Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Martin Dittus - Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia

83 views

Published on

Dr. Martin Dittus presenting new work with Prof. Mark Graham at the Oxford Internet Institute on the information geography of Wikipedia. Video at https://youtu.be/eM5tSwkF7No?t=363

Published in: Data & Analytics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Martin Dittus - Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia

  1. 1. Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Oxford Internet Institute geography.oii.ox.ac.uk Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018
  2. 2. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 2 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Geographic representation on Wikipedia
  3. 3. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 3 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Many articles now have geotags…
  4. 4. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 4 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018
  5. 5. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 5 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018
  6. 6. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 6 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018
  7. 7. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 8 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 In traditional geography, people and places are defined by their physical locations and properties. Yet our lives and the places we live in are increasingly digital, and people and places are increasingly defined by their virtual attributes and digital shadows. Graham, Zook, Boulton (2013). Augmented Reality in Urban Places: contested content and the duplicity of code. Information geography: seeking to understand an increasingly digital world
  8. 8. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 9 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Who are the digital “haves” and “have nots”? Why do we see this imbalance of representation?
  9. 9. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 10 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Local participation requires connectivity The cost of broadband subscriptions relative to the gross national income per capita, in 2013. Graham et al. (2015), “Towards a Study of Information Geographies: (im)mutable Augmentations and a Mapping of the Geographies of Information.”
  10. 10. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 11 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Yet, broadband connectivity by itself is likely not enough.
  11. 11. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 12 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Uneven geographies of voice and participation There is a link between broadband connectivity and Wikipedia participation, but connectivity alone is not enough. The world’s economic peripheries are “underparticipating” significantly: large global populations are not represented on Wikipedia. Graham et al. (2015), “Digital Divisions of Labor and Informational Magnetism: Mapping Participation in Wikipedia”
  12. 12. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 13 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Some regions have greater influence Regional imports: flows of Wikipedia edits between world regions, normalised for each target region. The edges are coloured according to the source region. Percentages denote self-edits (not depicted). Graham et al. (2015), “Digital Divisions of Labor and Informational Magnetism: Mapping Participation in Wikipedia”
  13. 13. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 14 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Some regions are “magnetic” / attractive Regional exports: flows of Wikipedia edits between world regions, normalised for each source region. The edges are coloured according to the source region. Percentages denote self-edits (not depicted). Graham et al. (2015), “Digital Divisions of Labor and Informational Magnetism: Mapping Participation in Wikipedia”
  14. 14. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 16 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 We are starting a new study to better understand these relationships over time, and at different spatial scales.
  15. 15. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 17 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 This is an early preview: please give us feedback!
  16. 16. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 18 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 The world is rapidly moving online… World Bank: Fixed broadband subscriptions – https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.BBND
  17. 17. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 19 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Has increased connectivity improved global participation? Are underrepresented regions catching up with more mature regions?
  18. 18. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 20 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Anonymous editor location via GeoIP…
  19. 19. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 21 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 An increase in broadband connections is associated with an increase in edits by anonymous users across 214 countries. (Spearman corr. coeff. 0.82, p<0.001) Has connectivity increased participation?
  20. 20. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 22 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Total edits gained per million added connections (adj.R2 =0.02) Improved connectivity seems to help… Edits of domestic content only (adj.R2 =0.18) Edits of foreign content only (adj.R2 =0.22) This growth association holds in a regression model, even when we account for the general trend over time (a decline in anonymous edits). In other words, broadband is equitable -- improved connectivity helps address some barriers to participation.
  21. 21. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 23 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Increase in edits of domestic content by domestic editors per million added broadband subscriptions, by global region, with 95% confidence intervals. However, this varies widely by region!
  22. 22. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 24 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Things are improving: in many regions, improved connectivity is associated with increased local participation and overall growth. However, there are indicators that inequality is also increasing. North America and Europe still have highest activity levels, and show the strongest response to increased connectivity. I don’t think it’s enough to say that underrepresented regions are “catching up” – it’s more complicated, outcomes vary by region. Are underrepresented regions “catching up”?
  23. 23. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 25 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018
  24. 24. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 26 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018
  25. 25. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 29 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Building capacity to tell your own story
  26. 26. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 30 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Let’s look at some urban regions…
  27. 27. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 31 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 We chose 7 global cities…
  28. 28. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 33 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Locations of geotagged articles
  29. 29. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 36 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Share of edits from domestic IP addresses (in %)
  30. 30. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 37 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Table Mountain & Cape Peninsula park Magnetism % domestic edits
  31. 31. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 38 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Who has edited articles about Cape Town?
  32. 32. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 39 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018
  33. 33. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 40 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018
  34. 34. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 41 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018
  35. 35. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 42 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018
  36. 36. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 43 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018
  37. 37. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 44 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Who owns, controls, shapes, and has access to those augmented and hybrid digital/physical layers of place?
  38. 38. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 45 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Digital rights to the city Data justice, as analogous to spatial justice: Data impacts how we perceive, move through, and use space. Joe Shaw and Mark Graham (eds.): Our Digital Rights to the City. Meatspace Press 2017 https://meatspacepress.org/our-digital-rights-to-the-city/
  39. 39. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 47 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 “We will strive to counteract structural inequalities to ensure a just representation of knowledge and people in the Wikimedia movement.” Knowledge equity https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Strategy/Wikimedia_movement/2017/Direction
  40. 40. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 48 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 "Knowledge equity" is a powerful concept For us, the term solves an important conceptual puzzle. It suggests a central link between: ▪ the stuff that we work on, ▪ our individual acts and motivations, ▪ our collective purposes. And it does it not by enforcing a particular procedure, but by proposing an underlying set of values.
  41. 41. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 49 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Wikipedia is incredibly rare as a non-profit among the major online platforms: it places collective benefit at its centre. In this, it reconciles individual agency and collective purpose. Cf. Ubuntu: the individual and the collective. Further, equality always has been a core Wikipedia principle: openness to those who could help themselves. Wikipedia’s community model
  42. 42. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 51 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Equal treatment vs. equal opportunity
  43. 43. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 52 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Knowledge equity is inherently unfair!
  44. 44. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 53 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 David M. Smith (1994), “Geography and Social Justice”: ▪ Egalitarianism: equal distribution of wealth and power ▪ Utilitarianism: the greater good for the greatest number ▪ Libertarianism: value of the individual over the state ▪ Contractarianism: explicit agreements based on subjective preferences ▪ Marxism: rewarding the full value of an individual’s contribution ▪ Communitarianism: shared practices and values over individual or state interest ▪ Feminism: addressing power imbalances between groups Seven conceptions of social justice
  45. 45. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 54 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 There is no single universal model. It's almost never “either/or” – it's often “yes and”. You can start by articulating: What injustice are we seeking to address? There is no perfectly “just” outcome. Not all tensions need to be resolved; but awareness of them is important. Which model of justice for Wikipedia?
  46. 46. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 55 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Knowledge equity requires us to actively engage!
  47. 47. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 56 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Help make a case for knowledge equity We still need better ways to explain to people why we care about knowledge equity. It is not inherently clear to everyone. Help us prepare a fact sheet. Can we identify concrete examples of the impact of knowledge inequity? Please share your experiences! martin.dittus@oii.ox.ac.uk ▪ Does community X feel well-represented by Wikipedia? ▪ What is the effect of missing information, misrepresentation, perspective bias, or an absence of local perspectives?
  48. 48. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 60 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 In closing…
  49. 49. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 61 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Despite its maturing age, Wikipedia is still encountering new frontiers.
  50. 50. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 62 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Experiencing moments of blindness and ignorance.
  51. 51. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 63 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Seeking new answers to complex puzzles.
  52. 52. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 64 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Wikipedia is messy
  53. 53. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 65 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Wikipedia has transformative powers
  54. 54. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 66 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 A decade on, Wikipedia remains a pioneering project
  55. 55. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 67 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 The world is watching with a keen eye: it continues to learn from your experiences.
  56. 56. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 68 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 What is the global future that Wikipedia is helping to shape?
  57. 57. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 69 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 As the world is coming online, are we addressing the concerns of newly connected populations?
  58. 58. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 70 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Who will be writing the Wikipedia of the coming decade?
  59. 59. Martin Dittus, @dekstop Mark Graham, @geoplace Slide 71 Knowledge Equity and Spatial Justice on Wikipedia Wikimania 2018 in Cape Town, 20th July 2018 Martin Dittus, @dekstop / martin.dittus@oii.ox.ac.uk Mark Graham, @geoplace Digital Geography / Mapping our Digital Rights to the City Oxford Internet Institute / geography.oii.ox.ac.uk Thank you!

×