, HTML5, JavaScript, JSON and other resources
7
Sharing e-Books between mobile devices using
mobile ad-hoc network (MANET)
Ad-hoc network
Should be Incorporated!
Should be Incorporated!
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
Integrated Authentication Framework OAuth, SAML
Proposed Systems
Moodle
CHiLO Badge (Mozilla Open Badges)
Assessment & Badges
Facebook
Twitter
Google+
CHiLO Community
SNS and/or LMS Forum
CHiLO Book
CHiLO Lecture
One-minute nano lecture video clips
CHiLO Producer
Creative Higher Education
with Learning Object: CHiLO
CHiLO Book Reader
Ad-hoc
network
The target of a pilot study
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
8
How a CHiLO Book Looks Like
9
Explanation using
text and videos Tests and reports Issuing
completion badges
iBooks reader, Google play books
and Readium
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
Contents
– NIHONGO
STARTER A1
in English
– All 10 Volumes
Terms
Distribution Channels
– E-Book (EPUB3)
• OUJ-MOOC
• iBooks Store
• Google books
– Web (HTML5)
• OUJ-MOOC
Learning Community
– Facebook
Group
Feasibility Study
Start Term
Term 1 4/14/2014 35 days
Term 2 6/ 2/2014 35 days
Term 3 8/ 4/2014 73 days
Term 4 11/ 3/2014 49 days
Term 5 1/13/2015 70 days
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
10
Number of Downloads
11
Downloaded from 103 countries
Distribution Channel Format Number of Downloads
OUJ-MOOC
HTML5 4,911
EPUB3 5,132
iBooks Store EPUB3 3,715
Google Play books EPUB3 8,370
Total 22,128
HTML5: 20.3±15.2%
EPUB3: 79.7±15.2%
→
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
Downloads from UN Developing
Countries
Developed
countries
11,756,
53%
Developing
countries
10,372,
47%
Developing countries, 47% of downloads
Number of Downloads by countries
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
12
Different Types of the Devices
Accessed to the Assessment Test
13
Tendencies: Web for PCs, E-Book for Mobile
From PCs: 68.7%
From mobile devices : 73%
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
Mostly
EPUB3 format
16%
Mostly
HTML5 format
50%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Survey Results (1)
(n = 105)
Mainly EPUB3,
sometimes HTML5 format; 12%
Both EPUB3 and HTML5 format at
the same rate; 6%
Mainly HTML5,
sometimes EPUB3 format; 16%
Did you use EPUB3 format or HTML5 format CHiLO Book?
34% Users Utilized Both Formats
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
14
Survey Results (2)
15
Why did you choose eBook version? Why did you choose Web version?
Useful to
have it
download
ed to my
device
35%Wanted to
use it in
non-
internet
connected
environme
nt
30%
Interested
in the
book
17%
Wanted to
use the
func ons
within the
eBook
9%
Other
7%
No specific
reason
2%
Easier to
use the
Web
version
55%
No specific
reason
25%
Couldn't
download
the eBook
or could
not read
the eBook
11%
Other
9%
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
Conclusion
• CHiLO Book has a potential of enhancing
learning opportunity
• E-book style is affordable formats for mobile
devise.
• Web style is still important in addition to E-book
style
• Likelihood of resolution
– The e-book style is not as easy to use as the web style
16
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
CHiLO Reader Local File
Web browser
Web based
epub reader
Future work: Developing CHiLO
Reader
Android mobile device
CHiLO
Reader
PAN
Web
Server
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
17
Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
18
http://www.cccties.org/en/activities/chilo/

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CHiLO: Using an e-textbook to create an ad-hoc m- learning environment

  • 1. CHiLO: Using an e-textbook to create an ad-hoc m- learning environmentMasumi Hori(CCC-TIES), Seishi Ono(CCC-TIES), Shinzo Kobayashi(Smile NC), Kazutsuna Yamaji(NII), Toshihiro Kita(Kumamoto University), and Tsuneo Yamada (OUJ) Frontiers in Education 2015
  • 2. Outline • Challenges in Large Scale Online Course – The geographical digital divide – General disadvantage of mobile device – Potentials of e-book and ad-hoc network • Proposed system: CHiLO • CHiLO pilot study • Conclusion and future work Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved. 2
  • 3. Few enrollment from developing countries Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved. 3 UNESCO Institute for Statistic; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx Developed countries 18,324,287, 6% Developing countries 309,378,871, 94% Population of the school age for post-secondary education Developed countries 2,530,555, 85% Developing countries 443,294, 15% Worldwide enrollment data for HarvardX courses HarvardX Insights; http://harvardx.harvard.edu/insights/splash
  • 4. Digital Divide by region Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved. 4 PC penetration demographics (2012) Report: Changing PC sector, market share, emerging markets, forecast considerations (https://www.ventureoutsource.com/contract- manufacturing/product-market-segments/pc- computing/report-changing-pc-sector-market-share- emerging-markets-forecast-com) Internet user demographics (2014)
  • 5. Mobile Penetration in Developing Country 5 ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database Active mobile-broadband subscriptions Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
  • 6. Mobile Device – Small screen – No keyboards – Network speed and its reliability – Application dependent content formats E-Book – Simple operation like traditional books • Flipping pages, Per-page design, … – No need for Internet connection while reading – Device independent standard format • EPUB3 Disadvantages of Mobile Devices 6 Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2007). Mobile usability in educational contexts: what have we learnt?. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 8(2). Corbeil, J., Valdes-Corbeil, M. (2007). Are you ready for mobile learning?. Educause Quarterly, 30(2), 51. Solution! Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
  • 7. Potentials of E-book and Ad-hoc Network • The EPUB3 – Packaging media-rich and interactive learning resources in a single-file format Videos, images, HTML5, JavaScript, JSON and other resources 7 Sharing e-Books between mobile devices using mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) Ad-hoc network Should be Incorporated! Should be Incorporated! Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
  • 8. Integrated Authentication Framework OAuth, SAML Proposed Systems Moodle CHiLO Badge (Mozilla Open Badges) Assessment & Badges Facebook Twitter Google+ CHiLO Community SNS and/or LMS Forum CHiLO Book CHiLO Lecture One-minute nano lecture video clips CHiLO Producer Creative Higher Education with Learning Object: CHiLO CHiLO Book Reader Ad-hoc network The target of a pilot study Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved. 8
  • 9. How a CHiLO Book Looks Like 9 Explanation using text and videos Tests and reports Issuing completion badges iBooks reader, Google play books and Readium Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
  • 10. Contents – NIHONGO STARTER A1 in English – All 10 Volumes Terms Distribution Channels – E-Book (EPUB3) • OUJ-MOOC • iBooks Store • Google books – Web (HTML5) • OUJ-MOOC Learning Community – Facebook Group Feasibility Study Start Term Term 1 4/14/2014 35 days Term 2 6/ 2/2014 35 days Term 3 8/ 4/2014 73 days Term 4 11/ 3/2014 49 days Term 5 1/13/2015 70 days Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved. 10
  • 11. Number of Downloads 11 Downloaded from 103 countries Distribution Channel Format Number of Downloads OUJ-MOOC HTML5 4,911 EPUB3 5,132 iBooks Store EPUB3 3,715 Google Play books EPUB3 8,370 Total 22,128 HTML5: 20.3±15.2% EPUB3: 79.7±15.2% → Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
  • 12. Downloads from UN Developing Countries Developed countries 11,756, 53% Developing countries 10,372, 47% Developing countries, 47% of downloads Number of Downloads by countries Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved. 12
  • 13. Different Types of the Devices Accessed to the Assessment Test 13 Tendencies: Web for PCs, E-Book for Mobile From PCs: 68.7% From mobile devices : 73% Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
  • 14. Mostly EPUB3 format 16% Mostly HTML5 format 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Survey Results (1) (n = 105) Mainly EPUB3, sometimes HTML5 format; 12% Both EPUB3 and HTML5 format at the same rate; 6% Mainly HTML5, sometimes EPUB3 format; 16% Did you use EPUB3 format or HTML5 format CHiLO Book? 34% Users Utilized Both Formats Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved. 14
  • 15. Survey Results (2) 15 Why did you choose eBook version? Why did you choose Web version? Useful to have it download ed to my device 35%Wanted to use it in non- internet connected environme nt 30% Interested in the book 17% Wanted to use the func ons within the eBook 9% Other 7% No specific reason 2% Easier to use the Web version 55% No specific reason 25% Couldn't download the eBook or could not read the eBook 11% Other 9% Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
  • 16. Conclusion • CHiLO Book has a potential of enhancing learning opportunity • E-book style is affordable formats for mobile devise. • Web style is still important in addition to E-book style • Likelihood of resolution – The e-book style is not as easy to use as the web style 16 Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved.
  • 17. CHiLO Reader Local File Web browser Web based epub reader Future work: Developing CHiLO Reader Android mobile device CHiLO Reader PAN Web Server Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved. 17
  • 18. Copyright © 2015 CCC-TIES All rights reserved. 18 http://www.cccties.org/en/activities/chilo/