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Future of Donations Report for peer review

This report has been built following a roadmapping workshop held by the RNLI in May 2018. The aim of the work was to provide a critical path towards a world in which charities allow supporters to donate how, where and when they like.

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Future of Donations Report for peer review

  2. 2. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY Report authors Martin Wilson, RNLI Dr. Clemens Chaskel, IfM ECS Photo / image credits Martin Wilson, RNLI Participating organisations: RNLI Greenwood Campbell Prostate Cancer UK 3 Sided Cube Cudo Ventures Médecins Sans Frontières UK Behavioural Insights Team Raising IT The Brain Tumour Charity The Royal British Legion Woodland Trust Thyngs Future Agenda Institute of Fundraising Alzheimer’s Society Boring Money Mr Bluebird Good Innovation MoneyFarm REPORT INFORMATION Contact information For enquiries related to this report, please contact the RNLI at the following address: Workshop venue kindly supplied by digital transformation agency, ekino. About this document This document contains the findings of the Strategic Landscaping and Technology Roadmapping event only. It is considered to be a working document to facilitate further discussions. Where appropriate, it does reference external material, but first and foremost, it is a true and accurate reflection of conversations and insights given by subject matter experts over the course of two days.
  3. 3. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY CONTENTS Introduction…………………………………………………..…………..... 4 Methodology.………………………………………………..…………..... 7 Discussions and Findings..……………………………..…………..... 8 Strategic Themes…………………………………………..………….....17 Discussion……………………………………………………..………….....20 Conclusions.…………………………………………………..…………....22 Appendix…………………………………………………..…………........ 23
  4. 4. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) is the charity that saves lives at sea. Our vision is to end preventable loss of life at sea. With such an ambitious target, it is essential that the organisation continuously challenges its strategy for achieving that end state. This is especially true when one considers the highly changeable landscape in which we operate – our lifesaving, prevention and funding operations are all potentially impacted by emerging socioeconomic and technological trends and drivers. By identifying, understanding and interpreting emerging behaviours and technologies within the wider political, economic, societal context, the RNLI is able to make informed decisions on how to act. For example, the RNLI may wish to actively invest resource in developing a capability that exploits this technology, or partner with an organisation with similar goals to share the burden of exploring a new technological frontier. To ensure that the decision is not based on local, biased and parochial knowledge, the engagement of subject matter experts from across government, industry and academia, who can provide independent advice and insight is vital. Through the process of Technology Roadmapping, we conducted a study in collaboration with industry and academia, exploring the exploitation of technologies that will ensure that the RNLI remains relevant to the donating public, and that we are able to develop strategies that shore up our funding streams as we move towards an uncertain future. An additional driver behind this work was the need to bring some coherence to what is an extremely ‘noisy’ sector. In recent years there has been an explosion in the number of platforms and services purporting to have the potential to be of great benefit to charity fundraising. By bringing together stakeholders from across the charitable donation sector, it was hoped that the risk of the sector progressing multiple solutions to the same problems would be reduced and economic economies of scale be realised by coordination of needs early on in the procurement process. INTRODUCTION background PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY
  5. 5. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY Digital technology has revolutionised the way people shop, sell and donate, and people are increasingly moving away from using cash. Cash has fallen from representing 62% of all payments by volume in 2006, to 40% in 2016, and is predicted by industry to fall to 21% by 2026. Meanwhile, the growth in the use of digital payments has been rapid. Contactless payments made each month have grown by nearly twenty times in the three years to June 2017. Research suggests that two-thirds of people are making more payments digitally than they did five years ago. Digital payments provide benefits to consumers, businesses and charities by offering convenient, tailored and flexible ways of transacting. Increasingly, they can also offer additional services, such as an ability to better target, record and share data relating to transactions. the problem space
  6. 6. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY To make any investment, the not for profit community needs to understand the impact new developments are likely to have on fundraising. It was felt that this collaborative approach could be supported by building a shared landscape in order to better understand the current state-of-the art and to remove some of the hype surrounding new technologies. This activity aims to identify deliverable interventions that address one or more of the following three barriers and enable a greater level of focus for the sector as a whole. • Giving to charity is not a priority • There is no opportunity to give • The options offered are not suitable The activity set out to envision a world in which charities allow supporters to donate how, where and when they like. Within the two-day workshopping activity, there formed emergent themes around the identification of tools with the ability to foster engagement, motivate towards support and facilitate donation. motivation for conducting this Work vision Peerreviewversionfordiscussion
  7. 7. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY 40 experts from across industry and academia were invited to contribute their expert insights on the evolving donations landscape. Over the course of two days, in addition to a preliminary survey, attendees were asked for their expert opinion on the five forces affecting technologies being used in the donations sphere. Specifically, they were asked: • What are the trends and drivers affecting this sector? • What are the products and services being developed now and in the future to meet donors’ emerging needs? • What needs to be achieved from a technology perspective to create these products and services? • What are the barriers and enablers that must be tackled and promoted respectively, to make these achievements possible? A combination of large and small group activities, each with review and feedback sessions, was used to validate results and opinions among the delegates, with the intention of stimulating discussion across the sector to identify commonly experienced problems and shared solutions. To facilitate discussion we worked together to constructed a critical path towards an understanding of what would need to be true to enable people to donate however, whenever and wherever they like. This is highlighted on the landscape through a series of identified gaps and opportunities; that if tackled in the order presented will enable progress towards the vision in the shortest timescale. METHODOLOGY A detailed description of the roadmapping methodology employed in the study may be found in the appendix.
  8. 8. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY The roadmap of the overall landscape shows the predicted interactions over time (from 2018 to 10 + years) between external trends, emerging technologies; and the services and solutions that could enhance fundraising capability. The trends that were identified as having greater potential influence are illustrated with the green dots on the next page. Perhaps unsurprisingly, an increase in automation of donation and the reducing role of cash within transactions is seen as very relevant to the charity fundraising sector. It was also identified that there is an increased desire for donors to have greater levels of direct involvement in their giving, while technological developments are making it much easier to see and share the impact achieved through their support. DISCUSSION & FINDINGS the landscape: technology roadmap for the future of donation
  9. 9. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY the trends We identified 135 drivers for change as having the potential to influence the sphere of charitable donation. These were discussed and prioritised by the participants around the factors of which could have the most significant impact. These are represented on this trend map, with green dots indicating those that were perceived to have the potential for greatest impact, blue dots signifying those with a lower level of impact and yellow dots as those with a lower impact still. There were an additional 105 drivers that were either amalgamated or discounted as of too low importance. primary trend secondary trend tertiary trend key: trend prioritisation DISCUSSION & FINDINGS
  10. 10. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY Over the course of the workshop themes emerged across the landscape. These were prioritised through discussion and were expanded upon in order that each theme could be followed through a narrative, linking the market ‘pull’ (trends and drivers, services and solutions) to the ‘push’ from emerging technologies. While building the landscape we saw emergent themes forming around the five areas of: • Using AI to find and keep donors Virtual assistance provided through voice interaction and chatbots was identified as a way to deliver a higher level of personalisation within the donor experience. Within a longer term, it was felt that there is an opportunity to extend the use of AI to find patterns from within organisational databases and also from the wider world to identify those that may have more propensity to support. • Better data integration It was felt that API’s would have the ability to facilitate a world in which donating is fully entwined with your life. This would require collaboration across the charity sector to develop APIs that are able to provide integrated touchpoints across the lives of donors. • Building better connections Gaining increased supporter engagement through the creation of new experiential value exchanges that include a ‘moment of truth’ with the ability to communicate the need of the charity. While we see current examples of the use of Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality to deliver these experiences, the thinking is that these experiences go beyond digital and into physical. DISCUSSION & FINDINGS
  11. 11. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY • Creating microdonation product that people want To optimise financial transactions so that there are opportunities to donate a small amount of money (<£5) through a passive or proactive action of the donor. Examples of this can currently be seen in solutions that round up purchase amounts and trigger a donation to charity. While currently there are barriers around fees and minimum viable transaction amounts, it was felt that in the longer-term blockchain-based technologies would reduce there and provide new viable solutions. • Readiness for cash free society The combined factors of decline in the use of cash and the development in underlying technologies enable a move towards viable replacements to the collection of cash. The thinking was that this would begin with the use of Near Field Communication (NFC) and Quick Read (QR) codes as a low-cost, easy introduction to cash free giving, leading through to wider introduction of contactless technologies and the adoption of digital wallets as the area matures. It was felt that for this to happen there would need to be greater levels of collaboration across the sector. These themes were explored further and developed into a set of roadmaps that looked at each separate thematic topic (see Topic Roadmaps included in appendix). DISCUSSION & FINDINGS
  13. 13. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY It should be noted that the landscape developed during the workshop is an ‘educated guess’ on what the future may look like and is limited to the expertise of the subject matter experts that participated in the exercise We are aware that the pace of advancement in the technology sectors indicate that there may be rapid development, with these ‘pushes’ leading to behavioural changes at an unpredicted rate. It is for this reason that we aim for this to be a discussion document that seeks the response from those not involved in the workshop who feel that they could help us better define potential futures. A significant enabler for widespread adoption of some technologies identified on the landscape is the reduction of the barriers to entry for the charity sector, including hardware costs, fees and regulation. There was also discussion around the influence of General Data Protection Regulation and the sharing/securing of data. Technologies have been placed on the roadmap in the timescale where there was consensus that the technology would be mature and affordable enough to be adopted for use within the wider charity sector. Outputs of the roadmapping exercise are not to be considered definitive, but as an invitation to engage in discussion and identify where further opportunities or gaps in knowledge may exist. DISCUSSION & FINDINGS topic roadmap
  14. 14. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY Chatbots Using chatbots to facilitate personalised engagement that leads to better engagement and/or donation. Steps to realising this vision: - Obtain internal buy-in and stakeholder support - Create Proof of Concept FAQ bot - Integrate API that enable financial transaction via bot if required Contactless To adopt a financially viable sector-wide standard for contactless donations. Steps to realising this vision: - Understand the skills gap that charities face - Investigate the potential of QR and NFC within charity materials and assets - Adoption of common agreed standards and systems - Lobbying to reduce or remove fees associated with contactless transactions Microdonations (under £5) To optimise the financial transaction process so that at every purchase there is an opportunity to support a cause that matters to you. Steps to realising this vision: - Understand the scale of the impact within the area of microdonation - Map stakeholders with the opportunity to achieve a benefit - Seek synergistic partnerships that would take this to a scaled audience - Test creative, fun, easy to give concepts. The participants linked the drivers, the services and solutions and the emerging technologies identified in the landscape to identify eight areas of importance. Topic roadmaps were constructed for each of these areas. From these we constructed 3 strategic themes, reported in the following section. DISCUSSION & FINDINGS topic roadmap
  15. 15. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY APIs Creation of a universal platform that matches opportunities to donate time or money in ways that are entwined with your life. Steps to realising this vision: - Build a cooperative of charities and developers that can collaborate around this project - Build insight around feasibility and user needs - Build and test API within cooperative - A unified platform that can be used across sector Cryptocurrency mining A zero-investment fundraising activity that generates a digital currency with value from nothing other than a small electrical cost and supporters’/partners’ existing computer hardware. Steps to realising this vision: - Comms to internal stakeholders - Establish partners (including corporate supporters) to understand synergies - Make available to general supporters Transactional Experience Going beyond pure transactional relationships with charities to enable new types of value within immersive experiences for a wider range of donors. Steps to realising this vision: - Build the belief in opportunity through creation of new measures - Use service design principles to better understand the relevant stories for charities - Trial experiential opportunities to inform user end requirements DISCUSSION & FINDINGS topic roadmap
  16. 16. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY Social Media Create rapid engagement opportunities within native social platforms that maximise the unique features and benefits of these platforms. Steps to realising this vision: - Investigate existing available fundraising opportunities - Create a content strategy for social that can be owned by champions across the charity and allies and supporters - Develop a ‘share to donate’ widget - Establish opportunities to reach across messaging platforms Data and AI targeted marketing Enabling charities to provide a personalised approach to donors with greater levels of propensity to support. Steps to realising this vision: - Reviewing existing data to understand values of donors - Automated system for serving relevant tailored content - Creation of a pool of donors with greater levels of engagement DISCUSSION & FINDINGS topic roadmap
  17. 17. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY strategic themes The drive to exploit new technologies that enable access to a pool of people that would be receptive to a prompt for donation. The key objective of this activity to map the future of donations, which we defined as the financial transaction between donor and charity. However, it emerged through the exercise that delegates were keen to broaden the scope to include targeting activity to find new support. A decision was made to incorporate this area as it was influenced by the same drivers, utilised some of the same technologies and was an important element in the growth of fundraising opportunity.
  18. 18. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY To create a bridge between identifying and converting a donor. This topic roadmap links closely to the two other topic roadmaps by either providing the bridge between targeting and donation or by providing the motivational tool that can be used to cycle a donor towards ongoing committed financial support. strategic themes
  19. 19. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY To create a seamless and flexible donation experience. The drive to identify technologies with the ability to influence the donations landscape naturally pulled the discussions towards the physical donations experience. The two key trends driving this topic roadmap are a general and continual decline in the use of cash, and the donor’s need for a swift method of donation. The roadmap formed around three thematic areas of Artificial Intelligence, microdonation and cash free society. strategic themes
  20. 20. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY The technology roadmapping activity was positioned as an opportunity for greater coherence within the UK charity sector’s strategy for exploiting new fundraising technologies through the development of a common vision. It was recognised that there is a need to better understand how technology can support fundraising activity at both larger and smaller organisations. Also, there is a requirement to be able to achieve an acceptable return on new investment, while reducing the amount of risk that charities are exposed to. Through exploring the landscape, a better understanding has been reached on how external Trends and Drivers are predicted to interact with emerging technologies from across industry sectors. Technical subject matter experts provided awareness of the maturity of relevant technologies and enabled participants to cut through the hype and identify what state-of the art will look like in the short, medium and long term (Gartner Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies 2018 is included in the appendix). DISCUSSION
  21. 21. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY The topic roadmaps identify stepping stones needed to prepare for the future payments landscape. The level of interest in the activity from the charity sector indicated an appetite for further collaboration and desire for greater influence over industry. Positive engagement from industry during the roadmapping exercise showed a desire to work with the charity sector to develop products that are fit for purpose. The RNLI established this technology roadmapping exercise with the aim of understanding the implications on the RNLI of forecast developments and to: • Identify opportunities to enhance fundraising through one common vision • Identify projects for collaborative learning • Explore new technologies • Identify the most relevant areas of focus • Identify barriers and enablers to adoption • Inform requirements for future capability While we believe that we have gone some way to achieving this, we are aware that this is only our opinion. It was our intention that this activity would be the stimulus for discussion and we would love to hear whether you agree with our thinking. DISCUSSION
  22. 22. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY We took the strategic themes of most interest and built them out to three narratives that considered how to access a pool of people that would be receptive to a prompt for donation, how to create a bridge between identifying and converting a donor and how to create a seamless and flexible donation experience. Staying true to a human centred design principles, each of these narratives was developed around a set of PESTLE trend insight, submitted and ratified by the participant group. Larger versions are included in the appendix and available online at VISUALISATIONS
  23. 23. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY CONCLUSIONS Through the course of the activity, a coherent joint vision was identified for the future of charitable donation. The UK charity fundraising community now has an opportunity to collaborate around areas of interest and deliver joint requirements to industry; allowing cost savings to be realised from shared aims and a reduction in resource requirements to take new initiatives to market. Technological developments will enable the sector to use the data that they have access to in much better ways, either through integrated services and platforms, or through the introduction of Artificial Intelligence. There will be greater opportunity to build meaningful connections with prospective and existing donors through relevant, targeted messaging, experiential opportunities and sharing the impacts achieved through support. In the area of donation, we anticipate significant areas of opportunity around the benefits offered by the use of Artificial Intelligence within the transaction, the new products and services that enable microdonation opportunity, and the introduction of new technologies that will replace the collection box in a cash free society.
  24. 24. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY PEER REVIEW Contact information For enquiries related to this report, please contact the RNLI at the following address: Alternatively, contact Martin Wilson, Innovation Scout of the RNLI: For questions about strategic roadmapping, contact Dr. Clemens Chaskel, Senior Industrial Fellow, IfM ECS: This report has been based upon the opinion of the workshop participants and it is our intention that this activity would be the stimulus for further discussion. In order to share your thoughts, please join our LinkedIn group as we would love to hear whether you agree with our thinking.
  25. 25. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY APPENDIX Delegates Greenwood Campbell Prostate Cancer UK 3 Sided Cube Cudo Ventures Médecins Sans Frontières UK Behavioural Insights Team Raising IT The Brain Tumour Charity The Royal British Legion Workshop structure and details 31 subject matter experts from representing Charity, Industry, Regulators and Academia participated in the workshop. Facilitators Dr. Clemens Chaskel, IfM ECS, University of Cambridge Martin Wilson, RNLI Thyngs Future Agenda Institute of Fundraising Alzheimer’s Society Boring Money Mr Bluebird Woodland Trust Good Innovation MoneyFarm RNLI
  26. 26. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY Day 1: Understanding the strategic landscape Factors that make up the landscape were broken down into the following areas: • Trends and Drivers - Why do we want to change what we are doing now? - What external factors will influence the landscape (Political, Environmental, Social, Technological, Legal and Economic)? • Services and Solutions - What services do we need? • Technologies - How to we realise the services and solutions that are needed? • Enablers and Barriers - What factors will help or hinder us achieving the desired future state? Day 2: Detailed Topic Roadmaps Eight topics that were identified as areas of interest were explored in more detail during Day 2 of the workshop. These were: Engaging and Motivating, Chatbots, Contactless, Microdonations (under £5), APIs, Cryptocurrency mining, Transactional Experience, Social, Data and AI targeted marketing. The workshop took place over two days at the digital transformation agency, ekino in early Summer 2018. Activities on Day 1 focused on understanding the strategic landscape for the future of donation. From this, high priority themes were identified that where considered in more detail in topic roadmaps on Day 2. APPENDIX approach
  27. 27. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY Roadmaps provide a structured visualization of particular strategic aspects. They are used to support strategic planning across a broad spectrum of applications. A common roadmap layout, or architecture, will contain two axes. There is a horizontal, time-based axis; often encompassing the past, short-, medium- and long- term, as well as the vision. The vertical axis usually pertains to perspectives, or dimensions, relevant to the focal point of the roadmap; often represented as horizontal layers, forming a matrix across the time dimension. A roadmap allows the integration and alignment of several different perspectives across a broad time range. In this way, the development of currently developing, or short-term, underpinning science and technology to support long-term market trends and drivers can be explored. As a result of this flexibility, roadmaps can be applied at different levels – international, industry, company and product-specific roadmaps have been produced (Phaal et al., 2004; Phaal & Muller, 2009). They can also be applied in a hierarchy – with industry- level trends and drivers cascading down through organizational objectives into specific products and technology features and parameters – a great benefit to the RNLI, who interfaces with many different stakeholders, from policy makers to recreational sea users. Roadmapping processes typically follow a pattern of divergence, convergence and synthesis (Phaal et al., 2010). Brainstorming and scenario planning are divergent activities which benefit the process by encouraging open and innovative thinking by participants. In contrast, convergence requires some discipline to focus the attention onto the most important issues identified in the divergent activity. Thus, workshops tend to employ a divergent-convergent cycle of activities, culminating in a synthesis stage where summarising and sense- making help create a coherent set of roadmaps (Phaal et al., 2010). APPENDIX roadmapping: theoretical background
  28. 28. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY The activity of recognising and acting on the impact of trends is a vital element of competitive strategy (Aguilar, 1967). As technology becomes increasing complex and has a larger impact on manufacturing firms, technology intelligence is vital for firms to remain competitive. Kerr et al. (2006) found that technology intelligence “provides an organization with the capability to capture and deliver information in order to develop an awareness of technology threats and opportunities.” The roadmapping process employs similar techniques for scanning for trends in the external environment (Phaal et al., 2012). This information is typically drawn from the expert participants in the early stages of the workshop, however one mechanism to enhance the information generated and captured is to pre-populate the roadmap prior to the workshop. Approaches for this include a) participants can be requested to prepare in advance, or b) external researchers can be commissioned to identify important trends and drivers. Prior to the initiation of the roadmapping exercise and engagement of external subject matter experts, the RNLI Innovation Team worked with internal stakeholders to clearly define their problems and what constituted success for this programme of work. Through a series of one to one meetings and after engagement with senior decision makers, a formal requirement document was developed. APPENDIX roadmapping: theoretical background (cont.) Roadmapping at the RNLI
  29. 29. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY To develop the roadmap, it was essential that the RNLI gathered insights from a broad audience that was engaged with our purpose, understood the intent behind the roadmapping exercise and was sufficiently forward thinking to stretch our understanding of the current and emerging donations landscape. The Innovation Team sought to engage a balanced mix of participants from charity, finance and technology to contribute. Essential to the success of this exercise was the participation of each member without any commercial or political bias – a sentiment that was bought in to by all. Prior to the roadmapping workshop, key insights on the selected topic areas were gathered by the project team from the workshop participants. A blank roadmap template was sent to participants, soliciting comments and insights relating to trends and drivers etc. and when the participant thought they would impact the landscape (short, medium, longer term). During a two-week period, over 1,500 insights were collated from 20+ of the participants. Whilst some participants were aware of the roadmapping concept, few had actually participated in a roadmapping exercise. To ensure that everyone was one the same level and was able themselves to leverage most value from the exercise, the RNLI and the IfM ECS facilitator held a webinar. During this participants were given an overview of the methodology, its origins and its utility to organisations like the RNLI. Participants were then talked through the Pre-Work and invited into a Q&A on the methodology. Both RNLI and external parties took advantage of this learning opportunity. APPENDIX Identifying contributors Pre-Work: Collating insights Roadmapping literacy
  30. 30. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY On receipt of the pre-work from workshop participants, the IfM ECS clustered and de-duplicated insights, rationalising all the information provided to yield a roadmap that could subsequently be taken into the workshop as a ‘straw man’ that could subsequently be built upon. Included in this activity was an analysis of the frequency and prevalence of certain insights and their emergence over time. As mentioned, the workshop took place over two days at the digital transformation agency, ekino (part of the Havas group) in May 2018. Activities on day 1 focused on understanding the strategic landscape for the future of donation. On the second day, the group was split into focus groups to work on detailed roadmaps of topics that were of particular importance to the group, before again engaging the wider audience in a discussion on these topics. Following the roadmapping event, all outputs were codified and recorded by the RNLI project team, with guidance from IfM ECS. Synthesis included audio recordings and physical content (i.e. topic roadmaps from the workshop). The project team then synthesised the insights into a more concise set of individual roadmaps, simplifying and interpreting as they went. These formed around the three narratives of: • Accessing a pool of people that would be receptive to a prompt for donation • To create a bridge between identifying and converting a donor • To create a seamless and flexible donation experience Throughout this intensive exercise, care was taken not to lose meaning from the content. APPENDIX Roadmapping literacy Roadmapping workshop Synthesis
  31. 31. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY APPENDIX The topic roadmaps From the landscape, there were 9 topic subjects identified as important and explored in more detail.
  32. 32. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY APPENDIX The topic roadmaps From the landscape, there were 9 topic subjects identified as important and explored in more detail.
  33. 33. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY APPENDIX The topic roadmaps From the landscape, there were 9 topic subjects identified as important and explored in more detail.
  34. 34. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY APPENDIX The topic roadmaps From the landscape, there were 9 topic subjects identified as important and explored in more detail.
  35. 35. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY APPENDIX The topic roadmaps From the landscape, there were 9 topic subjects identified as important and explored in more detail.
  36. 36. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY APPENDIX The topic roadmaps From the landscape, there were 9 topic subjects identified as important and explored in more detail.
  37. 37. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY APPENDIX The topic roadmaps From the landscape, there were 9 topic subjects identified as important and explored in more detail.
  38. 38. PEERREVIEWVERSION–FORDISCUSSIONONLY APPENDIX The topic roadmaps From the landscape, there were 9 topic subjects identified as important and explored in more detail.