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WEED	
  IDENTIFICATION	
  for	
  
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Wonderful	
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WEED	
  IDENTIFICATION	
  for	
  SCHOOLS	
  
WEED	
  IDENTIFICATION	
  for	
  SCHOOLS	
  
Green	
  STEM	
  Learning	
  –	
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WEED	
  IDENTIFICATION	
  for	
  SCHOOLS	
  
WEED	
  IDENTIFICATION	
  for	
  SCHOOLS	
  
Green	
  STEM	
  Learning	
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WEED	
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  SCHOOLS	
  
WEED	
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  Learning	
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WEED	
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WEED	
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WEED	
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WEED	
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  SCHOOLS	
  
Green	
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  Learning	
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WEED	
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  for	
  SCHOOLS	
  
WEED	
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  Learning	
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WEED	
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WEED	
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WEED	
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WEED	
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WEED	
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Weed Identification for Schools 2015

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What is a weed? Here is a photo guide to help identify the top 30+ most frequently found weeds in schoolyard gardens, and some thoughts on best management practices.

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Weed Identification for Schools 2015

  1. 1. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for   SCHOOLS                           Wonderful  Weeds:   What’s  Growing  in  the  Garden  and  When?     By  Mary  Van  Dyke   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015      
  2. 2. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  1  -­‐   Wonderful  Weeds:   What’s  Growing  in  the  Garden  and  When?   By  Mary  Van  Dyke   Green  STEM  Learning     Introduction   What  is  a  weed?  It  is  simply  a  plant  growing  where  you  had  not  intended.   Usually  a  “weed”  only  becomes  problem  from  an  aesthetic  viewpoint  or   once  it  grows  or  reproduces  rapidly  and  reduces  the  available  resources  for   other  plants  that  you  are  cultivating.     There  are  three  steps  in  weeding:   1. Identify  which  plants  are  growing  in  your  schoolyard   2. Assess  the  plants’  impact  and  contribution  to  the  ecosystem   3. Decide  what  action  to  take     How  to  treat  weeds  is  a  complex  topic.  In  schoolyards  synthetic  or  “toxic   chemical”  treatments  are  not  permitted.  So  weeding  by  hand  or  other   mechanical  systems  are  encouraged.  If  you  have  a  large  area  of  weeds  you   might  simply  smother  them  by  putting  down  layers  of  newspaper  and   mulch  or  solarize  the  area  under  black  plastic  for  a  few  months.  Other  ways   to  reduce  weeds  are  to  actively  use  no-­‐till  crop  methods  and  to  plant  cover   crops  or  other  plants.  Or  you  might  redefine  your  appreciation  and   judgment  of  what  is  a  “plant  in  the  wrong  place”  or  a  “weed”.     Sometimes  you  will  choose  to  leave  plants  that  “volunteer”  as  weeds  in   your  schoolyard,  sometimes  you  will  want  to  take  them  out,  but  the  first   step  is  to  identify  these  plants  and  their  characteristics.     Guide  arrangement  and  selection   The  photos  and  text  describe  a  selection  of  the  “top  30”  most  frequently   found  “weeds”  that  may  grow  in  your  schoolyard,  or  garden.  The  plants  are   arranged  by  the  time  of  year  when  you  are  likely  to  first  notice  the  plants,   with  an  index  of  common  and  Latin  names.  Many  other  plants  could  be  
  3. 3. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  2  -­‐   included  such  as:  Japanese  Stiltgrass  and  Bush  Honeysuckle,  or  recent   vigorous  growing  arrivals  such  as  Wavyleaf  Basket  Grass.  I  also  chose  to   exclude  several  “ornamentals”  (other  than  English  Ivy)  that  are  still  sold  in   the  nursery  trade,  and  yet  are  now  being  termed  “invasive”.  This   ambiguous  category  of  plants  includes  non-­‐sterile  Buddleia  cultivars,   Nandina,  Common  Daylilies  and  several  others.  To  remove  these  “invasive   ornamental”  plants  from  a  schoolyard  or  community  garden  often  requires   negotiation  with  your  garden’s  stakeholders  and  education  on  the  aesthetic   value  versus  the  ecological  value.  You  might  try  to  suggest  replanting  with   alternative  native  plants  or  less  ecologically-­‐harmful  plants.     Metric  units  are  used  in  the  guide  to  complement  science  curricula.   One  inch  is  approx.  2.5  centimeters,  cm.     To  use  this  photo  guide  Weed  Identification  for  Schools   while  outdoors  with  students  and  teachers,  first:   • Print  off  the  photo  pages  in  color,  and  one  sided   • Make  several  copies  of  the  photo  pages   • Laminate  the  photo  pages   • Bind  the  photo  pages  with  a  ring     Activities  with  students   • Discuss  and  demonstrate:  What  is  a  weed?   • How  do  plants  grow  and  reproduce?   • What  do  we  mean  when  we  call  plants:  native,  invasive,  naturalized,   cultivated  or  wild…?   • Discuss  cultivation  practices  and  ways  to  reduce  or  eliminate   “weeds”.  What  are  sustainable  management  practices?   • To  teach  “weed”  identification  over  a  few  weeks  you  might  consider   growing  and  labeling  weeds  in  a  “weed  patch”   • Try  a  “speed  weed”:  Identify  weeds  with  students,  then  track  how   many  weeds  you  can  pull  in  your  session.  What  types  of  weeds  and   how  many  of  each  did  you  pull  this  time  in  your  garden?    Chart  and   do  statistics.  Repeat  other  times  of  year.    What  do  you  notice?   • Notice  variations  in  patterns  in  your  weeds.    For  example,  what  is  the   range  of  leaf  characteristics:  color,  shape  and  size?  
  4. 4. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  3  -­‐   January  and  February                                                                                     Common  Groundsel   Senecio  vulgaris   Groundsel  has  deeply  lobed   leaves,  yellow  flowers  and  a   small  white  ‘puff-­‐ball’  seed   head  like  a  Dandelion.  It  can   grow  10  to  50  cm  tall.     White  Clover   Trifolium  repens                      !   Note  the  trefoil,  three  leaves  to  a   stem.  Clover  has  a  low  creeping   habit  and  spreads  with  ‘above   ground  stems’,  stolons.   The  sweet  white  flowers  in  the   summer  attract  bees.   Annual  Bluegrass   Poa  annua   There  are  many  different  kinds  of   grasses.  This  is  Annual  Bluegrass,   an  upright  clump  forming  grass.   It  has  white  flowers  in  April.  
  5. 5. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  4  -­‐   January  and  February       Persian  Speedwell   Veronica  persica   Speedwell  is  a  winter  annual  with   small  blue  and  white  flowers  and   round  hairy  leaves  with  rounded   toothed  edges.   English  Ivy   Hedera  helix   English  Ivy  has  become  invasive  in  this   area.  Ivy  can  choke  trees.  We  try  to   take  it  out,  although  it  is  pretty!     The  glossy  leaves  are  evergreen.   Henbit   Lamium  amplexicaule                                 !   Henbit  is  a  winter  annual  with  square  stems.     The  flowers  are  pink-­‐purple  and  the  plant  can   grow  40  cm  tall.   The  heart-­‐shaped  leaves  have  rounded   toothed  edges.   Henbit  looks  very  like  the  Purple  Deadnettle,   but  the  upper  leaves  of  a  Purple  Deadnettle   are  more  triangular  and  purple-­‐tinted.  
  6. 6. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  5  -­‐   January  and  February   Wild  Garlic   Allium  vineale   Wild  Garlic  looks  like  a  grass,  but  the   leaves  are  hollow  and  round  like   chives.  Can  you  smell  the  oniony   smell?   If  you  dig  up  the  plant  you  see  the   little  white  bulbs.  Dig  up  all  the  Wild   Garlic  bulblets  and  put  in  the  trash,   or  they  will  keep  growing.   Mugwort   Artemisia  vulgaris                                 !   Mugwort  spreads  quickly  by  ‘underground  stems’   called  rhizomes.  You  need  to  dig  out  all  of  these   white  underground  stems  to  get  rid  of  the  Mugwort   weeds.  The  leaves  are  deeply  notched,  green  on  top   and  soft  gray  underneath.  They  have  a  smell.   A  Mugwort  leaf  might  remind  you  of  a   chrysanthemum  leaf.     Garlic  Mustard   Alliaria  petiolata   All  parts  of  Garlic  Mustard  give  off  a  garlic-­‐like  odor.   Garlic  Mustard  is  native  to  Europe  and  Asia,  and  a   biennial.  It  winters  the  first  year  as  a  rosette  of  crinkled   leaves.  The  second  year  it  flowers  and  seeds.  The  plant  is   edible,  used  as  salad  or  vegetable  in  many  cuisines.  Here   in  the  US  outside  of  its  native  range,  Garlic  Mustard  has   become  highly  invasive.  The  flowers  can  be  self-­‐fertilized   or  pollinated  by  insects,  and  Garlic  Mustard  also   produces  chemicals  that  outside  of  its  native  range   inhibit  the  growth  of  mycorrhizal  fungi  that  support  trees   and  other  forest  plants.     Weed  out  by  hand,  before  plants  go  to  seed.  
  7. 7. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  6  -­‐   March                               Dandelion   Taraxacum  officinale   The  Dandelion  leaf  is  edged  like  a  lion’s  tooth,  “Dent   de  lion”  in  French.  Dandelions  grow  everywhere  in   the  US,  so  they  are  a  good  indicator  plant  for   tracking  climate  change.  When  did  you  notice  the   first  Dandelion  this  year?  Pollinators  appreciate   Dandelion  nectar.  You  can  eat  Dandelion  leaves  for  a   nutritious  salad.     The  seed  head  is  the  familiar  puffball  with   ‘parachutes’  to  help  seed  dispersal  by  wind.   Dandelions  have  a  long  taproot  like  a  carrot.   Dig  the  whole  root  out  or  the  plant  will  resprout.     English  or  Buckhorn  Plantain   Plantago  lanceolata         !   English  Plantain  has  narrow,  parallel-­‐ veined  leaves  arranged  in  a  rosette.  The   flower  is  cone-­‐like  and  cream-­‐colored  on  a   10-­‐20  cm  stalk.  Plantain  likes  dry  grassy   sites.  Plantain  leaves  are  good  food  for   caterpillars  of  the  Buckeye  butterfly  and   several  kinds  of  moth.  Rabbits,  chipmunks   and  squirrels  eat  the  flowers.     Look  out  too  for  Broad-­‐leaved  or  Common   Plantain  with  a  similar  rosette  of  parallel-­‐ veined  leaves  and  cream  cone  flowers.     Hairy  Bittercress   Cardamine  hirsuta   Bittercress  is  an  annual,  and  can  reproduce   with  several  generations  in  a  year.   Bittercress  likes  moist  soils.   The  leaves  are  arranged  in  a  rosette.     The  flower  stalk  can  be  30  cm  high  with   white  flowers  and  25  mm  long  seedpods.   The  seedpods  explode  propelling  the  seed   up  to  3  meters  from  the  parent  plant!  
  8. 8. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  7  -­‐   March                                                                       Shepherd’s  Purse   Capsella  bursa-­‐pastoris   A  winter  annual  with  leaves  in  rosette  and   white  flowers  on  a  stalk,  10  –  60  cm  tall.     The  plant  is  easily  identified  by  its  heart-­‐shaped   seedpods.  The  seedpods  look  like  a  shepherd’s   purse.   Annual  Sowthistle   Sonchus  oleraceus              !   The  leaves  are  in  a  rosette  and  are  slightly   prickly  at  the  edges.  The  stem  exudes  a  milky   sap  when  cut.  The  Annual  Sowthistle  has  a   short  taproot.  Sowthistles  have  yellow   flowers  and  have  white  feathery   ‘parachutes’  to  help  seed  dispersal  by  wind.     Other  kinds  of  Sowthistle,  Spiny  Sowthistle   and  Perennial  Sowthistle  have  very  prickly   leaf  edges.   Perennial  Sowthistle  spreads  by  rhizomes,   while  the  Spiny  Sowthistle  has  a  long   taproot.    
  9. 9. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  8  -­‐   April  and  May                                                             Violet   Viola  species   Low-­‐growing  perennial  with  smooth   heart-­‐shaped  leaves,  and  violet  or   whitish  flowers.  Plants  spread  by  short   stout  rhizomes  (underground  stems).   So,  if  you  choose  to  remove  Violets   you  need  to  dig  them  out.   30  species  of  Violets  are  native  to  our   area  and  you  might  decide  to  keep   them:  both  for  wildlife  benefit  and   beauty.  The  flowers  are  decorative   and  edible.   Yellow  Woodsorrel                    !   Oxalis  stricta   Clover-­‐  like  perennial,  that  grows  low  to  the   ground  and  higher  (3-­‐50  cm).  Oxalis  spreads   through  reseeding.    Try  to  weed  it  out  while   it  is  still  flowering.  It  has  long  pink   underground  rhizomes  and  fibrous   secondary  roots.   Creeping  Woodsorrel,  Oxalis  corniculata,  is   the  purplish-­‐leaved  or  green-­‐leaved,  low-­‐ growing  species.  It  spreads  by  aboveground   stolons.   Vetch   Vicia  species   Vetches  are  vining  plants  that  trail   over  other  plants.  Notice  the   feather-­‐like  compound  leaves  and   twining  tendrils.  Flowers  are   purplish.    Seedpods  and  flowers  are   pea-­‐like.  
  10. 10. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  9  -­‐   April  and  May                                                           Virginia  Copperleaf   Acalypha  virginica   A  summer  annual  with  distinctive   copper-­‐colored  opposite  leaves.   Flowers  are  greenish  and  on  the   stems.     Insects  often  eat  the  leaves.  Can   you  see  lots  of  little  holes  in  the   leaves?   Common  Chickweed                      !   Stellaria  media   Chickweed  likes  cool  moist  areas.  One   or  two  generations  can  reproduce  from   seed  each  year.    The  leaves  are  small,   light  green  and  oval-­‐shape.  The  flowers   are  white  stars.    Other  common  names   for  Chickweed  are  Starweed  and   Starwort.  Its  Latin  name  “stellaria”  also   means  “star”.  Chickweed  is  edible,  and   you  might  add  it  to  a  salad.     Buttercup   Ranunculus  bulbosus   Buttercups  have  beautiful  glossy  5-­‐ petalled  yellow  flowers.  The  leaves   are  three-­‐lobed  and  indented.  Below   ground  the  buttercup  has  a   thickened  corm  base.  Buttercups   reproduce  by  seed  and  overwinter   as  corms.  Pick  the  flowers  to  enjoy   in  a  vase  and  then  dig  out  the  corm!  
  11. 11. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  10  -­‐   April  and  May                                                           Wild  Grape   Vitis  species   There  are  several  kinds  of  native  Wild  Grape.   The  vines  can  grow  up  to  10  meters  and  need   space  to  climb.  Grapes  provide  food  for  wildlife,   and  spread  through  seed  dispersal  by  birds.   Wild  Grape  leaves  are  large  and  have  toothed   edges.  Note  forked  tendrils  for  climbing.  Can   you  tell  the  difference  between  Wild  Grape  and   Porcelainberry?  Porcelainberry  is  invasive  in   this  area,  so  remove  it  if  you  can.  Wild  Grape   has  habitat  value,  and  is  only  a  weed  if  you  are   unable  to  accommodate  a  vine  in  your  garden.     Carolina  Geranium                    !   Geranium  carolinianum   Geranium  is  usually  a  biennial:  the  native   plant  forms  a  rosette  of  leaves  one  year,   and  then  flowers  the  next.  Leaves  are   deeply  lobed.  The  flowers  (May  to   August)  are  pink  and  there  are  two  or   more  on  a  stem.  The  seeds  look  like  a   bird’s  beak,  hence  a  common  name  for   Geranium  is  “Cranesbill”.  Geranium   maculatum  is  native  to  Northern  Virginia.     False  Strawberry   Duchesnea  indica   False  Strawberry  has  yellow  flowers,  and  is  a  low-­‐ growing  plant  with  trefoil  leaves  and  red  fruit   found  in  moist  locations.  It  spreads  via  above   ground  stolons  and  seed  dispersal  via  animals.   The  native-­‐to-­‐Virginia  Strawberry,  Fragaria   virginiana,  and  cultivar  strawberries  have  similar   trefoil  leaves  but  are  distinguished  by  white   flowers.  
  12. 12. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  11  -­‐   April  and  May                                                             Orchard  Grass                      !   Dactylis  glomerata   Very  dense  and  fibrous  root  system.     Reproduces  by  seed.    So  take  it  out  if   you  can  before  it  flowers  and  seeds.   Crabgrass   Digitaria  sanguinalis   Reproduces  mainly  through  seeding.   Leaves  are  light  green  and  have  stiff   hairs  and  are  rough  to  touch.    The   flowers  and  seedheads  are  3  to  5   wire-­‐like  spikes  on  a  stem.   Nutsedge  Grass   Cyperus  esculentus   Recognize  Nutsedge  by  its  three-­‐cornered  stem   and  pattern  of  three  leaves  and  bright  green   color.    It  reproduces  mainly  by  tubers  that  can   remain  in  the  soil  for  10  or  more  years.   A  single  plant  can  produce  100s  or  several   thousand  tubers  in  a  season.  That’s  why  it  is   worth  weeding  Nutsedge  out  of  the  garden,   while  it  is  young!   Native  Americans  ate  the  tuber.  It  tastes  nutty,   like  almonds.  Nutsedge  is  also  grown  as  food   crop  in  other  places,  e.g.  Spain  and  West  Africa  
  13. 13. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  12  -­‐   April  and  May                                                                                       Mulberry   Morus  alba   Mulberry  has  irregular  leaves,  some  are  lobed   as  in  the  photo,  and  others  are  heart-­‐shaped.   The  leaves  have  serrated  edges.  Mulberry  fruit   are  edible  and  birds  enjoy  them.  The  leaves   can  be  food  for  domesticated  silkworms.  The   Mulberry  tree  spreads  rapidly  through  birds   dispersing  the  seeds.  If  you  recognize  young   Mulberry  seedlings  in  your  garden  pull  them   out.  Are  the  roots  bright  yellow?  Yellow  roots   are  an  identifying  characteristic  of  Mulberry.   Bindweed             Convolvulus  or  Calystegia  species   There  are  several  kinds  of  Bindweed.  All   have  trailing  stems  and  tendrils,  triangular   heart-­‐shaped  leaves  and  flowers  like  a   Morning  Glory.  Bindweed  spreads  both  by   seeds  and  by  underground  stems,   rhizomes.  You  need  to  dig  out  the  whole   plant  as  Bindweed  can  reproduce  from   even  a  small  piece  of  broken  stem.   Lambsquarters                        !   Chenopodium  album   Lambsquarters  is  a  delicious  and   nutritious  plant  and  can  be  left  to  grow   to  harvest  the  leaves  as  a  spinach-­‐like   vegetable.  If  you  choose  to  harvest  for   eating  make  sure  it’s  been  growing  in  a   pesticide-­‐free  and  safe  place.  Or  you   can  weed  out  as  a  seedling.  
  14. 14. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  13  -­‐   June,  July,  August  and  September       Porcelainberry   Ampelopsis  brevipedunculata   The  leaves  can  vary  and  be  deeply  lobed   –  the  photo  shows  heart-­‐shaped  leaves.   Porcelainberry  was  introduced  for  its   beautiful  sky-­‐blue  to  purple  berries.   Seeds  are  dispersed  by  birds  and  other   wildlife.  Porcelainberry  is  considered   invasive  as  it  spreads  rapidly  in  the  mid-­‐ Atlantic  area  and  can  grow  up  to  5  to  7   meters.     Spurge                        !   Euphorbia  species   There  are  several  kinds  of  Spurge.   All  in  this  area  are  non-­‐edible   plants  with  caustic  and  toxic  white   latex  sap.   Do  not  confuse  Spurge  with  the   edible  Purslane  (shown  below).   Common  Purslane   Portulaca  oleracea   Purslane  has  thick  succulent  stems  and   leaves  that  store  water.  Purslane  is  very   high  in  vitamins  E  and  A,  and  omega  3’s.   You  can  eat  Purslane  in  salads  and  stir-­‐ fries.  It  tastes  lemony.  Purslane  grows   well  in  light,  hot  places  and  sandy  soils.   It  grows  prostrate,  that  is  low  to  the   ground,  and  has  yellow  flowers.  
  15. 15. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  14  -­‐   Year  Round      Poison  Ivy   Toxicodendron  radicans   Here  is  a  photo  of  Poison  Ivy  leaves  in  early  fall.  Poison  Ivy  is   a  climbing  trailing  vine  or  shrub  with  green  leaflets  grouped   in  threes.  Note  that  Virginia  Creeper  leaflets  are  grouped  in   fives.  Poison  Ivy  leaflet  shapes  are  quite  variable.  Many   people  (50-­‐60%  of  Americans)  have  severe  skin  allergic   dermatitis  reactions  to  the  chemical  resins,  urushiols,   present  in  all  parts  of  the  Poison  Ivy  plant.  Urushiols  from   Poison  Ivy  can  remain  in  surrounding  soil  and  in  dead  plants   for  over  a  year.  Take  to  heart  the  saying,  “Leaves  of  three  -­‐   let  it  be”.  Poison  Ivy  is  native  to  this  area,  and  has  wildlife   habitat  value:  some  birds  and  animals  like  to  eat  the  leaves   or  white  berries.  If  you  do  touch  Poison  Ivy,  you  can  try   rubbing  the  spot  with  leaves  from  Jewelweed  as  an   antidote,  or  rinse  off  the  oils  as  soon  after  contact  as   possible  with  a  Tecnu™-­‐type  soap  and  cool  water.   Be  careful  to  dispose  of  Poison  Ivy  safely  if  you  take  it  out.   • Identify  the  plants  in  this   photo  growing  with  the   white  flowering  Weigela   shrub?     (Answers  on  next  page)     • Why  would  you  weed  out   the  plants  competing  with   the  Weigela?   Weed  Identification  Quiz  
  16. 16. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  15  -­‐   Answers  to  Weed  Identification  Quiz  on  previous  page:   Chickweed,  Common  Daylilies  (now  considered  invasive  in  parks),   Mugwort,  Dandelion,  Virginia  Copperleaf.     Photo  credits   All  photos  are  by  Mary  Van  Dyke  except  as  noted  below.     Other  photos  credit  as  follows:   Henbit;  Wikipedia  By  Kaldari  (Own  work)  [CC0],  via  Wikimedia  Commons   http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ALamium_amplexicaule_Kaldari _01.jpg     Mugwort  by  Sue  Sweeney  http://www.inmygarden.org     Crabgrass  by  Richard  Norton,   http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crabgrass.JPG     Chickweed  flowers  by  Kaldari,  Stellaria  media  01-­‐  Own  work.  Licensed   under  CC0  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐   http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kaldari_Stellaria_media_01.jpg#m ediaviewer/File:Kaldari_Stellaria_media_01.jpg     Chickweed  plant  by  Hugo.arg  -­‐  Own  work.  Licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐SA  3.0  via   Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐ http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:StellariaMedia001.JPG  -­‐   mediaviewer/File:StellariaMedia001.JPG     Sowthistle  from  Virginia  Tech  Weed  ID     Shepherd’s  Purse   http://northernbushcraft.com/topic.php?name=shepherd%27s-­‐ purse&region=ab&ctgy=edible_plants     Bindweed,  Convolvulus  arvensis  by  Graham  Calow   http://www.naturespot.org.uk/species/field-­‐bindweed        
  17. 17. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  16  -­‐   Resources   Plant  NoVA  Natives  online  and  published  guide   http://www.plantnovanatives.org  for  plants  native  to  Northern  Virginia     Weeds  of  the  Northeast,  book  by  Richard  Uva  et  al,  1997     Virginia  Tech  Weed  Identification  online,  http://oak.ppws.vt.edu/weedindex.htm     A  Field  Guide  for  the  Identification  of  Invasive  Plants  in  Southern  Forests,  by  James   Miller  et  al,  2010,  USDA  publication   http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/35292     Terrestrial  Invasive  Plants  of  the  Potomac  River  Watershed,  brochure  by  The  Nature   Conservancy  and  partners   http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/northamerica/unitedstates/maryland_dc/ explore/mdinvasivebrochure.pdf     Plant  Invaders  of  Mid-­‐Atlantic  Natural  Areas,  fourth  edition  2010,  by  National  Park   Service,  U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service  and  other  partners   http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEn/pubs/midatlantic/index.htm     Wild  Food  from  Your  Yard  and  Neighborhood  by  Mary  Van  Dyke,  July  2014  in   http://tmiliving.com/2014/07/17/wild-­‐food-­‐from-­‐your-­‐yard-­‐and-­‐neighborhood/     Weeds:  In  Defense  of  Nature’s  Most  Unloved  Plants,   book  by  Richard  Mabey  (hardback  2010,  paperback  2012)   Virginia  Invasive  Plant  Species  List,  VA  Dept.  of  Conservation  and  Recreation,  two  page   list,  2014   http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/documents/nh-­‐invasive-­‐plant-­‐list-­‐ 2014.pdf     Credits   To  my  mother  and  father:  both  great  gardeners,   And  my  family,   To  my  many  garden,  school  and  naturalist  friends   And  to  Kirsten  Buhls,  Agriculture  and  Natural  Resource  Extension  Agent,   Virginia  Cooperative  Extension;   Thank  you  for  sharing  your  love   Of  plants,  community,  and  knowledge.    
  18. 18. WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   WEED  IDENTIFICATION  for  SCHOOLS   Green  STEM  Learning  –  January  2015   -­‐  17  -­‐   Index Bluegrass,  Annual     3   Bittercress,  Hairy     6   Broad-­‐Leaved  Plantain     6   Bindweed         12   Buckhorn  Plantain     6   Buttercup       9   Carolina  Geranium     10   Chickweed,  Common     9,  15   Common  Chickweed     9   Common  Plantain     6   Common  Purslane     13   Clover,  White       3   Crabgrass       11   Cranesbill       10   Dandelion       6,  15   Daylily,  Common     14   English  Ivy       4   English  Plantain       6   Garlic  Mustard       5   Garlic,  Wild       5   Geranium  Carolina     10   Grape,  Wild       10   Grass,  Nutsedge     11   Grass,  Orchard       11   Groundsel,  Common     3   Hairy  Bittercress     6   Henbit         4   Ivy,  English       4   Lambsquarters       12   Morning  Glory       12   Mugwort       5,  15   Mulberry       12   Nutsedge  Grass       11   Orchard  Grass       11   Persian  Speedwell     3   Plantain       6   Poison  Ivy       14   Porcelainberry       13   Purslane,  Common     13   Shepherd’s  Purse     7   Sowthistle,  Annual  &  Perennial   7   Sowthistle,  Spiny     7   Speedwell       4   Spurge         13   Starweed  or  Starwort     9   Strawberry,  False     10   Strawberry,  Virginia     10   Vetch         8   Violet         8   Virginia  Copperleaf     9,  15   Virginia  Creeper     14   White  Clover       3   Wild  Garlic       5   Wild  Grape       10   Woodsorrel,  Creeping  &  Yellow  8     Acalypha  virginica     9   Alliaria  petiolata     5   Allium  vineale       5   Ampelopsis  brevipedunculata   13   Artemisia  vulgaris     5   Calystegia  species     12   Capsella  bursa-­‐pastoris     7   Cardamine  hirsuta     6   Chenopodium  album     12   Convolvulus  species     12   Cyperus  esculentus     11   Dactylis  glomerata     11   Digitaria  sanguinalis     11   Duchesnea  indica     10   Euphorbia  species     13   Fragaria  virginiana     10   Geranium  carolinianum     10   Geranium  maculatum     10   Hedera  helix       4   Lamium  amplexicaule     4   Morus  alba       12   Oxalis  corniculata     8   Oxalis  stricta       8   Plantago  lanceolata  &  major   6   Poa  annua       3   Portulaca  oleracea     13   Ranunculus  bulbosus     9   Senecio  vulgaris       3   Sonchus  oleraceus     7   Stellaria  media       9   Taraxacum  officinale     6   Toxicodendron  radicans     14   Trifolium  repens     3   Veronica  persica     4   Vicia  species       8   Vitis  species       10  

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