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Some Medicinal Roots and Rhizomes
Ginger rhizome
• Botanical origin:
• It is the dried rhizome
of Zingiber officinale
Roscoe, Family:
Zingiberaceae.
T.S in Ginger rhizome
Powdered Ginger:
Septate fiber
-Staminate starch
- oil cells
-Staminate starch
- oil cells
Non-lignified xylem vessels
N.B: Absence of scleried cells or calcium oxalate
Active constituents:
• 1- Volatile oil (1-2 %) containing a mixture of over
50 constituents
- Gingerol
- Zingerone
- Shogaol.
• Gingerol:
- responsible for the pungency of ginger.
- An oily liquid consisting of homologous phenols.
- Its pungency is destroyed by boiling with 2%
potassium hydroxide.
• Zingerone
- is pungent but possesses in addition sweet
odour.
- its pungency is destroyed by prolonged
contact with 5% NaOH.
• Shogaol
- a component of the oil.
- represents the compounds formed by loss of
water from gingerol.
- not present in the fresh rhizome but its an
artifact during extraction.
Actions and Uses:
• Nausea and vomiting of different reasons:
- motion sickness
- postoperative nausea
- vomiting in pregnancy
- seasickness.
• Carminative and stimulant.
• Stimulate appetite.
• flavoring agent in food industry.
Special chemical test:
• Sudan III
• Iodine
Precautions from (AHPA)
( American Herbal Products
Association)
• Ginger should not be used by children under 2
years of age.
• Ginger intake should not exceed 2 to 4 g per
day (excessive doses of the herb may cause
mild heartburn).
• It should not be used during pregnancy.
• People with gallstones should consult a
physician before taking ginger.
Curcuma rhizome
• Origin:
• It consists of the prepared
rhizomes of Curcuma
domestica Valeton,
Curcuma longa, Family:
Zingiberaceae.
Preparation:
• Curcuma rhizomes are collected at the end of
the growing season.
• Cleaned.
• Boiled for some hours.
• Carefully but rapidly dried in open air.
Powdered Curcuma:
• Physical characters:
- Color: orange yellow to
yellowish brown.
- Odor: slight aromatic.
- Taste: aromatic bitter.
Powdered Curcuma:
• Masses of gelatinized starch.
• Parenchyma containing oleoresin
• Cork cells having yellow brown walls.
• Xylem vessels (spiral, sclariform and reticulate).
Active constituents:
• 1- Colouring material known as Curcuminoids:
mainly Curcumin and smaller quantities of
dicaffeoylmethane.
• 2- Volatile oil (5%) contain sesquiterpenes
(zingiberine), sesquiterpene alcohols and ketones.
• 3- Arabinose, fructose and glucose.
• 4- Abundant starch grains and often gelatinized.
Actions and Uses:
• Aromatic stomachic.
• Diuretic.
• Choleretic and stron antihepatotoxic action so
used in jaundice and hepatitis.
• Treatment of peptic ulcers.
• Antiflatulent.
• Dyspepsia.
Special chemical test:
• 1- Positive results with Sudan III and Iodine.
• 2- place a few drops of a mixture of equal parts of
conc. H2SO4 and alcohol on a slide being against a
white background. Sprinkle a small amount of the
suspected powder into the reagent, the particles
of Curcuma will turn red and the red colur
gradually flows into the surrounding liquid.
• 3- Stir a small quantity of the suspected powder
into a thin paste with a mixture of ether and
chloroform. Allow the paste to dry on a filter
paper and when dry remove the powder and
treat the remaining yellow stain with hot
saturated boric acid solution, an orange-red
colour is produced, turning bluish black upon the
addition of ammonia solution.
Contraindications:
• Obstruction of the biliary tract.
• cases of gallstones.
• Hypersensitivity to the drug.
Liquorice root
• Origin:
• Consists of the dried
peeled or unpeeled roots
and stolons of Glycyrrhiza
glabra L. and its varieties,
Family: Leguminoseae.
T.S in Liquorice root
Powdered liquorice:
• Physical characters:
• Color:
- light yellow in the peeled.
- brownish-yellow in the unpeeled.
• Odour: faint characteristic.
• Taste: very sweet without
perceptible bitterness or acridity.
Crystal sheath.
Powdered liquorice:
Prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate
Cork
• Numerous starch
granules, free or in
parenchyma.
Active constituents:
• 1- Triterpenoidal saponin compounds:
- Glycyrrhizin (glycyrrhizinic or glycyrrhizic acid).
-Glycyrrhizic acid is fifty times sweeter than sucrose.
- It occurs as a mixture of potassium and calcium salts.
- on hydrolysis it gives the aglycone Glycerrhetic acid
and 2 molecules of D-glucuronic acid.
• 2- Other triterpenes:
- Glycyrrhetinic acid (= glycyrrhetic acid).
• 3- Flavonoids and isoflavonoids.
• 4- Chalcones.
• 5- Coumarins.
• 6- Polysaccharides mainly glucans.
• 7- Volatile oil containing fenchone, linalool,furfuryl
alcohol and benzaldehyde.
• 8- Other constituents: starch, sucrose, glucose and
amino acids.
Uses
Actions and Uses:
- Demulcent in treatment of sore throats.
- An expectorant in treatment of coughs and
bronchial catarrh.
- A prophylaxis for peptic ulcers and dyspepsia.
- Mouth ulcers and ulceration of kidney and
bladder.
- As an anti-inflammatory agent in treatment of
allergic reactions, rheumatism and arthritis, to
prevent liver toxicity.
- A vehicle for disguising taste of acrid/bitter
medicines. The liquid extract is often used to
mask the taste of nauseous medicines.
- Its good for stomach and mouth ulcers, coughs,
burning in the stomach.
Rhubarb
• Origin:
• It is the dried rhizome and big roots of
Rheum palmatum Linne, R.officinalle
Baillonor other species or hybrids of Rheum
except Rheum rhaponticum, Family:
Polygonaceae.
Powdered Rhubarb
Active constituents:
• 1- Anthraquinones:
- free and combined
- Free anthr.: Chrysophanol, Aloe-emodin,
Emodin, Rhien,
• 2- Astringent compounds
(hydrolysable and condensed tannins)
- Glucogallin, free gallic acid, epicatechin gallate
and catechin.
- Other derivatives of gallic acid include glycerol
gallate, gallic acid gucoside.
Actions and Uses:
• 1- In small doses:
- bitter stomachic.
- intestinal astringent in the treatment of
diarrhea.
2- In large doses:
- causes purgation ( a stimulant laxative)
followed by astringent effect.
- the laxative effect is due to: inhibition of the
uptake of water and electrolytes in the large
intestine and a stimulant effect on intestinal
motility.
Contraindications:
- Kidney diseases.
- Urinary tract problems.
- Arthritis.
- during pregnancy or lactation.
- cases of intestinal obstruction.
- chronic intestinal inflammation.
- Not recommended for children less than 12 years
old.
• Special chemical test:
• Borntrager’s test.
Gentian
Gentian
Synonym-
Gentiana, radix gentianae
B.S
It is dried partially fermented rhizome
and root of yellow gentian i.e Gentiana
lutea
Family
Gentianaceae
Macroscopic characteristics
colour- rhizomes are yellowish-brown
Odour-peculiar( different)
Taste- sweet taste followed by intense bitter
Fracture- short and smooth in dried drug but
tough and flexible in moist drug
Chemical constituents
Bitter glycoside -Gentiopicrin(gentiopicroside).
Others- Amarogentin, ( bitter)
amaroswerin,
gentioside,
Gentinin
Gentisin( yellow colour flavonoid)
Gentisic acid,
gentianose(trisaccharide)
Gentibiose(disaccharide)
sucrose
Chemical test
under UV light gentian extract shows light blue
fluorescence.
Uses
Bitter tonic
Chemical constituents:
- It contains mixture of Saponin
glycosides (triterpenoid group)
Ginsenosides, -aglycone is dammarol
Panaxosides,-aglycon is oleanolic acid,
panaxadiol, panaxatriol.
Uses
Immunomodulatory ( it increase natural
resistance and enhance power to overcome illness
or exhaustion).
Tonic and stimulant
externally used in cosmetics
Valeriana rhizome
• Origin:
• consists of the rhizome,
stolons and roots of
Valeriana officinalis, Family:
Valerianaceae, collected in
the autumn and dried at a
temperature below 40°C.
History and Traditional Uses
• Valerian: from the Latin word valere, which
means to be in good health.
• The herb was first discovered and used by
Greek physicians, who recommended it for a
host of medicinal uses:
– Insomnia
– Digestive problems
– Anxiety
Active constituents:
• 1- Volatile oil (0.5 - 1 %)
- (yellowish-green to brownish yellow).
contains esters of bornyl isovalerianate, bornyl
acetate, bornyl formate, eugenyl isovalerate,
eugenol, terpenes and sesquiterpenes.
- Isovaleric acid responsible for its unpleasant odor.
• Valerian extract is composed of many chemical
constituents that are suggested to have medicinal
properties.
»Valerenic acid
»Valepotriates (epoxy-iridoid esters).
»Amino acids
• Valerenic acid; suggested in several studies to
be one of the active compounds of valerian.
Traditional and modern uses: since antiquity for insomnia and other
sleep disorders
Most common preparation: Dried roots are prepared as teas, tinctures,
and extracts are put into capsules or tablets.
Mechanism of action: volatile oils (valerone, valerenic acid),
valepotriates, baldrianals  active ingredient unclear, synergism??
Clinical trials: Some studies suggest that valerian may be useful for
insomnia and other sleep disorders. Overall, the evidence from clinical
trials for the sleep-promoting effects of valerian is inconclusive.
Adverse effects: very few adverse events, sometimes headaches; drug
interactions not reported but also not studied
How it Works
• GABA receptors, melatonin, serotonin and dopamine play a big
part in controlling sleep.
• Valerian may decrease the degradation of GABA, therefore
increasing GABA concentration at the synapse (similar to Rx
drugs like barbituates and benzodiazepines) resulting in a
calming or sedative effect.
• There are also studies testing valerians effect on serotonin and
melatonin receptors as well, but the mechanism of this reaction
is unknown.
Uses:
• 1- Valerian is most commonly used
for sleep disorders, especially the inability to sleep
(insomnia).
• 2- Valerian is also used for conditions connected
to anxiety and psychological stress.
• 3- added to bath water to help with restlessness
and sleep disorders.
• 4- In manufacturing, the extracts and oil made
from valerian are used as flavoring in foods and
beverages.
Echinaceae Root
• Origin:
• It consists of the fresh or dried roots
and aerial parts of Echinaceae
angustifolia D.C., Echinaceae
purpurea L. harvested in full bloom
or fresh or dried roots of E.pallida
Nutt., Family: Asteraceae
(Compositae).
• It’s name comes from
the Greek word echino,
meaning hedgehog
Active constituents:
1- Caffeic acid ester derivatives.
2- Polysaccharide constituents.
3- Volatile oil (< 0.1 %).
4- Flavonoids.
5- Trace amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
(at these concentrations, the alkaloids are considered
to be non-toxic.)
Traditional and modern uses: used to treat or prevent
colds, flu, and other infections; believed to stimulate the
immune system to help fight infections.
-Topical applications have been used to promote wound
healing.
- Caffeic acid derivatives show antiviral activities.
Most common preparations: The whole plant is used fresh
or dried to make teas, squeezed juice, tablets of extracts, or
preparations for external use
Mechanism of action: extracts can stimulate immune cell
function in vitro
Adverse effects: sometimes allergic reactions.
Products and Forms
• The above ground parts and roots are made
into teas, juices, extracts, or topical forms.
• Products include capsules, teas, and tinctures.
Ipecacuanha root
• Origin:
• It is the dried root or root
and rhizome of Cephaelis
ipecacuanha (Brazilian) or
C. acuminata (Nicaragua or
Panama), Famiy:
Rubiaceae.
• Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Brazilian Ipecac
• Cephaelis acuminata
Panama Ipecac
• Family : Rubiaceae.
Powdered Ipecacuanha
• Color :greyish-brown to
light brown .
• Odor : Slight or odorless.
• Taste : Bitter and acrid.
Raphides of calcium oxalate
Numerous starch granules
Brown fragments of cork
• Chemical constituents:
Alkaloid- Isoquinoline group
- Cephaline.
- Emetine.
Uses:
Expectorant, Emetic, Amoebicidal.
• Expectorant (0.5-2 mg).
• Emetic (20-40 mg).
• Amoebic dysentry.
- emetine HCl injection.
- emetine & bismuth iodide mouth.

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Some medicinal roots and rhizomes

  • 1. Some Medicinal Roots and Rhizomes
  • 2. Ginger rhizome • Botanical origin: • It is the dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Family: Zingiberaceae.
  • 3. T.S in Ginger rhizome
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  • 8. Non-lignified xylem vessels N.B: Absence of scleried cells or calcium oxalate
  • 9. Active constituents: • 1- Volatile oil (1-2 %) containing a mixture of over 50 constituents - Gingerol - Zingerone - Shogaol.
  • 10. • Gingerol: - responsible for the pungency of ginger. - An oily liquid consisting of homologous phenols. - Its pungency is destroyed by boiling with 2% potassium hydroxide.
  • 11. • Zingerone - is pungent but possesses in addition sweet odour. - its pungency is destroyed by prolonged contact with 5% NaOH.
  • 12. • Shogaol - a component of the oil. - represents the compounds formed by loss of water from gingerol. - not present in the fresh rhizome but its an artifact during extraction.
  • 13. Actions and Uses: • Nausea and vomiting of different reasons: - motion sickness - postoperative nausea - vomiting in pregnancy - seasickness. • Carminative and stimulant. • Stimulate appetite. • flavoring agent in food industry.
  • 14. Special chemical test: • Sudan III • Iodine
  • 15. Precautions from (AHPA) ( American Herbal Products Association) • Ginger should not be used by children under 2 years of age. • Ginger intake should not exceed 2 to 4 g per day (excessive doses of the herb may cause mild heartburn). • It should not be used during pregnancy. • People with gallstones should consult a physician before taking ginger.
  • 16. Curcuma rhizome • Origin: • It consists of the prepared rhizomes of Curcuma domestica Valeton, Curcuma longa, Family: Zingiberaceae.
  • 17. Preparation: • Curcuma rhizomes are collected at the end of the growing season. • Cleaned. • Boiled for some hours. • Carefully but rapidly dried in open air.
  • 18. Powdered Curcuma: • Physical characters: - Color: orange yellow to yellowish brown. - Odor: slight aromatic. - Taste: aromatic bitter.
  • 19. Powdered Curcuma: • Masses of gelatinized starch. • Parenchyma containing oleoresin • Cork cells having yellow brown walls. • Xylem vessels (spiral, sclariform and reticulate).
  • 20. Active constituents: • 1- Colouring material known as Curcuminoids: mainly Curcumin and smaller quantities of dicaffeoylmethane. • 2- Volatile oil (5%) contain sesquiterpenes (zingiberine), sesquiterpene alcohols and ketones. • 3- Arabinose, fructose and glucose. • 4- Abundant starch grains and often gelatinized.
  • 21. Actions and Uses: • Aromatic stomachic. • Diuretic. • Choleretic and stron antihepatotoxic action so used in jaundice and hepatitis. • Treatment of peptic ulcers. • Antiflatulent. • Dyspepsia.
  • 22. Special chemical test: • 1- Positive results with Sudan III and Iodine. • 2- place a few drops of a mixture of equal parts of conc. H2SO4 and alcohol on a slide being against a white background. Sprinkle a small amount of the suspected powder into the reagent, the particles of Curcuma will turn red and the red colur gradually flows into the surrounding liquid.
  • 23. • 3- Stir a small quantity of the suspected powder into a thin paste with a mixture of ether and chloroform. Allow the paste to dry on a filter paper and when dry remove the powder and treat the remaining yellow stain with hot saturated boric acid solution, an orange-red colour is produced, turning bluish black upon the addition of ammonia solution.
  • 24. Contraindications: • Obstruction of the biliary tract. • cases of gallstones. • Hypersensitivity to the drug.
  • 25. Liquorice root • Origin: • Consists of the dried peeled or unpeeled roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and its varieties, Family: Leguminoseae.
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  • 30. Powdered liquorice: • Physical characters: • Color: - light yellow in the peeled. - brownish-yellow in the unpeeled. • Odour: faint characteristic. • Taste: very sweet without perceptible bitterness or acridity.
  • 31. Crystal sheath. Powdered liquorice: Prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate
  • 32. Cork • Numerous starch granules, free or in parenchyma.
  • 33. Active constituents: • 1- Triterpenoidal saponin compounds: - Glycyrrhizin (glycyrrhizinic or glycyrrhizic acid). -Glycyrrhizic acid is fifty times sweeter than sucrose. - It occurs as a mixture of potassium and calcium salts. - on hydrolysis it gives the aglycone Glycerrhetic acid and 2 molecules of D-glucuronic acid.
  • 34. • 2- Other triterpenes: - Glycyrrhetinic acid (= glycyrrhetic acid). • 3- Flavonoids and isoflavonoids. • 4- Chalcones. • 5- Coumarins. • 6- Polysaccharides mainly glucans. • 7- Volatile oil containing fenchone, linalool,furfuryl alcohol and benzaldehyde. • 8- Other constituents: starch, sucrose, glucose and amino acids.
  • 35. Uses
  • 36. Actions and Uses: - Demulcent in treatment of sore throats. - An expectorant in treatment of coughs and bronchial catarrh. - A prophylaxis for peptic ulcers and dyspepsia. - Mouth ulcers and ulceration of kidney and bladder. - As an anti-inflammatory agent in treatment of allergic reactions, rheumatism and arthritis, to prevent liver toxicity.
  • 37. - A vehicle for disguising taste of acrid/bitter medicines. The liquid extract is often used to mask the taste of nauseous medicines. - Its good for stomach and mouth ulcers, coughs, burning in the stomach.
  • 38. Rhubarb • Origin: • It is the dried rhizome and big roots of Rheum palmatum Linne, R.officinalle Baillonor other species or hybrids of Rheum except Rheum rhaponticum, Family: Polygonaceae.
  • 40. Active constituents: • 1- Anthraquinones: - free and combined - Free anthr.: Chrysophanol, Aloe-emodin, Emodin, Rhien,
  • 41. • 2- Astringent compounds (hydrolysable and condensed tannins) - Glucogallin, free gallic acid, epicatechin gallate and catechin. - Other derivatives of gallic acid include glycerol gallate, gallic acid gucoside.
  • 42. Actions and Uses: • 1- In small doses: - bitter stomachic. - intestinal astringent in the treatment of diarrhea. 2- In large doses: - causes purgation ( a stimulant laxative) followed by astringent effect. - the laxative effect is due to: inhibition of the uptake of water and electrolytes in the large intestine and a stimulant effect on intestinal motility.
  • 43. Contraindications: - Kidney diseases. - Urinary tract problems. - Arthritis. - during pregnancy or lactation. - cases of intestinal obstruction. - chronic intestinal inflammation. - Not recommended for children less than 12 years old.
  • 44. • Special chemical test: • Borntrager’s test.
  • 46. Gentian Synonym- Gentiana, radix gentianae B.S It is dried partially fermented rhizome and root of yellow gentian i.e Gentiana lutea Family Gentianaceae
  • 47. Macroscopic characteristics colour- rhizomes are yellowish-brown Odour-peculiar( different) Taste- sweet taste followed by intense bitter Fracture- short and smooth in dried drug but tough and flexible in moist drug
  • 48. Chemical constituents Bitter glycoside -Gentiopicrin(gentiopicroside). Others- Amarogentin, ( bitter) amaroswerin, gentioside, Gentinin Gentisin( yellow colour flavonoid) Gentisic acid, gentianose(trisaccharide) Gentibiose(disaccharide) sucrose
  • 49. Chemical test under UV light gentian extract shows light blue fluorescence. Uses Bitter tonic
  • 50.
  • 51. Chemical constituents: - It contains mixture of Saponin glycosides (triterpenoid group) Ginsenosides, -aglycone is dammarol Panaxosides,-aglycon is oleanolic acid, panaxadiol, panaxatriol.
  • 52. Uses Immunomodulatory ( it increase natural resistance and enhance power to overcome illness or exhaustion). Tonic and stimulant externally used in cosmetics
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  • 57. Valeriana rhizome • Origin: • consists of the rhizome, stolons and roots of Valeriana officinalis, Family: Valerianaceae, collected in the autumn and dried at a temperature below 40°C.
  • 58. History and Traditional Uses • Valerian: from the Latin word valere, which means to be in good health. • The herb was first discovered and used by Greek physicians, who recommended it for a host of medicinal uses: – Insomnia – Digestive problems – Anxiety
  • 59. Active constituents: • 1- Volatile oil (0.5 - 1 %) - (yellowish-green to brownish yellow). contains esters of bornyl isovalerianate, bornyl acetate, bornyl formate, eugenyl isovalerate, eugenol, terpenes and sesquiterpenes. - Isovaleric acid responsible for its unpleasant odor.
  • 60. • Valerian extract is composed of many chemical constituents that are suggested to have medicinal properties. »Valerenic acid »Valepotriates (epoxy-iridoid esters). »Amino acids • Valerenic acid; suggested in several studies to be one of the active compounds of valerian.
  • 61. Traditional and modern uses: since antiquity for insomnia and other sleep disorders Most common preparation: Dried roots are prepared as teas, tinctures, and extracts are put into capsules or tablets. Mechanism of action: volatile oils (valerone, valerenic acid), valepotriates, baldrianals  active ingredient unclear, synergism?? Clinical trials: Some studies suggest that valerian may be useful for insomnia and other sleep disorders. Overall, the evidence from clinical trials for the sleep-promoting effects of valerian is inconclusive. Adverse effects: very few adverse events, sometimes headaches; drug interactions not reported but also not studied
  • 62. How it Works • GABA receptors, melatonin, serotonin and dopamine play a big part in controlling sleep. • Valerian may decrease the degradation of GABA, therefore increasing GABA concentration at the synapse (similar to Rx drugs like barbituates and benzodiazepines) resulting in a calming or sedative effect. • There are also studies testing valerians effect on serotonin and melatonin receptors as well, but the mechanism of this reaction is unknown.
  • 63. Uses: • 1- Valerian is most commonly used for sleep disorders, especially the inability to sleep (insomnia). • 2- Valerian is also used for conditions connected to anxiety and psychological stress. • 3- added to bath water to help with restlessness and sleep disorders. • 4- In manufacturing, the extracts and oil made from valerian are used as flavoring in foods and beverages.
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  • 66. Echinaceae Root • Origin: • It consists of the fresh or dried roots and aerial parts of Echinaceae angustifolia D.C., Echinaceae purpurea L. harvested in full bloom or fresh or dried roots of E.pallida Nutt., Family: Asteraceae (Compositae).
  • 67. • It’s name comes from the Greek word echino, meaning hedgehog
  • 68. Active constituents: 1- Caffeic acid ester derivatives. 2- Polysaccharide constituents. 3- Volatile oil (< 0.1 %). 4- Flavonoids. 5- Trace amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. (at these concentrations, the alkaloids are considered to be non-toxic.)
  • 69. Traditional and modern uses: used to treat or prevent colds, flu, and other infections; believed to stimulate the immune system to help fight infections. -Topical applications have been used to promote wound healing. - Caffeic acid derivatives show antiviral activities. Most common preparations: The whole plant is used fresh or dried to make teas, squeezed juice, tablets of extracts, or preparations for external use Mechanism of action: extracts can stimulate immune cell function in vitro Adverse effects: sometimes allergic reactions.
  • 70. Products and Forms • The above ground parts and roots are made into teas, juices, extracts, or topical forms. • Products include capsules, teas, and tinctures.
  • 71. Ipecacuanha root • Origin: • It is the dried root or root and rhizome of Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Brazilian) or C. acuminata (Nicaragua or Panama), Famiy: Rubiaceae.
  • 72. • Cephaelis ipecacuanha Brazilian Ipecac • Cephaelis acuminata Panama Ipecac • Family : Rubiaceae.
  • 73. Powdered Ipecacuanha • Color :greyish-brown to light brown . • Odor : Slight or odorless. • Taste : Bitter and acrid.
  • 74. Raphides of calcium oxalate Numerous starch granules Brown fragments of cork
  • 75. • Chemical constituents: Alkaloid- Isoquinoline group - Cephaline. - Emetine.
  • 76. Uses: Expectorant, Emetic, Amoebicidal. • Expectorant (0.5-2 mg). • Emetic (20-40 mg). • Amoebic dysentry. - emetine HCl injection. - emetine & bismuth iodide mouth.