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2013 ingenious-ireland-the ingenious irish-iet-slideshow


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2013 ingenious-ireland-the ingenious irish-iet-slideshow

  1. 1. The Ingenious IrishGreat Irish scientists & innovatorswhose ideas shaped the worldMary Mulvihill, www.ingeniousireland.ieIET 23.5.2013 (c) Copyright Ingenious Ireland, 2013
  2. 2. Some great scientists...
  3. 3. The ‘father’ of chemistry – Robert BoyleBoyle’s Law (gas volume and pressure)• Experiments with an air pump• Modern analytical chemistry• Modern concept of an element• Litmus tests, for acid, base and neutral• Analytical tests for mineral water• Assays for gold and silver and salts• Formalin as a preservative
  4. 4. Irish algebra, helped to put a man on the MoonSir William Rowan Hamilton 1805-18651843: invented Quaternion algebraHamilton also laid the foundations of quantum mechanics.
  5. 5. A great experimentalist: John Tyndall• First proof of Greenhouse gaseffect (absorption spectroscopy ofgases)• First explanation of why the sky isblue•First proof of Pasteur’s germtheory•Champion and populariser ofscience,•Mountaineer & glaciologist•Tyndall institutes
  6. 6. New micro drop analyserbased on Tyndall’s work on spectrometry
  7. 7. The world’s largest telescope: 1845-1917Birr Castle ‘Leviathon’,Restored to working order.
  8. 8. 1845: Revealed the spiral nature of galaxies andnebulaeThe whirlpool galaxy1845 Birr 2005 Hubble Space Telescope
  9. 9. 1846: We invented seismologyRobert MalletIngenious engineer 1810-81
  10. 10. R&J Mallet: first seismic atlas of the worldReveals the Pacific rim of fire, 1850s
  11. 11. George Francis FitzGerald 1851-1901Radio waves, cosmic snowballs, the speed of light
  12. 12. Plaque at No 7 Ely Place
  13. 13. 1892: First electrical measurement of starlightFitzgerald, Monck & Minchin, 16 Earlsfort Terrace
  14. 14. George Gabriel StokesStokes’s conjectureStokes’s phenomenonStokes’s layerStokes’s lineStokes’s law of hydrodynamicsStokes’s aw of fluorescenceNavier-Stokes equations . . .the stokes, the standard unit ofkinematic viscosity, is equal to1cm2/second.Lucasion Professor at Cambridge(Newton and Hawking)
  15. 15. Thermodynamics and degrees KelvinWilliam Thomson,Baron Kelvin 1824-1907His many inventions includedan instrument that made thefirst successful transatlantictelegraph cable possible.
  16. 16. We split the atom1951 Nobel physics prize Ernest Walton, with John CockcroftExperimentalaccelerator anddetector, 1932Proved e=mc2Began the atomicera
  17. 17. Walton plaque, TCD Physics Dept
  18. 18. Erwin Schrodinger, Nobel prize 1933The Austrian physicist lived inDublin 1939-1956 and tookIrish citizenship.His book, ‘What is Life?’,written in Dublin, inspired ageneration of biologists,including Crick and Watson.
  19. 19. Erwin Schrodinger plaque, 64 Merrion Square
  20. 20. J.D. Bernal, aka Sage1901-71X-ray crystallography of biological molecules
  21. 21. X-Ray chrystallographyDame Kathleen Lonsdale1903-71The structure of benzeneand diamond, and otherinorganic molecules
  22. 22. Engineering & technology(Rather a lot of militaristic technology!)
  23. 23. Steam turbineCharles Parsons 1884 – made the 20th-century possibleWe electrified the world!
  24. 24. Turbinia, 1890sParsons’s turbine-powered ship. . . and revolutionised transport at sea
  25. 25. World’s first guided missileLouis Brennan’s ‘dirigible’ torpedo, 1860s
  26. 26. Mallet’s ‘portable’ 36” mortar for the Crimean War
  27. 27. We changed the face of warThe first commercial submarineJohn Philip Holland, 1890s
  28. 28. Sir Howard Grubb1902: The first effective submarine periscope
  29. 29. The world’s best telescopesGrubb optical works, Rathmines: casting the Melbourne telescope
  30. 30. We proposed the Suez CanalExplorer Francis Rawdon ChesneyImages:
  31. 31. Quality of life (and death). . .
  32. 32. Artificial fertiliser:Sir James Murray, 1817He invented a way to makeminerals soluble for plants.We revolutionised farming:
  33. 33. Lightweight tractor: Harry Ferguson, 1930sManufactured initially by Ford, replaced the horse
  34. 34. 1991: Rooster potatoTeagasc Oakpark Carlow
  35. 35. Francis Rynd, Dublin’s Meath Hospital1843 The hypodermic syringe
  36. 36. Arthur LearedFirst exhibited Crystal Palace, London, 18511851: The modern stereo, rubber stethoscope
  37. 37. John Joly’s ‘Dublin Method’, used radon gas in place of radium1910-14 First effective radiotherapy for cancer
  38. 38. John Joly:Colour photography 1890sThe steam calorimeter
  39. 39. Sir James Martin, 1893-1981Image: www.martin-baker.comSaving military pilots: the MB ejector seat
  40. 40. 1860: The humane hangman’s dropLucinda Sly, hanged on thistrapdoor, Carlow 1835Rev Samuel Haughton
  41. 41. And now for somethingcompletely different. . .
  42. 42. What made Guinness great was quality control and statistics . . .
  43. 43. William Sealy Gosset, Guiness Brewer1908 Student ‘t’ test
  44. 44. We invented whiskey . . . Not once, but twice!In the Middle-Ages, missionaries and Crusaders broughtdistilling back from the Arab world.The Irish distilled beer, and made the first proto-whiskey
  45. 45. The continuous, column still – the first heat exchange deviceAeneas Coffey, 1830Produced whiskey so pure it was almost industrial alcohol!
  46. 46. Milk chocolate: Sir Hans Sloane, 1680sThe Irish add milk to everything, inventing new industries,such as milk chocolate and Baileys cream liqueur.
  47. 47. Joe ‘Tayto’ Murphy1954 Flavoured crisps
  48. 48. We’re still inventing flavours:Shamrock-flavoured crisps :-)
  49. 49. Gordon FosterTrinity College Dublin1960s: The ISBN
  50. 50. The Penny Black: 1840World’s first adhesive stamp.Hard to separate
  51. 51. Dublin printer Henry ArcherThe Royal Mail paid him £4000 for his patents.1850 Perforated stamps
  52. 52. Irish stamp marking 350 years of Boyle’s Law, in 2012Now ‘peel and stick’ -- but still with ‘perforations’
  53. 53. 2009: Sugru, flexible self setting rubberJane Ní
  54. 54. Discover Ingenious Ireland . .
  55. 55. Ingenious Dublin walking tours:Geology <> Blood & Guts <> Great Irish Inventions <>Ingenious Scientists & Engineers
  56. 56. DIY tours! Ready-to-go MP3 audio tours & appsFrom just €1.99
  57. 57. Try the e-bookFirst chapter is FREEon Amazon