Overview on Financial System Of Bangladesh Prepared By: Kazi Mashfiq Uddin Ahmed Id: 100306003 Department of Business Administration Green University Of Bangladesh
Overview of Financial system of BangladeshThe financial system of Bangladesh is comprised of three broad fragmented sectors: 1) Formal Sector, 2) Semi-Formal Sector, 3 ) Informal Sector. The sectors have been categorized in accordance with their degree of regulation. The formal sector includes all regulated institutions like Banks, Non-Bank Financial Institutions (FIs), Insurance Companies, Capital Market Intermediaries like Brokerage Houses, Merchant Banks etc.; Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs). The semi formal sector includes those institutions which are regulated otherwise but do not fall under the jurisdiction of Central Bank, Insurance Authority, Securities and Exchange Commission or any other enacted financial regulator. This sector is mainly represented by Specialized Financial Institutions like House Building Finance Corporation (HBFC), Palli Karma Sahayak Foundation (PKSF), Samabay Bank, Grameen Bank etc., Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs and discrete government programs. The informal sector includes private intermediaries which are completely unregulated.
Financial System Of Bangladesh Formal Sector Semi Formal Sector Informal Sector Specialized Financial Financial Market Regulators & Institutions Institutions Money Market Bangladesh Bank House Building Financial (Banks, NBFIs,Primary Dealers) (Central Bank) Corporation(HBFC) Capital Market Banks Palli Karma SahayakInvestment banks, Stock Exchanges, 47 scheduled & Credit Rating Companies etc.) 4 non-scheduled banks Foundation(PKSF) Foreign Exchange Market NBFIs Samabay Bank (Authorized Dealers) 31 NBFIs Insurance Development & Grameen Bank Regulatory Authority Insurance Companies 18 Life and 44 Non-Life Insurance Companies Securities & Exchange Commission (Regulatory of capital market Intermediaries ) Stock Exchanges, Stock Dealers Brokers, Merchants Banks, AMC s, Credit Rating Agencies etc. Microcredit Regulatory Authority (MFI Authority) Micro Finance Institutions 599 MFIs
Financial market in Bangladesh• Money Market: The primary money market is comprised of banks, FIs and primary dealers as intermediaries and savings & lending instruments, treasury bills as instruments. There are currently 15 primary dealers (12 banks and 3 FIs) in Bangladesh. The only active secondary market is overnight call money market which is participated by the scheduled banks and FIs. The money market in Bangladesh is regulated by Bangladesh Bank (BB), the Central Bank of Bangladesh.• Capital market: The primary segment of capital market is operated through private and public offering of equity and bond instruments. The secondary segment of capital market is institutionalized by two (02) stock exchanges-Dhaka Stock Exchange and Chittagong Stock Exchange. The instruments in these exchanges are equity securities (shares), debentures, corporate bonds and treasury bonds. The capital market in Bangladesh is governed by Securities and Commission (SEC).• Foreign Exchange Market: Towards liberalization of foreign exchange transactions, a number of measures were adopted since 1990s. Bangladeshi currency, the taka, was declared convertible on current account transactions (as on 24 March 1994), in terms of Article VIII of IMF Article of Agreement (1994). As Taka is not convertible in capital account, resident owned capital is not freely transferable abroad. Repatriation of profits or disinvestment proceeds on non-resident FDI and portfolio investment inflows are permitted freely. Direct investments of non-residents in the industrial sector and portfolio investments of non-residents through stock exchanges are repatriable abroad, as also are capital gains and profits/dividends thereon. Investment abroad of resident-owned capital is subject to prior Bangladesh Bank approval, which is allowed only sparingly. Bangladesh adopted Floating Exchange Rate regime since 31 May 2003. Under the regime, BB does not interfere in the determination of exchange rate, but operates the monetary policy prudently for minimizing extreme swings in exchange rate to avoid adverse repercussion on the domestic economy. The exchange rate is being determined in the market on the basis of market demand and supply forces of the respective currencies. In the forex market banks are free to buy and sale foreign currency in the spot and also in the forward markets. However, to avoid any unusual volatility in the exchange rate, Bangladesh Bank, the regulator of foreign exchange market remains vigilant over the developments in the foreign exchange market and intervenes by buying and selling foreign currencies whenever it deems necessary to maintain stability in the foreign exchange market.
Regulators of the Financial System Central Bank: Bangladesh Bank acts as the Central Bank of Bangladesh which was established on December 16, 1972 through the enactment of Bangladesh Bank Order 1972- President’s Order No. 127 of 1972 (Amended in 2003). The general superintendence and direction of the affairs and business of BB have been entrusted to a 9 members Board of Directors which is headed by the Governor who is the Chief Executive Officer of this institution as well. BB has 40 departments and 9 branch offices. In Strategic Plan (2010-2014), the vision of BB has been stated as, “To develop continually as a forward looking central bank with competent and committed professionals of high ethical standards, conducting monetary management and financial sector supervision to maintain price stability and financial system robustness, supporting rapid broad based inclusive economic growth, employment generation and poverty eradication in Bangladesh”. The main functions of BB are (Section 7A of BB Order, 1972) -1. to formulate and implement monetary policy;2. to formulate and implement intervention policies in the foreign exchange market;3. to give advice to the Government on the interaction of monetary policy with fiscal and exchange rate policy, on the impact of various policy measures on the economy and to propose legislative measures it considers necessary or appropriate to attain its objectives and perform its functions;4. to hold and manage the official foreign reserves of Bangladesh;5. to promote, regulate and ensure a secure and efficient payment system, including the issue of bank notes;6. to regulate and supervise banking companies and financial institutions.
Core Policies of Central Bank Monetary policy• The main objectives of monetary policy of Bangladesh Bank are:• Price stability both internal & external• Sustainable growth & development• High employment• Economic and efficient use of resources• Stability of financial & payment system Bangladesh Bank declares the monetary policy by issuing Monetary Policy Statement (MPS) twice (January and July) in a year. The tools and instruments for implementation of monetary policy in Bangladesh are Bank Rate, Open Market Operations (OMO), Repurchase agreements (Repo) & Reverse Repo, Statutory Reserve Requirements (SLR & CRR).
Reserve Management Strategy: Bangladesh Bank maintains the foreign exchange reserve of the country in different currencies to minimize therisk emerging from widespread fluctuation in exchange rate of major currencies and very irregular movement ininterest rates in the global money market. BB has established Nostro account arrangements with different CentralBanks. Funds accumulated in these accounts are invested in Treasury bills, repos and other government papersin the respective currencies. It also makes investment in the form of short term deposits with different high ratedand reputed commercial banks and purchase of high rated sovereign/supranational/corporate bonds. A separatedepartment of BB performs the operational functions regarding investment which is guided by investment policyset by the BBs Investment Committee headed by a Deputy Governor. The underlying principle of the investmentpolicy is to ensure the optimum return on investment with minimum market risk.Interest Rate Policy: Under the Financial sector reform program, a flexible interest policy was formulated. According to that, banksare free to charge/fix their deposit (Bank /Financial Institutes) and Lending (Bank /Financial Institutes) rates otherthan Export Credit. At present, except Pre-shipment export credit and agricultural lending, there is no interestrate cap on lending for banks. Yet, banks can differentiate interest rate up to 3% considering comparative riskelements involved among borrowers in same lending category. With progressive deregulation of interest rates,banks have been advised to announce the mid-rate of the limit (if any) for different sectors and the banks maychange interest 1.5% more or less than the announced mid-rate on the basis of the comparative credit risk.Banks upload their deposit and lending interest rate in their respective website.Capital Adequacy for Banks and FIs:With a view to strengthening the capital base of banks & FIs, Basel-II Accord has been introduced in both ofthese sectors. For banks, full implementation of Basel-II was started in January 01, 2010 (Guidelines on RiskBased Capital Adequacy for banks). Now, scheduled banks in Bangladesh are required to maintain Tk. 4 billionor 10% of Total Risk Weighted Assets as capital, whichever is higher. For FIs, full implementation of Basel-II hasbeen started in January 01, 2012 (Prudential Guidelines on Capital Adequacy and Market Discipline (CAMD) forFinancial Institutions). Now, FIs in Bangladesh are required to maintain Tk. 1 billion or 10% of Total RiskWeighted Assets as capital, whichever is higher.
Deposit Insurance:The deposit insurance scheme (DIS) was introduced in Bangladesh in August 1984 to act as a safety net for thedepositors. All the scheduled banks Bangladesh are the member of this scheme Bank Deposit Insurance Act2000. The purpose of DIS is to help to increase market discipline, reduce moral hazard in the financial sector andprovide safety nets at the minimum cost to the public in the event of bank failure. A Deposit Insurance Trust Fund(DITF) has also been created for providing limited protection (not exceeding Taka 0.01 million) to a smalldepositor in case of winding up of any bank. The Board of Directors of BB is the Trustee Board for the DITF. BBhas adopted a system of risk based deposit insurance premium rates applicable for all scheduled banks effectivefrom January - June 2007. According to new instruction regarding premium rates, problem banks are required topay 0.09 percent and private banks other than the problem banks and state owned commercial banks arerequired to pay 0.07 percent where the percent coverage of the deposits is taka one hundred thousand perdepositor per bank. With this end in view, BB has already advised the banks for bringing DIS into the notice of thepublic through displaying the same in their display board .Insurance Authority:Insurance Development and Regulatory Authority (IDRA) was instituted on January 26, 2011 as theregulator of insurance industry being empowered by Insurance Development and Regulatory Act,2010 by replacing its predecessor, Chief Controller of Insurance. This institution is operated underMinistry of Finance and a 4 member executive body headed by Chairman is responsible for itsgeneral supervision and direction of business.IDRA has been established to make the insurance industry as the premier financial service providerin the country by structuring on an efficient corporate environment, by securing embryonicaspiration of society and by penetrating deep into all segments for high economic growth. Themission of IDRA is to protect the interest of the policy holders and other stakeholders underinsurance policy, supervise and regulate the insurance industry effectively, ensure orderly andsystematic growth of the insurance industry and for matters connected therewith or incidentalthereto.
Regulator of Capital Market Intermediaries Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) performs the functions to regulate the capital market intermediaries and issuance of capital and financial instruments by public limited companies. It was established on June 8, 1993 under the Securities and Exchange Commission Act, 1993. A 5 member commission headed by a Chairman has the overall responsibility to administer securities legislation and the Commission is attached to the Ministry of Finance. The mission of SEC is to protect the interests of securities investors, to develop and maintain fair, transparent and efficient securities markets and to ensure proper issuance of securities and compliance with securities laws. The main functions of SEC are:• Regulating the business of the Stock Exchanges or any other securities market.• Registering and regulating the business of stock-brokers, sub-brokers, share transfer agents, merchant bankers and managers of issues, trustee of trust deeds, registrar of an issue, underwriters, portfolio managers, investment advisers and other intermediaries in the securities market.• Registering, monitoring and regulating of collective investment scheme including all forms of mutual funds.• Monitoring and regulating all authorized self regulatory organizations in the securities market.• Prohibiting fraudulent and unfair trade practices in any securities market.• Promoting investors’ education and providing training for intermediaries of the securities market.• Prohibiting insider trading in securities.• Regulating the substantial acquisition of shares and take-over of companies.• Undertaking investigation and inspection, inquiries and audit of any issuer or dealer of securities, the Stock Exchanges and intermediaries and any self regulatory organization in the securities market.• Conducting research and publishing information.
Regulator of Micro Finance Institutions To bring Non-government Microfinance Institutions (NGO-MFIs) under a regulatory framework, the Government of Bangladesh enacted "Microcredit Regulatory Authority Act, 2006’" (Act no. 32 of 2006) which came into effect from August 27, 2006. Under this Act, the Government established Microcredit Regulatory Authority (MRA) with a view to ensuring transparency and accountability of microcredit activities of the NGO- MFIs in the country. The Authority is empowered and responsible to implement the said act and to bring the microcredit sector of the country under a full-fledged regulatory framework. MRA’s mission is to ensure transparency and accountability of microfinance operations of NGO-MFIs as well as foster sustainable growth of this sector. In order to achieve its mission, MRA has set itself the task to attain the following goals:• To formulate as well as implement the policies to ensure good governance and transparent financial systems of MFIs.• To conduct in-depth research on critical microfinance issues and provide policy inputs to the government consistent with the national strategy for poverty eradication.• To provide training of NGO-MFIs and linking them with the broader financial market to facilitate sustainable resources and efficient management.• To assist the government to build up an inclusive financial market for economic development of the country.• To identify the priorities in the microfinance sector for policy guidance and dissemination of information to attain the MRA’s social responsibility.According to the Act, the MRA will be responsible for the three primary functions that will need to be carried out, namely: Licensing of MFIs with explicit legal powers Supervision of MFIs to ensure that they continue to comply with the licensing requirements; and Enforcement of sanctions in the event of any MFI failing to meet the licensing and ongoing supervisory requirements.
Banks:• After the independence, banking industry in Bangladesh started its journey with 6 Nationalized commercialized banks, 2 State owned Specialized banks and 3 Foreign Banks. In the 1980s banking industry achieved significant expansion with the entrance of private banks. Now, banks in Bangladesh are primarily of two types:• Scheduled Banks: The banks which get license to operate under Bank Company Act, 1991 (Amended in 2003) are termed as Scheduled Banks.• Non-Scheduled Banks: The banks which are established for special and definite objective and operate under the acts that are enacted for meeting up those objectives, are termed as Non-Scheduled Banks. These banks cannot perform all functions of scheduled banks.• There are 47 scheduled banks in Bangladesh who operate under full control and supervision of Bangladesh Bank which is empowered to do so through Bangladesh Bank Order, 1972 and Bank Company Act, 1991. Scheduled Banks are classified into following types:• State Owned Commercial Banks (SOCBs): There are 4 SOCBs which are fully or majorly owned by the Government of Bangladesh.• Specialized Banks (SDBs): 4 specialized banks are now operating which were established for specific objectives like agricultural or industrial development. These banks are also fully or majorly owned by the Government of Bangladesh.• Private Commercial Banks (PCBs): There are 30 private commercial banks which are majorly owned by the private entities. PCBs can be categorized into two groups:• Conventional PCBs: 23 conventional PCBs are now operating in the industry. They perform the banking functions in conventional fashion i.e interest based operations.• Islami Shariah based PCBs: There are 7 Islami Shariah based PCBs in Bangladesh and they execute banking activities according to Islami Shariah based principles i.e. Profit-Loss Sharing (PLS) mode. .• Foreign Commercial Banks (FCBs): 9 FCBs are operating in Bangladesh as the branches of the banks which are incorporated in abroad.• There are now 4 non-scheduled banks in Bangladesh which are:• Ansar VDP Unnayan Bank,• Karmashangosthan Bank,• Probashi Kollyan Bank,• Jubilee Bank
FIs• Non Bank Financial Institutions (FIs) are those types of financial institutions which are regulated under Financial Institution Act, 1993 and controlled by Bangladesh Bank. Now, 31 FIs are operating in Bangladesh while the maiden one was established in 1981. Out of the total, 2 is fully government owned, 1 is the subsidiary of a SOCB, 13 were initiated by private domestic initiative and 15 were initiated by joint venture initiative. Major sources of funds of FIs are Term Deposit (at least six months tenure), Credit Facility from Banks and other FIs, Call Money as well as Bond and Securitization. The major difference between banks and FIs are as follows:• FIs cannot issue cheques, pay-orders or demand drafts.• FIs cannot receive demand deposits,• FIs cannot be involved in foreign exchange financing,• FIs can conduct their business operations with diversified financing modes like syndicated financing, bridge financing, lease financing, securitization instruments, private placement of equity etc.
Capital Market After the independence, establishment of Dhaka Stock Exchange (formerly East Pakistan Stock Exchange) initiated the pathway of capital market intermediaries in Bangladesh. In 1976, formation of Investment Corporation of Bangladesh opened the door of professional portfolio management in institutional form. In last two decades, capital market witnessed number of institutional and regulatory advancements which has resulted diversified capital market intermediaries. At present, capital market intermediaries are of following types:1. Stock Exchanges: Apart from Dhaka Stock Exchange, there is another stock exchange in Bangladesh that is Chittagong Stock Exchange established in 1995.2. Central Depository: The only depository system for the transaction and settlement of financial securities, Central Depository Bangladesh Ltd (CDBL) was formed in 2000 which conducts its operations under Depositories Act 1999, Depositories Regulations 2000, Depository (User) Regulations 2003, and the CDBL by-laws.3. Stock Dealer/Sock Broker: Under SEC (Stock Dealer, Stock Broker & Authorized Representative) Rules 2000, these entities are licensed and they are bound to be a member of any of the two stock exchanges. At present, DSE and CSE have 238 and 136 members respectively.4. Merchant Banker & Portfolio Manager: These institutions are licensed to operate under SEC (Merchant Banker & Portfolio Manager Rules) 1996 and 45 institutions have been licensed by SEC under this rules so far.5. Asset Management Companies (AMCs): AMCs are authorized to act as issue and portfolio manager of the mutual funds which are issued under SEC (Mutual Fund) Rules 2001. There are 15 AMCs in Bangladesh at present.6. Credit Rating Companies (CRCs): CRCs in Bangladesh are licensed under Credit Rating Companies Rules, 1996 and now, 5 CRCs have been accredited by SEC.7. Trustees/Custodians: According to rules, all asset backed securitizations and mutual funds must have an accredited trusty and security custodian. For that purpose, SEC has licensed 9 institutions as Trustees and 9 institutions as custodians.8. Investment Corporation of Bangladesh (ICB): ICB is a specialized capital market intermediary which was established in 1976 through the ordainment of The Investment Corporation of Bangladesh Ordinance 1976. This ordinance has empowered ICB to perform all types of capital market intermediation that fall under jurisdiction of SEC. ICB has three subsidiaries: 8.1. ICB Capital Management Ltd.,
Insurance Insurance sector in Bangladesh emerged after independence with 2 nationalized insurance companies- 1 Life & 1 General; and 1 foreign insurance company. In mid 80s, private sector insurance companies started to enter in the industry and it got expanded. Now days, 62 companies are operating under Insurance Act 2010. Out of them-• 18 are Life Insurance Companies including 1 foreign company and 1 is state-owned company,• 44 General Insurance Companies including 1 state-owned company. Insurance companies in Bangladesh provide following services:• Life insurance,• General Insurance,• Reinsurance,• Micro-insurance,• Takaful or Islami insurance.
Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs) The member-based Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) constitute a rapidly growing segment of the Rural Financial Market (RFM) in Bangladesh. Microcredit programs (MCP) in Bangladesh are implemented by various formal financial institutions (nationalized commercial banks and specialized banks), specialized government organizations and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs). The growth in the MFI sector, in terms of the number of MFI as well as total membership, was phenomenal during the 1990s and continues till today. Despite the fact that more than a thousand of institutions are operating microcredit programs, but only 10 large Microcredit Institutions (MFIs) and Grameen Bank represent 87% of total savings of the sector and 81% of total outstanding loan of the sector.Credit services of this sector can be categorized into six broad groups: i) general microcredit for small-scale self employment based activities, ii) microenterprise loans, iii) loans for ultra poor, iv) agricultural loans, v) seasonal loans, and vi) loans for disaster management. Currently, 599 institutions (as of October 10 2011) have been licensed by MRA to operate Micro Credit Programs. But, Grameen Bank is out of the jurisdiction of MRA as it is operated under a distinct legislation- Grameen Bank Ordinance, 1983.
Key Financial Indicator Banks As on June 2011 Deposits Advances Total Capital* No. of Branches4115855.50 Million 3212848.70 Million 461697.00 Million 7772 FIs As on December 2010 Deposits Loans and Assets Share Capital & No. of Branches leases Reserve94374.80 Million 321284.87 251527.34 44689.29 Million 115 Million Million Insurance As on December 2009 Asset Share Capital Reserve Life Insurance 118020.15 Million 1245.54 Million 106098.88 Million Non-Life Insurance 42622.90 Million 6653.83 Million 12133.30 Million
Capital Market Market Capitalization of Dhaka Stock Exchange As on September 2011All Listed Securities 2,782,901MillionAll Listed Companies Shares 2,202,274 MillionAll Listed Mutual Funds 35,733 MillionAll Debentures 576 MillionAll Listed Govt. T-Bonds 537,381 MillionAll Listed Corporate Bonds 6,937 Million MFIs As on June 2009 Total Number of Number of No. of Branches Outstanding Clients Borrowers 1,21,881.85 24.77 Million 19.50Million 18,022 Million