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Israel Palestine Conflict & History


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'Israel-Palestine Conflict' is an ongoing conflict since the mid-20th century which has still not attained any settlement between the parties involved, it is also the conflict which has attracted lots of public opinions around the world with celebrities taking sides, public protesting around the world showing their support, foreign governments sending aids and condolences for the losses suffered, while the U.N and U.S trying to broker peace agreement between the masses which has seemed to fail each and every time! So I would like to highlight this never-ending conflict and come up with a resolution to this problem through this presentation.

Contents :

- Introduction
- Conflict Mapping
- Timeline of Conflict
- Statistics
- Understanding the Conflict
- Resolution

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Published in: News & Politics

Israel Palestine Conflict & History

  1. 1. Introduction
  2. 2. The conflict between Palestine and Israel is one of the most highly publicized and bitter struggles of modern times. Although the two groups have different religions, religious differences were not the cause of the strife. The conflict began as a struggle over land. For the Palestinians the last 100 years have brought colonization, expulsion and military occupation, followed by a long and difficult search for self-determination and for coexistence with the nation they hold responsible for their suffering and loss. For the Jewish people of Israel, the return to the land of their forefathers after centuries of persecution around the world has not brought peace or security. They have faced many crises as their neighbors have sought to wipe their country off the map.
  4. 4. Israel • State of Israel was self-declared independent state in 1946 and recognised in 1947. • Situated in the southwest of Asia, close to Mediterranean sea • Shares borders with Lebanon to north, Syria to northeast, Jordan on east, State of Palestine comprising Gaza and West bank to east and southwest. • It defines itself as Jewish and Democratic State. • Has highest standard of living in Middle east and the Fifth highest in Asia and has one of the highest Life expectancies in the world.
  5. 5. National Flag Cost of Arms
  6. 6. PALESTINE • State of palestine was declared an independent state in 1988 by PLO (Palestine liberation organization) • It consists of West bank and Gaza territories. • Ramallah is its administrative center. • Home to holiest sites of both Muslims and Christians. • Most of its territories are under Israeli occupation. • West Bank is controlled by moderate Fatah party • Gaza is controlled by extremist Hamas group. • Gaza is one of the most densely populated city in the world.
  7. 7. National Flag Cost of Arms
  9. 9. Conflict Relationship SOI = State of Israel SOP = State of Palestine Primary stakeholders SOI SOP
  10. 10. EGYPTSOI SOP U.S U.K GCC E S J Primary and secondary stakeholders SYRIA JORDANGulf Corporation Council Lebanon L IRAN
  11. 11. Primary and Interested stakeholders SOI SOP EU USSR/ Russia
  13. 13. Pre-1947 Arrival of Jews • Large number of European Jews emigrated to Palestine following World War I, with support of League of Nations and the British Government. • Engaged in conflict with local natives (Palestinians) for the rule of land. • Turned violent, Israel defeats Palestinians with the help of backing from British colonist.
  14. 14. 1947 BRITISH WITHDRAWAL • British withdraws from Palestine. • United Nations approves the partition of British- mandated Palestine into a Arab state and a Jewish State. • Accepted by Israel, but not by Palestinians as it was considered highly illegitimate with Israel given larger swaths of land. • Neighboring Arab states launched a ground invasion to crush the Israeli state which it was able to defend with the help from West.
  15. 15. 1967 Arab-Israel War • Israel launches airstrikes on Egypt, Jordan and Syria in response to built up of Arab armies along its border. • Captures Golan heights, Gaza strip and West Bank backed by west. • ‘Land for peace’ formula adopted by U.N restores peace.
  16. 16. 1977-82 Egypt-Israel Peace treaty • Egyptian President makes historic visit to Jerusalem • Two countries sign a formal peace treaty, establishing diplomatic and commercial relations. • Israel returns control of Sinai to Egypt.
  17. 17. 1987 First Intifada (Uprising) • It began with violence, riots, general strikes and civil disobedience campaigns by Palestines , which was responded by IDF by live ammunition claiming lives of over 20,000 people on both sides. • It wanted a complete withdrawal of Israel from territories it occupied in 1967, lifting of curfews and checkpoints, and establishment of Palestine state on West bank and Gaza Strip. • Jordan abandoned its claim of West bank to PLO. • An Independent State of Palestine was proclaimed.
  18. 18. 1993 Oslo I Accord • An attempt to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of the ongoing conflict. • First ever face to face agreement between parties. • Led to loosening of boycott of Israel by Arab states. • Annexes agreed were :  Conditions of Palestinian Elections  Withdrawal of Israeli forces  Economic Cooperation  Regional Development.
  19. 19. 2000-2005 Second Intifada (Uprising) • Caused due to failure of Oslo process in creating right conditions for an independent Palestine state. • Second Intifada differed from first in the use of violence by both sides. • Caused by visit of Temple Mount by Israeli PM, seen by Palestinians as highly provocative. • Consequences :  Construction of Israeli West Bank barrier  Decrease of violence in the West Bank.  Israeli withdrawal from Gaza strip  Formation of Hamas Group
  20. 20. 2005- Present Gaza Conflict • Completely separated from West Bank, which is now controlled by moderate-fatah party. • Gaza comes under control of a radical group called Hamas democratically , which resulted in complete halt of aids and revenues from west as Hamas doesn’t accept Israel’s existence. • Israel imposes a complete blockade on Gaza, not allowing any transfer of food, water, electricity etc. , thus leading to human catastrophe as a result of increased cross- border firings. • Gaza is world’s most densely populated placea out of which 70% survive on foreign aids.
  21. 21. • Most of its aid passes through Rafah border, which is the only border pass which is not Israel. • Israel introduces Iron Dome defense system in retaliation to cross border rocket attacks. • In 2008, Gaza War took place when Israel launched a large military campaign with a stated aim of stopping Hamas rocket attacks and arms smuggling into Gaza. The conflict was also called the Gaza massacre in the Arab world in which 1400 Palestinians and 13 Israelis died. • In 2012, Israel launches Operation Pillar Defense by killing Hamas leader due to increased rocket firing. • In 2014,IDF launched Operation Protective Edge, in response to Hamas rocket attacks. Israel troops entered the Gaza Strip. More than 2100 Palestinians were killed after Israel intensified its bombardment of Gaza.
  22. 22. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 2008-2009 2012 2014 Palestinians Deaths Palestinians Deaths
  23. 23. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2008-2009 2012 2014 Israeli Deaths Israeli Deaths
  25. 25. Wants and interests Palestine :-  A halt to the construction of Israeli settlements on land beyond the 1967 borders.  Negotiated borders based on the 1967 boundaries  Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine  The release of all Palestinian prisoners held in Israeli jails, including those convicted of acts of terror  The recognition of a right of return for all Palestinians living in the diaspora  A series of smaller, specific issues, such as permission to build an airport in the Ramallah district and the right to issue visas as part of a tourism initiative
  26. 26. Israel:-  Sovereignty over Jerusalem, including the Old City  Negotiated borders based on the 1967 boundaries, with land swaps taking into account the major West Bank settlement blocs  Recognition of Israel as a Jewish state  A demilitarized State of Palestine  Right of return for Palestinian refugees only to Palestine, not to Israel  An assortment of other smaller issues, such as no unilateral moves vis-á-vis international organizations
  28. 28. Israel – Palestine Resolution 1) Apology and Forgiveness • Both sides must forgive and accept apology. • They should begin their own process of truth and reconcilation. 2) Recognition and Acceptance • Palestinians and Arabs have to accept Israel as a Jewish State. • Israel should stop intervening in Palestine’s affairs. • No party should infiltrate each other’s territory, thus maintaining sovereignty 3) Sharing Process • There can be no peace without economic prosperity. • Mutual prosperity will provide a basis for overcoming mistrust, paranoia and defensiveness.
  29. 29. 3) Rights of People not States • They need to recognize the rights of each other’s people. • Israel should acknowledge its role in creating the plight of Palestinian refugees and be given freedom to live where they want. • Palestinians should be compensated for the property that they lost in conflict. 4) Mutual Religious tolerance • Judaism, Christianity and Islam need to acknowledge one another. • Israel needs to recognize the legitimacy of Islam and Christianity. • Palestinians need to acknowledge that Judaism has a deep historical connection to Old City of Jerusalem. 5) Education and Communication • Both should change the curricula, textbooks and other learning sources to accept the concept of new truth. • Both sides need to move towards re-humanization and empowerment. • By confronting differences they will discover similarities.
  30. 30. May Peace Prevail THANK YOU !