Organizational learning, the learning organization and appreciate inquiry


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Organizational learning, the learning organization and appreciate inquiry

  1. 1. Organizational learning,the learning organization and appreciate inquiry-Understanding Organizational Change- Jean H. Mills,Kelly dye and Albert J. Mills Masca Indra
  2. 2.  In 1987 employed 129,000 and in financial difficulty John Browne, creation of a learning organization.(1995) ◦ „learning was at the hearth of a company‟s ability to adapt to a rapidly changing environment‟ ◦ He used technology (computer network) to enhance teamwork and performance, hired consultants to teach the employees how to become effective members of Virtual Team Networks by sharing they knowledge quickly and easily.British Petroleum
  3. 3.  Through restructuring, new tech and training, BP has created a learning organization environment.British Petroleum
  4. 4.  Hope hospital is a regional medical facility in Canada. They introduced the Peter Senge‟s five principles of learning organization A team training initiative was developed, with the help of several external consultants for high performance teams At this stage organizational learning was a term that was not clearly defined or understood throughout health centreCanadian Hospital
  5. 5.  Organizational learning is most often described as a heuristic, or prescriptive device, used to explain quantifiable learning activities which creates an environment that focuses on incorporating principles of learning to enhance employee involvement in organizational goal achievement. The learning organization, has become a metaphor of a type of organization that engages in OL techniques.What is organizational learning
  6. 6.  BP case, the need of learning organization was fuelled by interest in globalization and new economy, so the OL became common strategy for organization that wanted to remain competitive. In this chapter our objective is to explore the issues surrounding the concepts, theoretical roots, and strength and limitations.What is organizational learning
  7. 7.  Herber Simon,1969. as a process whereby individuals develop insight and take structural and other actions to overcome organizational problems. Argyris (1977) defines organizational learning as the process of "detection and correction of errors." In his view organizations learn through individuals acting as agents for them: "The individuals learning activities, in turn, are facilitated or inhibited by an ecological system of factors that may be called an organizational learning system" (p. 117). As a way for organization to acquire, disseminate, and apply knowledge for its survival and success. ◦ Communities of practice, informal groups bound together by shared expertise and passion of activity or interest and are ways that organizations shared knowledge. Emphasis on the potential individuals have to learn and the means, through empowerment and changing leadership style, they have to achieve the goals.The roots of organizationallearning
  8. 8.  1987, Peter Senge.The fifth discipline ◦ Shared visions ◦ Mental models ◦ Team learning ◦ Personal mastery ◦ System thingking How to create an organization that could deal with a challenges of increased competition and globalization or with the dissatisfaction of existing organizational development techniques.The learning organization
  9. 9.  …organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the result their truly desire, where new and expansive pattern of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together. -Senge- The term of organizational learning and learning organization are separate and distinct concept and literature for each tends to target the audience for whom it is being written. ◦ Those writing from learning organization perspective, most often academics and consultant where the approach on the prescriptive approach ◦ Any organization that employs various learning principles as a means of coping with current challenges. ◦ But it depends on key decision –makers, a lack of clear direction sometimes makes it difficult to see how these goals will be accomplishedDistinguished the term of learningorganization
  10. 10.  Over time, the concept of learning organization has come to be viewed as a necessary element to humanization or the workplace. These learning organization have been refined and reworked into 3 separete perspective ◦ Technical perspective ◦ Social perspective ◦ Socio-cultural perspectiveThe learning organizationliterature
  11. 11.  Learning organization are detrimental to the majority of employees because the principle of organizational learning are non democratic, controlling and can violate workers‟ right and privacy. Learning organization tend to focus on jobs that generate knowledge considered important in helping the organization to accomplished its goal and competitive edge. ◦ Employee in here are not the part of decision making ◦ Participation in the learning organization, based on the what is being contributed and what its value is to organizationMaking sense the organizationallearning
  12. 12.  While empowerment and emancipation are the central building of learning organization, there were criticisms about the organizational learning ◦ Is often used as a management tool to modify undesirable employee behavior ◦ Principles of learning organization, invade the privacy of workers beliefs and values, under the guise of concern with their learning through open dialogue. But, in reality, it is the organization‟s goals that are of primary concern.Issue of control and privacy
  13. 13.  Organizational learning is too oblique and doesn‟t provide a useful prescriptive approach that offers measureable outcomes for practitioners. ◦ Individuals did not know how to create the learning environment and employees were waiting to see the results. ◦ In Hope cases, they failed to initiate change because they didn‟t have a clear idea of how to proceed.The future of organizationallearning research
  14. 14.  One thing for sure, the learning organization suggest that what is different is the increased focus on learning. In order to improve and expand on the existing literature, it has been suggested that researchers need to seek out new ways to make the organization truly empowering to all employees and to pay attention to the type of employee who is best suited to a learning organization.The future of organizationallearning research
  15. 15.  AI, developed in 1980s by David Cooperrider and Suresh shrivastva a change technique that is different from the others. Imagine being asked to remember one of the high points in your career, when you felt most engaged, inspired and energized by your work. Now imagine being able to use how you felt and what you learned at that time to create a future reality for your career. Finding the best in people and discovering what works best in an organization and then focusing on building and celebrating these successes.Appreciative Inquiry
  16. 16.  Unlike other change management techniques that seek to problem-solve, AI explores the positive events that have taken place in an organization and looks for the strength of its employees and uses them to build on what is good for the organization. Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a change management process that helps organizations describe a vision for the future based on their past successes. Unlike traditional approaches that focus on “fixing what‟s broken,” AI looks at “how to do more of what works.”Appreciative Inquiry
  17. 17.  Successfully implementing AI. ◦ The inquiry should be a proactive and collaborative process. ◦ Using 4D model :  Discovering : try to uncover the strengths of individuals and the organization  Dreaming : Envisioning what might be  Design : Planning of what could be  Destiny : Sustaining what has been achieved These range from schools to forestry and a number of them involve a non for profit organizations and religious groups.Appreciative Inquiry Model
  18. 18. Appreciative Inquiry Model
  19. 19. 1. Looking at your entire experience with the organization, remember a timewhen you felt most alive, most fulfilled, or most excited about yourinvolvement in the organization.• What made it exciting?• Who else was involved?• Describe how you felt about it.2. Lets talk for a moment about some things you value deeply; specifically,the things you value about yourself; about the nature of your work; and aboutthis organization.• Without being humble, what do you value most about yourself as a person and as amember of this organization?• When you are feeling best about your work, what about the task itself do you value?• What do you value about the organization?• What is the most important thing this organization has contributed to your life? To theworld?Appreciative Inquiry Model
  20. 20. 3. What do you experience as the core factors that give life to this organization? Give some examples of how you experience those factors.4. What three wishes would you make to heighten the vitality and health of this organization?Appreciative Inquiry Model
  21. 21. Appreciative Inquiry Model
  22. 22.  AI an the church ◦ Not what is wrong with the church, but what Is the right of the church. AI with its emphasis on human and organizational growth and potential, make it plausible change technique for religions rather than a manufacturing organizations.AI in organization
  23. 23.  Is any different from other techniques? Wonder that if it does not focused problems, does that mean that they don‟t exist? ◦ Why it is appealing, because it takes a proactive and optimistic approach to change by concentrating on the positive. The need to change from one state to a more desired state, which is usually brought about either by a crisis or a perceived need that change is necessary for the wellbeing of the organization.Making sense of AI
  24. 24.  By the definition of organizational change, it could be argued that change itself is a form of a problem solving and AI is solution of to that problems.Making sense of AI
  25. 25.  In this chapter we have learned about change techniques that take an indirect approach to changing organizational culture. Rather than concentrating on organizational values, both OL and AI create an environment that foster a culture of learning and expansion of the strength for the betterment of organization Both of OL and AI are people oriented rather than process oriented. ◦ OL are used to create learning organizations, through continuous improvement and the nurturing of a learning culture by developing the skills and knowledge of the employees ◦ AI inquiry overturns existing culture by shifting the focus away from problem solving to appreciating what has worked well in the past and transferring that knowledge to the future, without looking backConclusion
  26. 26. TERIMA KASIH