E Equine Orientation R H

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E Equine Orientation R H

  1. 1. But I‘m only going to do small animal work….
  2. 2. But I‘m only going to do small animal work….
  3. 3. But I‘m only going to do small animal work….
  4. 4. You may not plan to do it. But people will turn to you in an emergency. They‘ll forgive you if you don‘t know everything. They won‘t forgive you if you don‘t know anything
  5. 5. Lesson 1—Equine Orientation Objectives 1. To develop an understanding of the horse‘s interactions with humans and other horses. 2. To utilize this understanding to improve veterinary care and minimize patient stress.
  6. 6. Family : Equidae • Equus caballus – The horse as we know it – 32 pairs of chromosomes
  7. 7. Family: Equidae • Equus przewalski – Przewalski‘s Horse – The only true wild horse remaining – 33 pairs of chromosomes
  8. 8. Make the Distinction Captive Domesticated
  9. 9. Make the Distinction Feral Wild
  10. 10. Family: Equidae • Equus asinus – Donkey/jackass – 31 pairs of chromosomes
  11. 11. Family: Equidae • Equus hemonius – Onager/Wild Ass – 27 pairs of chromosomes
  12. 12. Family: Equidae • Equus burchelli – Plains Zebra – 22 pairs of chromosomes
  13. 13. Family: Equidae • Equus grevyi – Imperial Zebra – 23 pairs of chromosomes
  14. 14. Family: Equidae • Equus zebra – Mountain Zebra – 16 pairs of chromosomes
  15. 15. Hybrid species-Mule • Mare X Ass= Mule • Jennet X Stallion=Hinny • Mules are more common than hinnies due to logistics of breeding • Mule or Hinny may be male or female phenotype • Almost always sterile
  16. 16. So, what‘s the point? • All of these animals, despite their obvious differences, are equines. • The principles of equine medicine and surgery apply to all of them.
  17. 17. Equine Psychology • Priorities—in order of importance to the horse – Safety – Food – Comfort – Play/Socialization
  18. 18. Safety • If a horse does not feel safe, its handler is not safe. • A horse cannot learn while frightened. • The instillation of fear is not an appropriate training technique.
  19. 19. Safety • ―Don‘t worry, he‘s more afraid of you than you are of him‖ A recipe for disaster
  20. 20. Food • Bribing a horse with food—don‘t do it! – The ‗reward‘ should never precede the desired behavior – If food is used as a ‗reward‘ randomize delivery to avoid biting behavior
  21. 21. Comfort • Physical and emotional comfort – Training zone – Given a choice, the horse will choose comfort – Horses are not ‗approval seekers‘ but ‗comfort seekers‘
  22. 22. Psychology of the Herd • Dominant stallion ‗leads‘ herd from the rear
  23. 23. Play • Necessary for good mental health • Vices develop when play is denied • Play can be used as a reward for desired behavior
  24. 24. Defense Mechanisms • FLIGHT • Aggression – Biting – Kicking – Striking
  25. 25. Physiologic Adaptations • Sensory – Visual • Almost 360 degree visual field • Horizontal pupillary opening=extensive peripheral vision • Retina composed predominantly of rods; few cones – Excellent night vision – Color recognition minimal—blue/red/gray
  26. 26. Field of Vision Blind spot Binocular field 65 degrees Monocular field 146 degrees Blind spot
  27. 27. Physiologic Adaptations • Auditory – Ears move independently • Ability to accurately localize origin of sound • Ability to listen to several discrete noises
  28. 28. Physiologic Adaptations • Olfactory – Highly developed sense of smell • Identification of herd members • Recognition of reproductive status • Note: A horse will recognize you if you‘re wearing different clothes; if you change your scent he may not.
  29. 29. Physiologic Adaptations • Tactile – Grooming behavior crucial to herd structure • Social bonds • Hierarchy
  30. 30. “It took me 35 years to learn that women and horses don’t like to be patted.” Pat Parelli
  31. 31. Human Animal Interaction • Animals treat people the way they treat other animals. • People make the mistake of treating animals they way they treat other people.
  32. 32. Equine Body Language • Threatening behavior – Pinned ears – Bared teeth – Turning away – Lifting of hind leg
  33. 33. Equine Body Language • Compliant/Submissive Behavior – Ears forward – Chewing – Standing still
  34. 34. Human Body Language • Eye contact • Physical approach – Movement/gestures – Voice • Physical contact – Where? – How?
  35. 35. Terminology • Horse/Stallion: Intact male 5 years old or older • Colt: Intact male less than 5 years old • Gelding: Neutered male of any age • Rig/Ridgling: Cryptorchid male • Mare: Female 5 years old or older • Filly: Female less than 5 years old • Foal: Either sex from birth to weaning • Weanling: Either sex--weaning to 12 months • Yearling: Either sex--12-23 months
  36. 36. Terminology • Maiden – A horse of either sex that has not won a race – A female that has not yet had a foal • Stud: Male used for breeding
  37. 37. Terminology • Hand – Horse‘s height is measured at the withers (the highest fixed point on the body) – The measurement is made in ‗hands‘ – A hand equals 4 inches • 1 inch =.1 hand • Therefore a horse that measures 15.3 hands is 63‖ (or 5‘3‖) high at the withers
  38. 38. 16.3 hands 16 x 4 = 64 + 3 ------ 67‖ Or 5‘ 7‖
  39. 39. Terminology • Near side • Off/far side – Horses are traditionally handled from the left. The horse‘s left side is his near side, the off side is his right side.
  40. 40. Color • Bay – Brown hair – Black mane & tail – Black points • Muzzle • Lower legs • May have dorsal stripe
  41. 41. Color • Chestnut/Sorrel – Red hair – Red or flaxen mane & tail – No black markings – White markings on face and legs are acceptable
  42. 42. Color • Grey Grey hair NOT mixture of black & white hairs Born dark (black) and lighten with age
  43. 43. Color • Black – All black hair – May have white markings – Any brown hair in tail, on muzzle, or flank indicates dark bay or brown coloring not black
  44. 44. Color • Dun/Buckskin – Tan haircoat – Black mane & tail – Black points – Black dorsal stripe
  45. 45. Color • Palomino – Blond hair – White mane & tail – May have white markings on face and legs
  46. 46. Color • Roan – White hairs interspersed in coat • Red roan: chestnut & white • Blue roan: black & white • Bay roan: bay & white
  47. 47. Head Markings • Star • Star and snip •Star, strip and snip
  48. 48. Head Markings • Blaze •Bald face
  49. 49. Leg Markings
  50. 50. Identification • Lip Tattoo
  51. 51. Identification • Freeze Brand – Liquid nitrogen – Hair regrows white
  52. 52. Identification • Heat brand – Thermal burn – Hair does not regrow
  53. 53. Identification • Whorls or cowlicks
  54. 54. Identification Foal certificate
  55. 55. Identification • Chestnuts – Night Eyes
  56. 56. Identification • Microchip – Installed in middle third of the neck in the nuchal ligament
  57. 57. Identification • Department of Agriculture – 6-month equine health permit – ‗driver‘s license‘ for horses
  58. 58. Breeds • Quarter Horse • Paint Horse • Arabian Horse • Thoroughbred • Appaloosa www.imh.org/imh/bw/home2.html

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