SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 32
PRESENTED BY:
Maruthish
 Flooring is the general term for a
permanent covering of a floor, or for the
work of installing such a floor
covering. Floor covering is a term to
generically describe any finish material
applied over a floor structure to provide a
walking surface. Both terms are used
interchangeably but floor covering refers
more to loose-laid materials.
TIMBER
FLOORS
COMPOSITE
FLOORS
TIMBER FLOORS
BASEMENT (OR)
GROUND FLOOR OF
TIMBER
SINGLE JOIST
TIMBER FLOORS
DOUBLE JOIST
TIMBER FLOORS
FRAMED (OR)TRIPLE
JOIST TIMBER
FLOORS
TIMBER
FLOORS
BASEMENT (OR) GROUND FLOOR OF TIMBER
 THE SOIL BELOW THE TIMBER IS COVERED
WITH PLANE CONCRETE 1:2:4 OF
THICKNES OF 100mm to 150mm.
 Well seasoned timber is used IN
COSTRUCTION OF SUCH FLOORS.
 THE HOLLOW SPACE BETWEEN THE
BOTTOM OF CONCRETE AND FLOOR
LEVEL IS FILLED UP WITH SELECTED
EARTH.
JOIST Joist spacing is commonly called
joist centres as it is the distance
between the centre of adjacent
joists.
The distance between the centres
of joists is usually between
400mm and 600mm. This distance
will usually depend upon:
The loads imposed on the floor.
The span of the joists.
The cross sectional size of the
joist.
The strength and quality of the
timber used for the joists.
The type of decking material used
to cover the joists.
JOISTSIZES
 The strength of a joist is directly related to its cross
sectional size. For example, consider
 a joist with a cross sectional size of 50mm x 100mm. If
the breadth of the joist is doubled
 then the strength of the joist will be doubled.
However, if the depth of the joist is doubled
 then the strength will be quadrupled.
 Therefore, a joist measuring 50mm x 200mm will be
four times stronger than a joist
 measuring 50mm x 100mm. For this reason, joists are
placed so that the depth is greater than the breadth.
 Distorted Joists
DISTORTEDJOISTS
Any joists which are not straight,
should be positioned with the
curved edge upwards.
When this type of joist is
subjected to any loading, it will
tend to straighten. Any joists
which
have large edge knots should also
be positioned with the knots on
the upper edge.
SINGLE JOIST TIMBER FLOORS
 All joists require supporting
at their ends and, in case
of ground floor joists, at
intermediate
 points along their length.
The use of these
intermediate supports
reduces the clear span so
 that joists of smaller
section can be used.
 For ground floor joists, the
distance between these
intermediate supports
ranges from 1.5m
 to 2.0m.
 Joists should have a
minimum bearing point of
not less than 90mm at any
DOUBLE JOIST TIMBER FLOORS
Bearing Point On Intermediate Walls
If the joists are to be jointed at intermediate walls, the
joist ends must not project more than 100 Joist Supports
There are a number of ways to support the ends of joists.
They can be:
• Built into brickwork.
• Supported on wall plates.
• Supported on joist hangers 75mm beyond the wall.
FRAMED (OR)TRIPLE JOIST TIMBER FLOORSJoists Supported On Sleeper Walls
Joists can be supported on small walls which have gaps
built into them to allow a free fl ow
of air under the joists. The walls are known as
honeycomb or sleeper walls.
The joists are supported and fi xed to wall plates
attached to the top of the sleeper walls.
TYPES OF FLOORING MATERIALS
GRANOLITHIC CERAMIC
mosaic MARBLE
GRANOLITHIC Granolithic screed, also known
as granolithic paving and granolithic
concrete, is a type of construction
material composed of cement and
fine aggregate such as granite or other
hard-wearing rock.It is generally used
as flooring, or as paving (such as for
sidewalks). It has a similar appearance
to concrete, and is used to provide a
durable surface where texture and
appearance are usually not important
(such as outdoor pathways or factory
floors). It is commonly laid as a screed.
Screeds are a type of flooring laid on
top of the structural element
(like reinforced concrete) to provide a
level surface on which the "wearing
flooring" (the flooring which people see
and walk on) is laid. A screed can also
be laid bare, as it provides a long-
lasting surface.
MOSAIC
Mosaic is the art of creating images with
an assemblage of small pieces of
colored glass, stone, or other materials. It
is a technique of decorative artor interior
decoration. Most mosaics are made of
small, flat, roughly square, pieces of stone
or glass of different colors, known
as tesserae; but some, especially floor
mosaics, may also be made of small
rounded pieces of stone, and called
"pebble mosaics".
CERAMIC
A ceramic is
an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared
by the action of heat and subsequent
cooling. Ceramic materials may have
a crystalline or partly crystalline structure,
or may be amorphous (e.g., glass).
Because most common ceramics are
crystalline, the definition of ceramic is often
restricted to inorganic crystalline materials,
as opposed to the noncrystalline glasses, a
distinction followed here.
The earliest ceramics made by humans
were pottery objects, including 27,000 year
old figurines, made from clay, either by
itself or mixed with other materials,
hardened in fire. Later ceramics
were glazed and fired to create a colored,
smooth surface. Ceramics now include
domestic, industrial and building products
and a wide range of ceramic art. In the
20th century, new ceramic materials were
developed for use in advanced ceramic
engineering for example,
in semiconductors.
MARBLE
Marbleis a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of
recrystallized carbonate minerals, most
commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term
"marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone however,
stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass
unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is commonly used
for sculpture and as a building material
MARBLE
White marble has been prized for its use
in sculptures since classical times. This
preference has to do with its softness,
which made it easier to carve,
relative isotropy and homogeneity, and a
relative resistance to shattering. Also, the
low index of refraction of calcite allows light
to penetrate several millimeters into the
stone before being scattered out, resulting
in the characteristic waxy look which gives
"life" to marble sculptures of any kind,
which is why many sculptors preferred and
still prefer marble for sculpting.
TAJ MAHAL
Construction marble is a stone which is
composed of calcite, dolomite or
serpentine which is capable of taking a
polish.More generally in construction,
specifically the dimension stone trade, the
term "marble" is used for any crystalline
calcitic rock (and some non-calcitic rocks)
useful as building stone. For
example, Tennessee marble is really a
dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to
maroon Ordovician limestone
that geologists call the Holston Formation
FLOORING
Flooring is the general term for a
permanent covering of a floor, or for the
work of installing such a floor
covering. Floor covering is a term to
generically describe any finish material
applied over a floor structure to provide a
walking surface. Both terms are used
interchangeably but floor covering refers
more to loose-laid materials.
Materials almost always classified as floor
covering include carpet, area rugs, and
resilient flooring such as linoleum or
vinyl flooring. Materials commonly called
flooring include wood flooring, cerami
tile, stone, terrazzo, and various seamless
chemical floor coatings.
INDUSTRIAL FLOORING
CONCRETE FLOORS
• Double flagstone floors
• Filler joist floors
• Jack arch floors
• RCC floors
• Hallow block and rib floors
• Precast concrete floors
DOUBLE FLAGSTONES FLOORS
FILLER JOINT FLOORS
FILLER JOINT
ARCHES
RCC FLOORS
HALLOW BLOCK AND RIB FLOORS
HALLOW BLOCK
PRECAST CONCRETE FLOORS
CONCRETE FLOORS
JAI HIND……
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Brick masonry and stone masonry
Brick masonry and stone masonryBrick masonry and stone masonry
Brick masonry and stone masonry
 
Bricks
BricksBricks
Bricks
 
Stone masonary
Stone masonaryStone masonary
Stone masonary
 
types of Flooring in construction
types of Flooring in constructiontypes of Flooring in construction
types of Flooring in construction
 
Types of Flooring
Types of Flooring Types of Flooring
Types of Flooring
 
Artificial Construction Materials- A beginners presentation
Artificial Construction Materials- A beginners presentationArtificial Construction Materials- A beginners presentation
Artificial Construction Materials- A beginners presentation
 
Building materials - Soil
Building materials - SoilBuilding materials - Soil
Building materials - Soil
 
Doors and windows
Doors and windowsDoors and windows
Doors and windows
 
Roofs
RoofsRoofs
Roofs
 
Stairs
StairsStairs
Stairs
 
TYPES OF Foundation
TYPES OF FoundationTYPES OF Foundation
TYPES OF Foundation
 
Flooring and types of flooring
Flooring and types of flooringFlooring and types of flooring
Flooring and types of flooring
 
Floor finishes
Floor finishesFloor finishes
Floor finishes
 
Stone ppt by akshay
Stone ppt by akshayStone ppt by akshay
Stone ppt by akshay
 
FLOORS AND FLOORING
FLOORS AND FLOORINGFLOORS AND FLOORING
FLOORS AND FLOORING
 
types of Doors
types of Doorstypes of Doors
types of Doors
 
6.painting
6.painting6.painting
6.painting
 
Building construction materials -Tiles
Building construction materials -TilesBuilding construction materials -Tiles
Building construction materials -Tiles
 
BRICK MASONRY
BRICK MASONRYBRICK MASONRY
BRICK MASONRY
 
Types of door
Types of doorTypes of door
Types of door
 

Viewers also liked

Timber flooring
Timber flooringTimber flooring
Timber flooringkaiwan1996
 
Best ppt on flooring and its types
Best ppt on flooring and its typesBest ppt on flooring and its types
Best ppt on flooring and its typespranshumittal20
 
flooring and its types
flooring and its typesflooring and its types
flooring and its typesLakshay Sharma
 
Lintels and arches in construction
Lintels and arches in constructionLintels and arches in construction
Lintels and arches in constructionSARASWATI PATHARIYA
 
Regional-rail-panel-L-Brunner-2.20.14
Regional-rail-panel-L-Brunner-2.20.14Regional-rail-panel-L-Brunner-2.20.14
Regional-rail-panel-L-Brunner-2.20.14The Port
 
Appropriate technology part 1
Appropriate technology  part 1Appropriate technology  part 1
Appropriate technology part 1Shirish Avrani
 
Marbling art presentation
Marbling art presentationMarbling art presentation
Marbling art presentationbeamunoz
 
Comparison Presentation Between Light Gauge Steel Frame Construction System a...
Comparison Presentation Between Light Gauge Steel Frame Construction System a...Comparison Presentation Between Light Gauge Steel Frame Construction System a...
Comparison Presentation Between Light Gauge Steel Frame Construction System a...Sankar Anand
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Timber floor
Timber floorTimber floor
Timber floor
 
Timber flooring
Timber flooringTimber flooring
Timber flooring
 
Ground floor
Ground floorGround floor
Ground floor
 
Timber flooring
Timber flooring Timber flooring
Timber flooring
 
Floors
FloorsFloors
Floors
 
Types Of Flooring
Types Of FlooringTypes Of Flooring
Types Of Flooring
 
Floors and flooring
Floors and flooringFloors and flooring
Floors and flooring
 
Best ppt on flooring and its types
Best ppt on flooring and its typesBest ppt on flooring and its types
Best ppt on flooring and its types
 
Floors slideshare
Floors slideshareFloors slideshare
Floors slideshare
 
flooring and its types
flooring and its typesflooring and its types
flooring and its types
 
Lintels and arches in construction
Lintels and arches in constructionLintels and arches in construction
Lintels and arches in construction
 
Regional-rail-panel-L-Brunner-2.20.14
Regional-rail-panel-L-Brunner-2.20.14Regional-rail-panel-L-Brunner-2.20.14
Regional-rail-panel-L-Brunner-2.20.14
 
Mosque
MosqueMosque
Mosque
 
Appropriate technology part 1
Appropriate technology  part 1Appropriate technology  part 1
Appropriate technology part 1
 
8课
8课8课
8课
 
Marbling
MarblingMarbling
Marbling
 
Marbling art presentation
Marbling art presentationMarbling art presentation
Marbling art presentation
 
Unit 5 bmc
Unit 5 bmcUnit 5 bmc
Unit 5 bmc
 
Comparison Presentation Between Light Gauge Steel Frame Construction System a...
Comparison Presentation Between Light Gauge Steel Frame Construction System a...Comparison Presentation Between Light Gauge Steel Frame Construction System a...
Comparison Presentation Between Light Gauge Steel Frame Construction System a...
 
RSC Photobook
RSC PhotobookRSC Photobook
RSC Photobook
 

Similar to Ppt by maruthish on floors (20)

Flooring (1).pptx
Flooring (1).pptxFlooring (1).pptx
Flooring (1).pptx
 
FLOOR FINISHES
FLOOR FINISHESFLOOR FINISHES
FLOOR FINISHES
 
FLOORING
FLOORINGFLOORING
FLOORING
 
Masonry
MasonryMasonry
Masonry
 
Floor finishes
Floor finishesFloor finishes
Floor finishes
 
TYPES OF FLOORING.pptx
TYPES OF FLOORING.pptxTYPES OF FLOORING.pptx
TYPES OF FLOORING.pptx
 
MARBLE
MARBLEMARBLE
MARBLE
 
Flooring1.pptx
Flooring1.pptxFlooring1.pptx
Flooring1.pptx
 
Flooring
FlooringFlooring
Flooring
 
PRESENTATION_ON_STONE_MASONRY.pptx
PRESENTATION_ON_STONE_MASONRY.pptxPRESENTATION_ON_STONE_MASONRY.pptx
PRESENTATION_ON_STONE_MASONRY.pptx
 
Wall
WallWall
Wall
 
different types of flooring
different types of flooringdifferent types of flooring
different types of flooring
 
floor finishes.pptx
floor finishes.pptxfloor finishes.pptx
floor finishes.pptx
 
Ground and upper floor
Ground and upper floorGround and upper floor
Ground and upper floor
 
Flooring
FlooringFlooring
Flooring
 
Flooring (1) (1).pdf
Flooring (1) (1).pdfFlooring (1) (1).pdf
Flooring (1) (1).pdf
 
Floor coverings and finishes
Floor coverings and finishesFloor coverings and finishes
Floor coverings and finishes
 
stonemasonrybc-131212033019-phpapp01.pdf
stonemasonrybc-131212033019-phpapp01.pdfstonemasonrybc-131212033019-phpapp01.pdf
stonemasonrybc-131212033019-phpapp01.pdf
 
Stone-Masonry.pdf
Stone-Masonry.pdfStone-Masonry.pdf
Stone-Masonry.pdf
 
stonemasonrybc-131212033019-phpapp01.pdf
stonemasonrybc-131212033019-phpapp01.pdfstonemasonrybc-131212033019-phpapp01.pdf
stonemasonrybc-131212033019-phpapp01.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

Yvette Heiser -How to go viral with your photography?
Yvette Heiser -How to go viral with your photography?Yvette Heiser -How to go viral with your photography?
Yvette Heiser -How to go viral with your photography?Yvette Heiser
 
New_Cross_Over (Comedy storyboard sample)
New_Cross_Over (Comedy storyboard sample)New_Cross_Over (Comedy storyboard sample)
New_Cross_Over (Comedy storyboard sample)DavonBrooks
 
Escort Service in Ajman +971509530047 UAE
Escort Service in Ajman +971509530047 UAEEscort Service in Ajman +971509530047 UAE
Escort Service in Ajman +971509530047 UAEvecevep119
 
ReverseEngineerBoards_StarWarsEpisodeIII
ReverseEngineerBoards_StarWarsEpisodeIIIReverseEngineerBoards_StarWarsEpisodeIII
ReverseEngineerBoards_StarWarsEpisodeIIIartbysarahrodriguezg
 
Subway Stand OFF storyboard by Raquel Acosta
Subway Stand OFF storyboard by Raquel AcostaSubway Stand OFF storyboard by Raquel Acosta
Subway Stand OFF storyboard by Raquel Acostaracosta58
 
Lindy's Coffee Shop, Restaurants-cafes, Albuquerque, NM
Lindy's Coffee Shop, Restaurants-cafes, Albuquerque, NMLindy's Coffee Shop, Restaurants-cafes, Albuquerque, NM
Lindy's Coffee Shop, Restaurants-cafes, Albuquerque, NMroute66connected
 
Jvc Call Girl +971528604116 Indian Call Girl in Jvc By Dubai Call Girl
Jvc Call Girl +971528604116 Indian Call Girl in Jvc By Dubai Call GirlJvc Call Girl +971528604116 Indian Call Girl in Jvc By Dubai Call Girl
Jvc Call Girl +971528604116 Indian Call Girl in Jvc By Dubai Call Girllijeho2176
 
The Hooper Talk (drama/comedy board sample)
The Hooper Talk (drama/comedy board sample)The Hooper Talk (drama/comedy board sample)
The Hooper Talk (drama/comedy board sample)DavonBrooks
 
SLIDESHARE. ART OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD/ROMANTICISM Art
SLIDESHARE. ART OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD/ROMANTICISM ArtSLIDESHARE. ART OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD/ROMANTICISM Art
SLIDESHARE. ART OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD/ROMANTICISM ArtChum26
 
Rückenfigur ... back figure in paintings.ppsx
Rückenfigur ... back figure in paintings.ppsxRückenfigur ... back figure in paintings.ppsx
Rückenfigur ... back figure in paintings.ppsxguimera
 
Escort Service in Al Qusais +971509530047 UAE
Escort Service in Al Qusais +971509530047 UAEEscort Service in Al Qusais +971509530047 UAE
Escort Service in Al Qusais +971509530047 UAEvecevep119
 
Element of art, Transcreation and usions and overlapping and interrelated ele...
Element of art, Transcreation and usions and overlapping and interrelated ele...Element of art, Transcreation and usions and overlapping and interrelated ele...
Element of art, Transcreation and usions and overlapping and interrelated ele...jheramypagoyoiman801
 
Zoo_championship_Wrestling (action/comedy sample)
Zoo_championship_Wrestling (action/comedy sample)Zoo_championship_Wrestling (action/comedy sample)
Zoo_championship_Wrestling (action/comedy sample)DavonBrooks
 
Bobbie goods colorinsssssssssssg book.pdf
Bobbie goods colorinsssssssssssg book.pdfBobbie goods colorinsssssssssssg book.pdf
Bobbie goods colorinsssssssssssg book.pdflunavro0105
 
San Jon Motel, Motel/Residence, San Jon, NM
San Jon Motel, Motel/Residence, San Jon, NMSan Jon Motel, Motel/Residence, San Jon, NM
San Jon Motel, Motel/Residence, San Jon, NMroute66connected
 
Lost Keys Storyboard - Randomized Timed Exercise
Lost Keys Storyboard - Randomized Timed ExerciseLost Keys Storyboard - Randomized Timed Exercise
Lost Keys Storyboard - Randomized Timed Exercisemagalybtapia
 
Indian Escorts In Al Mankhool 0509430017 Escort Agency in Al Mankhool
Indian Escorts In Al Mankhool 0509430017 Escort Agency in Al MankhoolIndian Escorts In Al Mankhool 0509430017 Escort Agency in Al Mankhool
Indian Escorts In Al Mankhool 0509430017 Escort Agency in Al Mankhoolqueenbanni425
 
Teepee Curios, Curio shop, Tucumcari, NM
Teepee Curios, Curio shop, Tucumcari, NMTeepee Curios, Curio shop, Tucumcari, NM
Teepee Curios, Curio shop, Tucumcari, NMroute66connected
 
STAR Scholars Program Brand Guide Presentation
STAR Scholars Program Brand Guide PresentationSTAR Scholars Program Brand Guide Presentation
STAR Scholars Program Brand Guide Presentationmakaiodm
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Yvette Heiser -How to go viral with your photography?
Yvette Heiser -How to go viral with your photography?Yvette Heiser -How to go viral with your photography?
Yvette Heiser -How to go viral with your photography?
 
New_Cross_Over (Comedy storyboard sample)
New_Cross_Over (Comedy storyboard sample)New_Cross_Over (Comedy storyboard sample)
New_Cross_Over (Comedy storyboard sample)
 
Escort Service in Ajman +971509530047 UAE
Escort Service in Ajman +971509530047 UAEEscort Service in Ajman +971509530047 UAE
Escort Service in Ajman +971509530047 UAE
 
ReverseEngineerBoards_StarWarsEpisodeIII
ReverseEngineerBoards_StarWarsEpisodeIIIReverseEngineerBoards_StarWarsEpisodeIII
ReverseEngineerBoards_StarWarsEpisodeIII
 
Subway Stand OFF storyboard by Raquel Acosta
Subway Stand OFF storyboard by Raquel AcostaSubway Stand OFF storyboard by Raquel Acosta
Subway Stand OFF storyboard by Raquel Acosta
 
Lindy's Coffee Shop, Restaurants-cafes, Albuquerque, NM
Lindy's Coffee Shop, Restaurants-cafes, Albuquerque, NMLindy's Coffee Shop, Restaurants-cafes, Albuquerque, NM
Lindy's Coffee Shop, Restaurants-cafes, Albuquerque, NM
 
Jvc Call Girl +971528604116 Indian Call Girl in Jvc By Dubai Call Girl
Jvc Call Girl +971528604116 Indian Call Girl in Jvc By Dubai Call GirlJvc Call Girl +971528604116 Indian Call Girl in Jvc By Dubai Call Girl
Jvc Call Girl +971528604116 Indian Call Girl in Jvc By Dubai Call Girl
 
The Hooper Talk (drama/comedy board sample)
The Hooper Talk (drama/comedy board sample)The Hooper Talk (drama/comedy board sample)
The Hooper Talk (drama/comedy board sample)
 
SLIDESHARE. ART OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD/ROMANTICISM Art
SLIDESHARE. ART OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD/ROMANTICISM ArtSLIDESHARE. ART OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD/ROMANTICISM Art
SLIDESHARE. ART OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD/ROMANTICISM Art
 
Rückenfigur ... back figure in paintings.ppsx
Rückenfigur ... back figure in paintings.ppsxRückenfigur ... back figure in paintings.ppsx
Rückenfigur ... back figure in paintings.ppsx
 
School :)
School                                 :)School                                 :)
School :)
 
Escort Service in Al Qusais +971509530047 UAE
Escort Service in Al Qusais +971509530047 UAEEscort Service in Al Qusais +971509530047 UAE
Escort Service in Al Qusais +971509530047 UAE
 
Element of art, Transcreation and usions and overlapping and interrelated ele...
Element of art, Transcreation and usions and overlapping and interrelated ele...Element of art, Transcreation and usions and overlapping and interrelated ele...
Element of art, Transcreation and usions and overlapping and interrelated ele...
 
Zoo_championship_Wrestling (action/comedy sample)
Zoo_championship_Wrestling (action/comedy sample)Zoo_championship_Wrestling (action/comedy sample)
Zoo_championship_Wrestling (action/comedy sample)
 
Bobbie goods colorinsssssssssssg book.pdf
Bobbie goods colorinsssssssssssg book.pdfBobbie goods colorinsssssssssssg book.pdf
Bobbie goods colorinsssssssssssg book.pdf
 
San Jon Motel, Motel/Residence, San Jon, NM
San Jon Motel, Motel/Residence, San Jon, NMSan Jon Motel, Motel/Residence, San Jon, NM
San Jon Motel, Motel/Residence, San Jon, NM
 
Lost Keys Storyboard - Randomized Timed Exercise
Lost Keys Storyboard - Randomized Timed ExerciseLost Keys Storyboard - Randomized Timed Exercise
Lost Keys Storyboard - Randomized Timed Exercise
 
Indian Escorts In Al Mankhool 0509430017 Escort Agency in Al Mankhool
Indian Escorts In Al Mankhool 0509430017 Escort Agency in Al MankhoolIndian Escorts In Al Mankhool 0509430017 Escort Agency in Al Mankhool
Indian Escorts In Al Mankhool 0509430017 Escort Agency in Al Mankhool
 
Teepee Curios, Curio shop, Tucumcari, NM
Teepee Curios, Curio shop, Tucumcari, NMTeepee Curios, Curio shop, Tucumcari, NM
Teepee Curios, Curio shop, Tucumcari, NM
 
STAR Scholars Program Brand Guide Presentation
STAR Scholars Program Brand Guide PresentationSTAR Scholars Program Brand Guide Presentation
STAR Scholars Program Brand Guide Presentation
 

Ppt by maruthish on floors

  • 2.  Flooring is the general term for a permanent covering of a floor, or for the work of installing such a floor covering. Floor covering is a term to generically describe any finish material applied over a floor structure to provide a walking surface. Both terms are used interchangeably but floor covering refers more to loose-laid materials.
  • 4. TIMBER FLOORS BASEMENT (OR) GROUND FLOOR OF TIMBER SINGLE JOIST TIMBER FLOORS DOUBLE JOIST TIMBER FLOORS FRAMED (OR)TRIPLE JOIST TIMBER FLOORS TIMBER FLOORS
  • 5. BASEMENT (OR) GROUND FLOOR OF TIMBER  THE SOIL BELOW THE TIMBER IS COVERED WITH PLANE CONCRETE 1:2:4 OF THICKNES OF 100mm to 150mm.  Well seasoned timber is used IN COSTRUCTION OF SUCH FLOORS.  THE HOLLOW SPACE BETWEEN THE BOTTOM OF CONCRETE AND FLOOR LEVEL IS FILLED UP WITH SELECTED EARTH.
  • 6. JOIST Joist spacing is commonly called joist centres as it is the distance between the centre of adjacent joists. The distance between the centres of joists is usually between 400mm and 600mm. This distance will usually depend upon: The loads imposed on the floor. The span of the joists. The cross sectional size of the joist. The strength and quality of the timber used for the joists. The type of decking material used to cover the joists.
  • 7. JOISTSIZES  The strength of a joist is directly related to its cross sectional size. For example, consider  a joist with a cross sectional size of 50mm x 100mm. If the breadth of the joist is doubled  then the strength of the joist will be doubled. However, if the depth of the joist is doubled  then the strength will be quadrupled.  Therefore, a joist measuring 50mm x 200mm will be four times stronger than a joist  measuring 50mm x 100mm. For this reason, joists are placed so that the depth is greater than the breadth.  Distorted Joists
  • 8. DISTORTEDJOISTS Any joists which are not straight, should be positioned with the curved edge upwards. When this type of joist is subjected to any loading, it will tend to straighten. Any joists which have large edge knots should also be positioned with the knots on the upper edge.
  • 9. SINGLE JOIST TIMBER FLOORS  All joists require supporting at their ends and, in case of ground floor joists, at intermediate  points along their length. The use of these intermediate supports reduces the clear span so  that joists of smaller section can be used.  For ground floor joists, the distance between these intermediate supports ranges from 1.5m  to 2.0m.  Joists should have a minimum bearing point of not less than 90mm at any
  • 10. DOUBLE JOIST TIMBER FLOORS Bearing Point On Intermediate Walls If the joists are to be jointed at intermediate walls, the joist ends must not project more than 100 Joist Supports There are a number of ways to support the ends of joists. They can be: • Built into brickwork. • Supported on wall plates. • Supported on joist hangers 75mm beyond the wall.
  • 11. FRAMED (OR)TRIPLE JOIST TIMBER FLOORSJoists Supported On Sleeper Walls Joists can be supported on small walls which have gaps built into them to allow a free fl ow of air under the joists. The walls are known as honeycomb or sleeper walls. The joists are supported and fi xed to wall plates attached to the top of the sleeper walls.
  • 12. TYPES OF FLOORING MATERIALS GRANOLITHIC CERAMIC mosaic MARBLE
  • 13. GRANOLITHIC Granolithic screed, also known as granolithic paving and granolithic concrete, is a type of construction material composed of cement and fine aggregate such as granite or other hard-wearing rock.It is generally used as flooring, or as paving (such as for sidewalks). It has a similar appearance to concrete, and is used to provide a durable surface where texture and appearance are usually not important (such as outdoor pathways or factory floors). It is commonly laid as a screed. Screeds are a type of flooring laid on top of the structural element (like reinforced concrete) to provide a level surface on which the "wearing flooring" (the flooring which people see and walk on) is laid. A screed can also be laid bare, as it provides a long- lasting surface.
  • 14. MOSAIC Mosaic is the art of creating images with an assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. It is a technique of decorative artor interior decoration. Most mosaics are made of small, flat, roughly square, pieces of stone or glass of different colors, known as tesserae; but some, especially floor mosaics, may also be made of small rounded pieces of stone, and called "pebble mosaics".
  • 15. CERAMIC A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous (e.g., glass). Because most common ceramics are crystalline, the definition of ceramic is often restricted to inorganic crystalline materials, as opposed to the noncrystalline glasses, a distinction followed here. The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects, including 27,000 year old figurines, made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials, hardened in fire. Later ceramics were glazed and fired to create a colored, smooth surface. Ceramics now include domestic, industrial and building products and a wide range of ceramic art. In the 20th century, new ceramic materials were developed for use in advanced ceramic engineering for example, in semiconductors.
  • 16. MARBLE Marbleis a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material
  • 17. MARBLE White marble has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times. This preference has to do with its softness, which made it easier to carve, relative isotropy and homogeneity, and a relative resistance to shattering. Also, the low index of refraction of calcite allows light to penetrate several millimeters into the stone before being scattered out, resulting in the characteristic waxy look which gives "life" to marble sculptures of any kind, which is why many sculptors preferred and still prefer marble for sculpting.
  • 18. TAJ MAHAL Construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish.More generally in construction, specifically the dimension stone trade, the term "marble" is used for any crystalline calcitic rock (and some non-calcitic rocks) useful as building stone. For example, Tennessee marble is really a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician limestone that geologists call the Holston Formation
  • 19. FLOORING Flooring is the general term for a permanent covering of a floor, or for the work of installing such a floor covering. Floor covering is a term to generically describe any finish material applied over a floor structure to provide a walking surface. Both terms are used interchangeably but floor covering refers more to loose-laid materials. Materials almost always classified as floor covering include carpet, area rugs, and resilient flooring such as linoleum or vinyl flooring. Materials commonly called flooring include wood flooring, cerami tile, stone, terrazzo, and various seamless chemical floor coatings.
  • 21. CONCRETE FLOORS • Double flagstone floors • Filler joist floors • Jack arch floors • RCC floors • Hallow block and rib floors • Precast concrete floors
  • 25.
  • 28. HALLOW BLOCK AND RIB FLOORS