Assessment Activity 4 – Stepping Up To The Plate…Unit 2: The Physiology of FitnessP4 – Describe the Long-Term Effects of Exercise on the Cardiovascular and Respiratory System
Cardiovascular System:Cardiac Hypertrophy – The thickening of the heart muscle which results in a decrease in size of the chamber of the heart, includingthe left and right ventricles. A common cause of cardiac hypertrophy is high blood pressure.Increase In Stroke Volume – Stroke Volume is the amount of blood pumped out per beat. Your stroke volume is increased and yourresting heart is decreased. Increase in stroke volume can lead to increase in cardiac output.Increase In Cardiac Output – Cardiac Output is the amount of blood pumped around the body per minute. To work out yourmaximum heart rate, is 220 – age (in years). Over a long period of time your cardiac output increases because your heart rate andstroke volume has increased so your heart gets used to the rate of work it has to maintain.Decrease In Resting Heart Rate – When you exercise your heart gets bigger, which means you can pump more blood which results inless beats. As your heart rate increases in volume, this means that you can last longer when you are exercising.Capillarisation – The capillarisation of cardiac and skeletal muscles improves sustained aerobic exercise meaning the amount ofoxygen and energy getting to the muscle in increased. It increases the blood flow to specific areas, depending on what part of thebody you are exercising.Increase In Blood Volume – Blood Volume is the amount of blood that is in the body, this can be calculated by determining thevolumes of red blood cells and plasma cells. An increase in blood volume, as when there is retention of water and salt in the bodybecause of renal failure, results in an increase in cardiac output.Reduction In Resting Blood Pressure – The pressure of the blood in the vessels, especially the arteries, as it circulates through thebody. Blood pressure varies with the strength of the heartbeat, the volume of blood being pumped, and the elasticity of the bloodvessels.Decreased Recovery Time – The fitter your heart, the quicker it returns to normal after exercise. Fitter individuals generally recovermore rapidly because their cardiovascular system can adapt more quicker to impose demands of exercise.Increased Aerobic Fitness – This is where a performer has trained over an extensive period of time in long training sessions such asrunning or cycling. This helps increases the performers aerobic fitness because it would increase the efficiency and endurancecapability of the heart and lungs.
Muscular System:Cardiac Hypertrophy – This is the thickening of the heart muscle, as the wall of the heart thickens it becomes stronger, less blood isgoing into the heart but because the heart is so powerful it does not need to work as hard.Increase In Tendon Strength – Exercise increases tendon strength by stretching and contracting and putting strain on the tendon. thismakes the tendon active and replace cells with new ones. If you have damaged it before the body will be stimulated into makingstronger cells that before.Increase In Myoglobin Stores – Myoglobin is a protein within the muscle tissue which acts as an oxygen carrier. As a long term effectof exercise, the ability of the muscles to store myoglobin is increased. Muscles increase their oxidative capacity through regularexercise, the myoglobin stores also increase because they get used to the demands of exercise and work placed upon them soincrease stores as they will be needed.Increased In Number Of Mitochondria – Mitochondria enable cells to produce 15 times more ATP than they could, humans needlarge amounts of energy in order to survive. The number of mitochondria present in a cell depends upon the metabolic requirementsof that cell, and may range from a single large mitochondrion to thousands of the organelles.Increased Storage Of Glycogen And Fat – Glycogen is made primarily by the liver and the muscles, but can also be made byglycogenesis within the brain and stomach.Liver cells which on demand, are ready to break down their stored glycogen into glucoseand send it through the blood stream as fuel for the brain or muscles.Fats are stored in the marrow of bones, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines, muscles and lipid rich tissues of the centralnervous system.Increased Muscles Strength – Muscles Strength can be increased by weight, isometric and resistance training which strengthens themuscles. Strength training can provide benefits and improvements in a performers health and well-being, including increased bone,muscle, tendon and ligament strength and toughness, improved joint function, reduced potential for injury, increased bone density, atemporary increase in metabolism and improved cardiac function.Increased Tolerance To Lactic Acid – Lactic acid is formed when an athlete exercises, if the performer is exercising at a level wheremore oxygen is being used than can be replenished to their system. Lactic acid tolerance training will make your body more efficientat reprocessing the waste products of exercise, transporting oxygen to your blood and allowing you to exercise at your highest pointfor longer time.