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Grimm's law 1


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Grimm's law 1

  1. 1. Grimm's Law Marvyn A. Mahle TSL 660 March 9, 2010
  2. 2. What is Grimm's Law? <ul><li>Grimm's Law refers to the systematic study and categorization of the consonant shifts that occurred between Proto-Indo-European and eventually English </li></ul><ul><li>Named for Jakob Grimm, one of the Brothers Grimm, most well-known in Western culture for their versions of children's stories and morality tales, e.g., Hansel & Gretel, Sleeping Beauty , etc. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What was Proto-Indo-European? <ul><li>The language spoken by the Indo-Europeans, an ancient race that inhabited what is today Europe, parts of Near East, Iran, and India... </li></ul>Map source:
  4. 4. Progression of Grimm's Law <ul><li>Proto-Indo-European voiceless stops change into voiceless fricatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Proto-Indo-European voiced stops become voiceless stops. </li></ul><ul><li>Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirated stops become voiced fricatives; ultimately, in most Germanic languages these voiced fricatives become voiced stops. </li></ul>Source:'s_Law Source:
  5. 5. Examples of Consonant Shifts Source: Contemporary Linguistics, O'Grady, et al, p286.
  6. 6. Situations Where Grimm's Law Does Not Apply <ul><li>Direct borrowing of words after the consonant shift occurred: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrian, from Latin pedes, pronounced pedestrian, not fedestrian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenuous, Pedestrian, from Latin tenuis, pronounced tenuous, not thenuous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canal, Pedestrian, from Latin canalis, pronounced canal, not hanal </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Further Information <ul><li>Full list of shifted consonants: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Thumbnail history of the Indo-Europeans: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>And after you've finished studying Grimm's Law, relax with a Brothers Grimm tale... </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>