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Fruits

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pharmacognosy

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Fruits

  1. 1. Fruits (Latin: Fructus)
  2. 2. Typical carpel Fruit Defined as the whole product of development of the gynaecium as a result of fertilization.
  3. 3. Fruit Formation: • After fertilization, The ovary enlarges to form the fruit. The ovarian wall becomes the fruit wall it is called the Pericarp. The ovules become the seeds. A fruit may have one or more seeds. The petals, sepals and other parts of the flower start to wither away and fall off.
  4. 4. Fruit Function: 1- Protection of the seeds. 2- Nourishment of the seeds.
  5. 5. Fruits True Fruit False Fruit Composite, multiple or collective fruit Simple Aggregate Succulent Dry Berry Drupe
  6. 6. Macroscopical and Microscopical Characters of Fruits • Macroscopical characters of fruits: • Any fruit has two scars: 1- Minute apical scar marking the remains of the style. 2- Large basal scar marking the attachment of the stalk of the parent plant.
  7. 7. • The external surface of the fruit may be: - Smooth as in Capsicum. - Hairy as in Anise. - Spiny as in Stramonium. - Transversely striated as in Senna. - Wrinkled as in Vanilla. - Glabrous as in Fennel. - Granular as in Citrus fruits. - Longitudinal striated as in Cardamom. - Reticulated as in black pepper. - Ridged as in Umbelliferous fruits.
  8. 8. • Typical fruit consists of the swollen modified ovary wall known as Pericarp, enclosing its seeds arranged on the placenta, the wall of the pericarp is divided into three zones i.e. the epicarp (exocarp), the mesocarp and the endocarp.
  9. 9. • The epicarp (exocarp): It is the outer zone of the pericarp, it may be: -Thin and membranous i.e. Umbelliferae - Leathery i.e. Banana - Thick and hard i.e. Colocynth
  10. 10. • The mesocarp: • It is the middle zone lying in between the epicarp (exocarp) and the endocarp in which the vascular bundles exist, it may be: • Parenchymatous i.e. Colocynth • Consist of several layers of different types. • The endocarp: • It is the inner zone of the pericarp, it may be: • Membranous i.e Date. • Thick and leathery i.e. Cassia pods. • Woody and thus constitutes the stone of the fruit i.e.Olive.
  11. 11. Microscopical characters • Epicarp outer epidermis • Mesocarp parenchyma cells traversed by vascular bundles • Endocarp inner epidermis
  12. 12. Official Fruits a- Umbelliferous Fruits b-Non-Umbelliferous Fruits - Fructus Ammi Visnagae. - Fructus Ammi Majus. - Fructus Anisi. - Fructus Carvi. - Fructus Corianderi. - Fructus Foeniculi. - Fructus Capsici. - Fructus Colocynthidis. - Fructus Sennae. - Flavedo Auranti amara (orange peel). - Flavedo Lemonis (Lemon peel).
  13. 13. Non-Official Fruits of Medicinal importance - Fructus Cardui mariae (Milk thistle). - Fructus Crataegi (Hawthorn). - Fructus papaveris (Poppy capsule). - Fructus Tritici (wheat grain). - Fructus Vanillae (Vanilla pod). - Strobili Lupuli (Hops).
  14. 14. Umbelliferous Fruits
  15. 15. Umbelliferous fruits • General characters of Umbelliferous Fruits: • 1- They are usually cremocarps either entire or separated into its mericarps. • (one cremocarp = two mericarps) mericarps
  16. 16. • 2- From bilocular bicarpellary inferior ovaries. • 3- The carpophore connects the mericarps. • 4- The carpophore is attached to the stalk. carpophore stalk
  17. 17. • 5- At the apex of the fruit there are the remains of the sepals and style forming the stylopod.
  18. 18. • 3- Each mericarp has two surfaces, a flat surface called the commissural surface “ventral” and a rounded one called the dorsal surface. • 4- The mericarp is ridged with 5 primary and 4 secondary ridges.
  19. 19. 5- A bicollateral vascular bundle is found under each primary ridge. 6- A schizogenous duct (vittae) is located under each secondary ridge. 7- Two more vittae are located towards the commisural surface. 8- The endocarp cells may divide to form a parquetory-like structure.
  20. 20. • 6- Each mericarp encloses a single seed derived from anatropus ovule, the seeds show a large oily endosperm, small epical embryo and a raphe in the middle of the commissural side.
  21. 21. Members of the family Umbelliferae • 1- Fennel • 2-Anise • 3- Ammi visnaga • 4- Ammi majus • 5- Caraway • 6- Dill • 7- Cumin
  22. 22. Fennel Fruit • Botanical Origin: • Fennel is the dried ripe fruits of Foeniculum vulgare known as sweet fennel, Family: Umbellifereae. • Geographical origin: • The plant is native to the Mediterranean coasts. • Cultivated Egypt. ‫الشمر‬ ‫ثمر‬ Fructus Foeniculi,Fenchelsame, Shamar
  23. 23. Macroscopical characters:
  24. 24. Macroscopical characters: • Condition: dried cremocarp • Colour: yellowish green to yellowish brown coloured • Surface: glabrous • Shape: oval with bifid styploid • Odour: aromatic • Taste: sweet, aromatic and agreeable.
  25. 25. • The transverse cut shows the presence of: • primary ridges in each mericarp, in each of which is a vascular strand, • six brown vittae; four in the dorsal side and two in the commissural side, • large oily endosperm • and a small apical embryo.
  26. 26. T.S in Fennel Fruit mericarp
  27. 27. T.S in Fennel Fruit mericarp
  28. 28. • Powdered fennel fruits: • Colour: yellowish-brown to greenish-brown. • Odour: a pleasant aromatic odour. • Taste: sweet agreeable aromatic taste. Fragments of the epicarp (anomocytic stomata) the vittae (simple) reticulate parenchyma of the mesocarp Fragments of the endocarp (parquetory parenchyma)
  29. 29. Active constituents: • 1- Volatile oils (2-5%) and not less than 1.4 % of which contains mainly Anethole (60-80 %) and the terpene ketone Fenchone (20%). • 2- Flavonoids: Kaempferol, quercetin, iso-quercetin and rutin. • 3- -Proteins (16-20 %) - fixed oils (12-18 %) - Minerals (relatively high Ca & K) - Sugars - Vitamins
  30. 30. Actions and Uses: • 1- It is aromatic, carminative and regulates the peristaltic function of the GIT. • 2- It promotes the function of liver, spleen and kidneys. • 3- Clears the lungs (volatile oil is proven to have a secretolytic action in the respiratory tract) so fennel can be used as a gargle for sore throats and as a mild expectorant.
  31. 31. • 4- promotes the breast milk production (lactogogue) and has anti-inflammatory effect. • 5- an aid to weight loss. • 6- agreeable aromatic flavoring agent. • 7- The volatile oil has a pronounced estrogenic activity. • 8- The fixed oil is suggested as a substitute for cocoa butter in the preparation of suppositories.
  32. 32. • Contraindications: • Fennel in high doses is a uterine stimulant therefore contraindicated in pregnancy. • Side effects: • In rare cases, allergic reactions affecting the skin and respiratory system.
  33. 33. • Special chemical tests: • Powdered fennel fruits + Sudan III examined under the microscope orange colored oil globules, evaporated when the slide is warmed.
  34. 34. • Adulterants: • Exhausted fruits: • Includes the fruits partially exhausted of their oil by distillation in a current of alcohol vapour in liquor-making, as well as the residues obtained after distillation with water or in a current of steam.
  35. 35. • Botanical Origin: • It is the dried ripe fruits of Pimpinella anisum, Family: Umbellifereae (Apiaceae). Anise Fruits Fructus Anisi ‫ثمر‬‫األنيسون‬ Anise, Anisum, Anason, Anasur, Anisu, Aniseed, Semen Anisi
  36. 36. Macroscopical characters
  37. 37. • Macroscopical characters: • Condition: dried cremocarp • Colour: greyish brown or greyish • Surface: rough due to the presence of numerous very short, stiff hairs • Shape: ovoid conical, pear- shaped • Odour: strong aromatic agreeable odour • Taste: sweet aromatic taste.
  38. 38. T.S in Anise Fruit mericarp
  39. 39. Powdered Anise Fruits: • Color: grey, greenish-brown or yellowish brown. • Odour: strong aromatic, agreeable & characteristic odour. • Taste: sweet strongly aromatic taste.
  40. 40. fragments of epicarp lignified parenchyma. Aleurone grains Calcium oxalate micro- rosette crystals the vittae (branched) Conical non-glandular hairs covered with warty cuticle
  41. 41. • Active Constituents: 1- Anise fruits yield from 1.5 -3.5 % of volatile oil containing up to 90 % of the phenolic ether trans-anethol which is chiefly responsible for the taste and the smell. 2- Anise fruits also contain: - protiens, - coumarins - (8-11 %) fixed oil.
  42. 42. • Actions and Uses: • 1- employed as an aromatic carminative. • 2- used as an expectorant depending on the secretolytic and secretomotor effects of its essential oil (like fennel). • 3- used in hard dry cough where expectoration is difficult. So, it may be used in bronchitis in case of persistent irritable coughing and in whooping cough. • 4- The volatile oil is used widely in pharmaceutical preparation i.e. it has long been used for relieving colic in children. • 5- The volatile oil of anise exhibits marked estrogenic activity.
  43. 43. • 6- Anise also has sedative action. • 7- In folk medicine, used as lactogauge and emenagauge. • 8- Essential oil is used externally (in fatty oil or ointment vehicle) as a stimulating liniment. • 9- Oil is also employed in food and drink industry as a flavour enhancer. • Contraindications: • Allergy to anise fruits and anethole.
  44. 44. • Side effects: • Occasional allergic reactions of the skin, respiratory tract and GIT. • Special Chemical tests: • Powdered anise fruits + Sudan III examined under the microscope orange-red colored oil globules which are evaporated when the slide is warmed.
  45. 45. Adulterants: • Botanical Origin: Hemlock is obtained from the dried ripe fruits of Conium maculatum, Family: Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) Fructus Conii ‫الشوكران‬ ‫ثمر‬ Hemlock
  46. 46. Hemlock can be distinguished from Anise fruit • Morphologically: - Smaller in size. - Slight odour and taste. - Having crenate ridges, often separated into mericarps. • Histologically: - Absence of vittae and hairs.
  47. 47. • Chemically: • Can be detected by rubbing the fruits with a solution of caustic alkalis strong mice like odour. • Active Constituents: • Hemlock contains coniine alkaloid and other related alkaloids. • Contraindications: • Hemlock is contra-indicated in pregnancy.
  48. 48. • Actions and Uses: • 1- It is analgesic, anti-spasmodic and emetic. • 2- In very small doses, it is used to treat a variety of cases, including tumors, epilepsy, whooping cough and rabies and as an anti- dote to strychnine poisoning. • 3- It is also used externally in ointments and oils on treatment of malignant tumors (especially breast cancer), anal fissures and hemorrhoids.
  49. 49. • Side effects: - Hemlock can cause congenital anomalies. • Toxicity: - Hemlock is highly toxic. - Toxicity characterized by: - Sore throat - Diarrhea - Vertigo - Muscular weakness - Weak pulse - Paralysis of breathing
  50. 50. • Medical treatment: - Gastric lavage. - artificial respiration. - emetics.
  51. 51. • Botanical Origin: • Dried ripe fruits of Illicum verum, Family: Magnoliaceae. • Geographical Origin: • China Allied Drugs Fructus Anisi stellati ‫نجمى‬ ‫أنيسون‬ Chinese Star Anise Star Anise
  52. 52. • Active Constituents: - 5 % volatile oil (2.5% in seed and 10% in follicle) - With trans anethole as the major constituent. • Actions and Uses: • 1- It is reported to be: -analgesic, • - anti-septic, - carminative, - anti-rheumatic, - expectorant, - lactogauge, - diuretic and - stomachic.
  53. 53. • 2- It is used in cough medicine and cough drops perhaps due to expectorant cineole content which increases liquid secretions from mucous membranes, facilitating productive coughs.
  54. 54. • Botanical Origin: • Coriander is the dried ripe fruits of Coriandrum sativum, Family: Umbelliferae (Apiaceae). • The unripe fruit has a strong disagreeable odour. Coriander fruit ‫الكزبرة‬ ‫ثمرة‬ Fructus Coriandri, Coriander, Coriandrum
  55. 55. Macroscopical characters
  56. 56. • Macroscopical characters: • Condition: dried cremocarp • Colour: brownish-yellow or brown in colour. • Surface: Nearly glabrous • Shape: sub-spherical or globular • Odour: an aromatic odour. • Taste: aromatic spicy and characteristic taste.. • Each is crowned by 5 small sepals and a short conical stylopod.
  57. 57. T.S of coriander fruit
  58. 58. • Powdered Coriander fruits: • Colour: light brown to brown. • Odour: aromatic. • Taste: characteristic. Parquetry endocarp + porous innermost layer of mesocarp Simple vittae Crossed wavy schlerenchyma fibresHairs and starch granules, absent.
  59. 59. • Active Cnstituents: • 1- Volatile oil (1% up tp 1.8 % according to origin) containing D(+) linalool (55-74%). • 2- Fats (up to 26 %), its main fatty acids are oleic and linolenic acids. • 3- Flavonoid glycosides ( quercetin, iso- quercetin and rutin), coumarins and phenolic acids.
  60. 60. • Actions and Uses: • 1- Coriander is more often used as a spice than a medicine. • 2- It is used as a stomachic, spasmolytic, carminative and flavoring agent. • 3- It has a bactericidal and fungicidal properties. • 4- It is useful for sub-acid gastritis, diarrhea and dyspepsia of various origins. • 5-It has been reported to have strong lipolytic activity. • 6- the high percent of fats and protein make distillation residues suitable for animal feed. • 7- The volatile oil of coriander is widely used in perfumery.
  61. 61. • Contraindication: • Not known • Side effects: • Powdered coriander may give rise to allergic reactions due to 5- and 8- methoxypsoralen, imperatorin and other photoactive compounds present in various parts of the plant, including fruits.
  62. 62. • Adulterants: • 1- Bombay Coriander fruits: • Fruits are ellipsoidal • About 5-8 mm long and 3-4.5 mm wide • Contain little volatile oil. • 2- Fenugreek seeds cereal fruits: • Other small fruits and seeds where their macroscopical and microscopical characters easily distinguished.
  63. 63. • Special chemical tests: • Powdered coriander fruits + Sudan III • Examined under the microscope • orange-red coloured oil globules are produced which are evaporated when the slide is warmed.
  64. 64. • Botanical Origin: • Ammi visnaga fruits are the dried ripe fruits of Ammi visnaga, Family: Umbelliferae (Apiaceae). • Geographical source: • The plant is indigenous to the Nile Delta, the Fayoum, the Mediterranean region and the Near East. Ammi visnaga fruits ‫البلدى‬ ‫الخلة‬ ‫ثمر‬ Fructus Visnagae, Visnaga fruit, Fruita de Khella, Toothpick fruit, Bizrul Khellah
  65. 65. • Macroscopical characters: • Condition: dried cremocarp • Colour: brownish to greenish brown in color with a violet tinge • Surface: glabrous • Shape: small ovoid • Odour: slight aromatic • Taste: aromatic bitter and slightly pungent
  66. 66. • The transverse cut of the mericarp is an almost regular pentagonal shaped showing a pericarp with six vittae, four in the dorsal and two in the commisural side with five vascular strands. radiating club-shaped cell
  67. 67. • Powdered Ammi visnaga fruits: • Color: brown. • Odour: slightly aromatic. • Taste: aromatic bitter and slightly pungent. Simple vittae + non parquetry endocarp + porous innermost layer of mesocarp
  68. 68. • Active Constituents: • 1- Furano-chromones bitter principles (2-4%) named: Khellin (visammin), Visnagin, Khellol and its glucoside Khellinol. • 2- Pyrano-coumarins (Visnagans) named: Visnadin, Samidin and di-hydrosamidin. • 3- Traces only of the furano-coumarins as Xanthotoxin and Ammidin. • 4- Flavonoids: Quercetin and Iso-rhamnetin and their 3-sulphates, Kampferol. • 5- Essential oil (0.02-0.03%) containing camphor, carvone, α-terpineol and linalool along with cis- and trans-linalool oxides. • 6- Fixed oil and protein.
  69. 69. • Actions and Uses: • The drug acts as a spasmolytic especially on the muscles of the bronchi, GIT, biliary tract, urogenital system and the coronary vessels. • 1- the drug is indicated for whooping cough, cramp-like conditions of the GIT, biliary colic and painful menstruation. • 2- It is used for the removal of small bladder and kidney stones by relaxing the muscles of the ureter, it also reduces the pain caused by the trapped stones and helps ease the stone down into the bladder.
  70. 70. • 3- The drug relaxes the coronary arteries, helps to improve the blood supply to the heart muscle and thereby eases angina pectoris. • 4- It is now given for bronchial asthma and is safe even to children. Khellin may also have a role to play in the treatment of vitiligo and psoriasis. • 5- It acts as a diuretic. • N.B.: The essential active principles are furano- chromones (Khellin and Visnagin). • The coumarin derivative (visnadin and Samidin) are involved in the overall effects especially through their spasmolytic coronary dilating action.
  71. 71. • Contraindications: • Ammi visnaga is contraindicated in pregnancy due to emmenagouge and uterine stimulating activity of Khellin. • Side effects: • 1- May cause photodermatitis in sensitive individuals (avoid long exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet radiation while taking Khella). • 2- Prolonged use or an overdose may cause nausea, vertigo, constipation, lack of appetite, headache, allergic symptoms (itching) and sleeplessness.
  72. 72. • Chemical Tests: • Boil about 0.1 g of powdered Ammi visnaga + 5 ml water for a minute, filter, add 1 or 2 drops of the filterate to a pellet of sodium hydroxide, a rose red colour is produced within two minutes.
  73. 73. • Botanical Origin: • Ammi majus is the dried ripe fruits of Ammi majus L., Family: Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. Fructus Ammi majus ‫الشيطانى‬ ‫الخلة‬ ‫ثمر‬ Ammi majus Bizrul Khella Al-shetani
  74. 74. • Macroscopical Characters: • Closely resembles Ammi visnaga but can be differentiated by the following: • 1- Ammi majus is larger in size about 3mm & 1.5 mm wide. • 2- The mericarp is oval, oblong almost cylindrical with yellowish brown outer surface but with no violet tinge.
  75. 75. • Active constituents: • Contains: - Psoralene which is furano-coumarin bitter principles formerly known as ammoidin but it was found to be a mixture of 3 bitter principles which are xanthotoxin, bergapten and imperatorin. - Fixed oils - proteins
  76. 76. • Actions and Uses: • Used as paint from the fruit is used in the treatment of leucodermia (veitiligo) because psoralene stimulates pigment production in skin exposed to UV light. • Used in combined herbal therapy for alopecia and psoriasis. • Special chemical test: • Alcoholic extract of Ammi majus fruit (1 in 10) gives a blue fluorescence in ultraviolet light (due to furanocoumarin content).
  77. 77. • Contraindications: • In sensitive persons it may cause photodermatits. • Side effects: • Excess of the drug cause nausea, diarrhea and headache.
  78. 78. Caraway ‫الكراوية‬ ‫ثمر‬ • Botanical origin: • Caraway is the dried ripe fruit of Carum carvi Linn., • Family: Umbelliferae
  79. 79. caraway vitta
  80. 80. • Active constituents: • 1- Essential oil (3-7%): • the main odoriferous component is (+) carvone (up to 65%), dihydrocarvone, carveol, and limonene. 2- Fixed oil (10-18 %). 3- proteins, carbohydrates and flavonoids.
  81. 81. • Actions and uses: • 1- stomachic as it promotes gastric secretions and stimulates appetite. • 2- excellent spasmolytic activity. • 3- Caraway oil has marked fungicidal activity. i.e the diluted volatile oil is a useful remedy for scabies. • 4- The volatile oil is included in mouthwashes and gargles. • 5- as a spice, taste enhancer and improves tolerance to food causing flatulence e.g. cabbage
  82. 82. • Special chemical test: - using Sudan III for volatile oil. • Contraindications: Not known. • Side effects: Not known. • Adulterants: • 1-Exhausted fruits. • 2- Small stems and rays of the umbels. • 3- Indian dill (fruits of Anethum sowa). • 4- Seeds of Nigella sativa (Family: Ranunculaceae) are sometimes known as black caraway.
  83. 83. Dill fruits ‫الشبت‬ ‫ثمر‬ • Botanical origin: Dill is the dried ripe fruits of Anethum graveolens, Family: Umbelliferae.
  84. 84. • Active constituents: - Volatile oil (3-4%) which contains carvone (53-63%). • Uses: - aromatic stimulant. - carminative to relieve flatulence particularly in infants.
  85. 85. Cumin ‫الكمون‬ ‫ثمر‬ • Botanical origin: • Cumin is the dried ripe fruits of Cuminum cyminum, Family: Umbelliferae.
  86. 86. shaggy hair of Cumin
  87. 87. • Active constituents: • 1- volatile oil (2.5-4%) - Egyptian cumin contains up to 7.5 %. - contains 50% cuminic aldehyde, perialdehyde and pinene. • 2- fixed oil and flavonoids. • Uses: • 1- one of the most common spice. • 2- stimulant and carminative. • 3- In folk medicine, as a remedy for colic.
  88. 88. Non-Umbelliferous Fruits
  89. 89. Non-Umbelliferous fruits Official fruits Capsicum Fruits ‫الشطة‬ ‫ثمر‬ • Botanical Origin: • Capsicum is the dried ripe fruits of Capsicum minimum Roxb., Family: Solanaceae.
  90. 90. • Macroscopical characters: • Fruit color:red or orange (berry). • Seeds:pale yellow or white . • Odor: characteristic & irritant for the mucous membranes . • Taste: pungent burning sensation.
  91. 91. L.S in Capsicum Fruit
  92. 92. • color: red or orange • Odor: characteristic & irritant for the mucous membranes . • Taste: pungent with burning sensation. Powder:
  93. 93. Powder: Sclerides of the endocarp (S.V) Sclerides of the testa (S.V)
  94. 94. Epidermis of the pedicel in surface view showing a covering trichome. epidermis of the calyx in surface view showing glandular trichomes.
  95. 95. Active constituents: 1- Pungent principles named Capsaicinoids, including: Capsaicin, 6,7-dihydrocapsaicin and homocapsaicin. • The pungency of Capsicum is not destroyed by treatment with alkalies as capsaicin is a fatty acid amide which can be destroyed by oxidation with potassium dichromate or permanganate. 3- Minute quantities of liquid non-pungent alkaloid Capsicine. 4- Carotenoid pigments. 5- Steroid glycosides (including Capsicosides A,B,C and D)
  96. 96. Actions and Uses: • The medicinal value of Capsicum is directly related to its pungency. • 1- Capsicum fruits are used as condiment. • 2- Internally, the drug is given in dyspepsia and flatulence. • 3- Externally, it is used in different formulations (ointments, plasters…) as a pain controller for the relief of rheumatism, lumbago.  The drug is used as a deterrent for thumb sucking or nail biting in children.
  97. 97. • Contraindications: • Capsicum is contraindicated in application on injured skin, allergies to Capsicum preparations. • Side effects: • 1- The use of Capsaicin cream. Some people may have an allergic reaction to the cream, so the first application should be to na very small area of skin. • 2- Oral intake can cause burning in the mouth and throat and can cause the nose to run and eyes to water. • 3- People with ulcers, heartburn or gastritis should use any cayenne- containing product cautiously as it may worsen their condition.
  98. 98. • Chemical tests: • 1- Capsaicin gives a bluish- green colour on the addition of few drops of FeCl3 • 2- When Capsaicin dissolved in H2SO4 and a small piece of sucrose sugar is added a violet colour is developed after few hours.
  99. 99. Colocynth bulb “Bitter apple” ‫الحنظل‬ ‫ثمر‬ • Botanical origin: • Colocynth is the dried unripe but fully grown fruits of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Scharder, Family: Cucurbitaceae, deprived of its seeds and outer hard pericarp. • It contains not more than 5 percent of its seeds and not more than 2 percent of the outer sclerenchymatous part of the pericarp.
  100. 100. • Perennial climbing herb ,the fruit size like the size of orange fruit . • yellow colored with brown or white seeds . • Odorless . • Taste : very bitter .
  101. 101. • epidermal cells of colocynth seed
  102. 102. • Active constituents: • 1- an amorphous resin which is soluble in ether and chloroform and also causes drastic purgation. • 2- Cucurbitacins, i.e Cucurbitacins E, B and L. • 3- Crystalline alcohol citrullol. • 4- Flavonoids: vitexin and isovitexin. • 5- Fixed oil in the seeds.
  103. 103. 1- gastrointestinal stimulant and so considered as one of the most powerful purgatives acting as a hydragogue cathartic. 2- Cucurbitacins are reported as potent cytotoxic. 3- In folk medicine it is used as anti-rheumatic. 4- Flavonoid content found to have moderate antimicrobial activity. Actions and uses:
  104. 104. 1. Inflammation in GIT . 2. Nausea . 3. Cramps . 4. Purgative . 5. In large doses toxic . Side effects
  105. 105. Special chemical test: Aqueous extract of Colocynth + 90% H2SO4 Reddish colour
  106. 106. Senna pods ‫السنامكى‬ ‫ثمر‬ • Botanical origin: • Senna pods are the dried ripe fruits of Cassia acutifolia known as Alexandrian Senna pods and of Cassia angustifolia known as Indian or Tinnevelly Senna pods, Family: Leguminoseae, it contains not more than 2% of foreign matter.
  107. 107. Cassia acutifolia –Alexandrian (Egyptian) Senna Cassia angustifolia —Indian Senna Family: Leguminosae
  108. 108. • Active constituents: • 1- Anthraquinone glycosides, named Sennosides A, B, C and D. • 2- Mucilage, fixed oils and proteins. • 3- Flavonoids: derivatives of Kaempferol and isorhamnetin.
  109. 109.  Strong laxative (purgative) for short term use in habitual (acute) constipation. N.B. (abdominal operations , anal-rectal operation ,hemorrhoids , x-ray for intestines). Mechanism: 1.Stimulant laxative (contact) which increases intestinal motility causes abdominal cramps (spasm) . 2. It soften the faeces by increasing the flow of water and electrolytes into the large intestine. Actions and uses:
  110. 110. • Contraindications: • 1- Pregnancy and lactation. • 2- Appendix and colon inflammations. • 3- Cardiac diseases (as Senna pods decrease the potassium levels causing hypokalemia which can cause decreasing the tone of the cardiac muscle. • 4- Children less than twelve years, Senna can cause intestinal paralysis. • 5- Anti-arrhythmic drugs.
  111. 111. Senna should not be used by persons with: 1. intestinal obstruction. 2. ulcerative colitis. 3. Chronic heart failure (C.H.F). 4. Gastrointestinal bleeding and inflammations. N.B This herb should not be used for longer than 1-2 weeks ( habit forming medication).
  112. 112. Special chemical tests: • Borntrager’s test: • For Aglycones (free anthraquinones): • Extract plant material with organic solvent. • Shake with NH4OH OR KOH. • Modified Borntrager’s test: • Boil plant material with dil. HCl for 10 min, filter and shake with organic solvent (Ether or Benzene). • Separate the organic solvent. • Shake with NH4OH OR KOH. • Positive result indicated by Rose Red colour in the aqueous alkaline layer.
  113. 113. Bitter orange peel ‫النارنج‬ ‫قشر‬ • Botanical origin: • It is the peel of the fruit of Citrus aurantium var. amara, Family: Rutaceae.
  114. 114. Active Constituents: • 1- Volatile oil mainly limonine as main constituent. • 2-Bitter principles i.e aurantiamarin and aurantiamaretic acid. • 3- Alkaloids i.e. Synephrine and N-methyl tyramine. • 4-Bitter tasting flavonoid glycosides such as neohisperidin. • 5- Small amounts of vitamin A, B and C. • 6- Non-bitter flavonoids, such as hesperidin. • 7- Pectic substances in the white rind.
  115. 115. • Actions and Uses: • 1- Flavoring agent. • 2- loss of appetite, nasal congestion. • 3- applied to the skin for fungal infections such as ringworm and athlete’s foot. • 4- Anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial. • 5- for weight loss, Synephrine alkaloids (extracted from Citrus aurantium). • 6- Hesperidin and other flavonoids used as remedy of capillary fragility.
  116. 116. Lemon Peel ‫الليمون‬ ‫قـشر‬ • Botanical origin: • It is the peel of the fruit Citrus lemonis, family: Rutaceae.
  117. 117. • Active constituents: • 1- Flavonoids especially neohesperosides and rutenoides of hesperitin. • 2- Volatile oil containing mainly limonine and citral. • 3- Vitamin C and citric acid.
  118. 118. • Actions and Uses: • 1- Aromatic flavoring agent and stomachic. • 2- The oil is extensively used in cosmetic preparations and perfumery.
  119. 119. Non-official fruits Silybum fruits -‫البرى‬ ‫الحرشف‬ ‫الجمل‬ ‫شوك‬ Milk thistle • Origin: • The ripe fruits freed from their pappus (tuft of silky hairs) of Silybum marianum L., Family: Compositae (Asteraceae).
  120. 120. Active Constituents: • 1- Flavolignans collectively known as (Silymarin). It is a mixture of isomeric flavolignans: Silybin, Silychristin and Silidianin. • 2- Fixed oil and proteins.
  121. 121. Actions and Uses: • 1- Crude milk thistle preparations are used internally for dyspeptic complaints. • 2- Formulations of milk thistle are approved for the following: a) Protection of the liver from toxins (including alcohols, carbon tetrachloride,…..etc.). b) Treatment of liver diseases, acute and chronic liver hepatitis. c) Treatment of fatty degeneration of liver and liver cirrhosis. d) Gall bladder disorders.
  122. 122. Mechanism of action of Silymarin: • 1- it increases the regeneration of liver cells by stimulation of protein synthesis thus activating the liver’s ability to regenerate itself. • 2- It alters the structure of the outer cell membrane of hepatic cells to inhibit the passage of toxins, i.e. it provides hepato-cellular protection by stabilizing hepatic cell membrane. • 3- It increases glutathione levels in liver cells and so acts as a free radical scavenging agent ‘antioxidant’.
  123. 123. • Contraindications: • None known and even no restrictions known during pregnancy and lactation. • Side effects: • Crude preparations: Not known. • Formulations: A mild laxative effect.
  124. 124. Vanilla pods ‫الفـانـيـلـال‬ ‫ثـمـر‬ • Origin: • The dried and cured fully grown but unripe fruits of Vanilla planifolia, known as Mexican vanilla, Family: Orchidaceae.
  125. 125. • Preparation “Curing Vanilla pods”: – Killing or Wilting – Sweating – Drying – Conditioning
  126. 126. Wilting or Killing • Purpose – Stop bean growth – Initiates enzymatic reactions – Pod/bean turns brown • Methods – Sun wilting – Oven wilting
  127. 127. Sweating • Purpose is to promote – Enzymatic activity – Initial drying • Method – Remove from oven (40°C) – Sweating boxes – Cover to keep in heat for 24 hours
  128. 128. Drying • Purpose – Slow drying – 30% of original weight • Sun drying – Laid out on mat cover concrete or brick floor – 4-6 hours – Pick up and return to sweat boxes • Cycle repeated 11 to 25 times
  129. 129. Conditioning • Purpose – Allow full development of aroma and flavor • Methods – Packed in bundles of 50 beans – Wrapped with waxed paper – Stored in closed boxes – At least three months
  130. 130. Final product Poor quality Excellent quality • Final product – 1 kg cured beans – 3.5-4.5 kg picked beans.
  131. 131. • Description: • Fleshy elongated, straight capsules. • Greenish yellow at maturity – 10 - 25 cm long – 8 - 15 mm wide – Very small black seed
  132. 132. Active constituents: • 1- The main constituent is glucovanillin and glucovanillic acid which up on curing “slow careful drying in the shade” converts into vanillin, glucose and glucovanillin alcohol. • 2- Catechin.
  133. 133. Uses • Flavorings –Widely used flavoring agent. –Major component • Vanillin (oleoresin) at 1.5 to 3.5%. • About 150 other flavor components.
  134. 134. Cratagus ‫األدوية‬ ‫زعرور‬ Hawthorn berry • Origin: • The dried ripe fruits of Cratagus lavigata, Family:Rosaceae
  135. 135. • Active constituents: • 1- Procyanidins “leucoanthocyanidins”. • 2- Flavonoids i.e. Hyperoside. • 3- Amines (some with cardiotonic action). • 4- Catechins and Epicatechins.
  136. 136. • Actions and Uses: • in treatment of: - cardiac insufficiency, - angina pectoris, - nervous heart complications, - arteriosclerosis - and hypotension.
  137. 137. Contraindications: Fruit –Drug Interaction • Anti-arrhythmics ; the fruit action is similar to class III anti- arrhythmics • Anti-hypertensive nitrates; increased risk of hypotension • Cardiac glycosides; increased risk of cardiac toxicity.

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