Cats I Behavior And Restraint Of Cats


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Cats I Behavior And Restraint Of Cats

  1. 1. Principles of Feline Behavior and Restraint
  2. 2. Terminology Tom – male Queen – female Kitten – immature cat (<12 months) of either sex Queening – act of female cat giving birth
  3. 3. Evolution of Felis catus <ul><li>Domestication began in Ancient Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Used for controlling vermin, snakes, scorpions around feedstuffs </li></ul><ul><li>Revered as gods and goddesses </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Egyptians imposed the death penalty for killing a cat </li></ul>
  4. 4. Morphology of Felis catus <ul><li>Highly acute senses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binocular vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retractable claws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior hearing ability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintained predatory nature throughout domestication </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary animals by nature, but have adapted throughout domestication </li></ul><ul><li>Obligate carnivores! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Normal Behavior of Cats <ul><li>Highly territorial (cages, rooms, furniture, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Will exhibit aggression to defend territory (speed, teeth, claws) </li></ul><ul><li>Resist most types of restraint </li></ul>
  6. 6. Watch Body Language!!! <ul><li>EARS </li></ul><ul><li>Alert/straight up = affectionate cat </li></ul><ul><li>Flat out sideways = Curiousity </li></ul><ul><li>Downward = Warning, defensive, watch out! </li></ul><ul><li>Down and back = alarm, cat is furious, watch out! </li></ul>Adapted from SPCA of Texas
  7. 7. Watch Body Language!!! <ul><li>EYES </li></ul><ul><li>Wide open, looking at you = Attentive </li></ul><ul><li>Bug-eyed = Frightened, be careful </li></ul><ul><li>Clouded = illness or very relaxed. </li></ul><ul><li>Staring straight at you = Aggression. A stare is a challenge </li></ul>Adapted from SPCA of Texas
  8. 8. Watch Body Language!!! <ul><li>TAIL </li></ul><ul><li>Tail standing straight up = contentment </li></ul><ul><li>Dropped low = unhappy cat </li></ul><ul><li>Twitching back and forth = Anger; &quot;back off!&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Bushy = Anger and impending attack </li></ul>Adapted from SPCA of Texas
  9. 9. Watch Body Language!!! <ul><li>Hissing, leaning away from you </li></ul><ul><li>Swatting </li></ul><ul><li>Growling </li></ul><ul><li>Spitting </li></ul>Angry Cat!
  10. 10. Tips for Approaching Cats <ul><li>Use your voice! </li></ul><ul><li>Tone is important – soothing tones calm cats </li></ul>
  11. 11. Indications for Restraint and Handling <ul><li>Venipuncture, catheterization, immunization </li></ul><ul><li>Administering medicines </li></ul><ul><li>Physical examination </li></ul><ul><li>Grooming </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  12. 12. Precautions! <ul><li>MINIMAL restraint! Can adjust to more restraint as necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Close all portals into the room (doors, windows, drawers, cabinets </li></ul><ul><li>Work in an area cleared of debris. </li></ul><ul><li>READ CAT’S BODY LANGUAGE! </li></ul><ul><li>Use distraction techniques </li></ul>
  13. 13. Restraining the Head <ul><li>Two options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Scruffing : grabbing loose skin behind head and neck. Be sure to remove collar first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Cupping the head : thumb on top of cat’s head, fingers rest under chin (mandible) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Restraining the Legs <ul><li>Place finger between cat’s legs when gripping him. </li></ul><ul><li>Seat cat’s elbows in your hands, and make sure your grasp is above the hocks </li></ul>Hock Elbow
  15. 15. Removing cat from cage <ul><li>Allow cat to move out of its territory on its own </li></ul><ul><li>Open cage door carefully and quickly scruff the cat and remove it </li></ul><ul><li>Can use “Net Bag” with fractious cats </li></ul>
  16. 16. Removing cat from carrier <ul><li>Allow cat to move out of its territory on its own </li></ul><ul><li>Assess body language and if ok, reach into carrier, scruff cat and remove </li></ul><ul><li>If cat is aggressive, remove top of carrier, scruff cat and remove, or place towel over cat’s head and body and remove animal </li></ul>
  17. 17. Special Handling Equipment <ul><li>Trapped cats will hiss, growl before striking out with claws </li></ul><ul><li>Gauntlet gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Towels </li></ul><ul><li>Leash (used with scruffing) </li></ul><ul><li>Box </li></ul><ul><li>Net Bag </li></ul>
  18. 18. Standing Restraint <ul><li>With cat standing on table, scruff cat with your dominant hand and support abdomen with other. Keep animal pressed against your body </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for : </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting physical exams </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining TPR </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sternal Restraint 1. With cat standing on table, scruff cat with your dominant hand and use other hand to gently push cat’s rear into a sitting position 2. Lean over cat’s back and slide cat’s forelimbs down until they’re resting on the table 3. Don’t squish the kitty! <ul><li>Ideal for : </li></ul><ul><li>Giving eye meds </li></ul><ul><li>Giving oral meds </li></ul><ul><li>Giving SQ injections </li></ul>
  20. 20. Lateral Recumbency Restraint <ul><li>Place cat in sternal recumbency. Scruff cat and steady him between your arms with other hand. Slide right hand under cat’s rear legs, grasping above the hocks and keep fingers between cat’s legs </li></ul><ul><li>Gently roll animal on its side and stretch cat out the entire length of your forearm </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stretching the cat” </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for : </li></ul><ul><li>Examining side </li></ul><ul><li>Giving IM & SQ injections </li></ul><ul><li>When more restraint is needed </li></ul>
  21. 21. Restraint for Venipuncture <ul><li>Cephalic Venipuncture </li></ul><ul><li>Cat in sternal recumbency </li></ul><ul><li>Scruff with one hand, side cat to edge of table </li></ul><ul><li>Angle cat’s head away from person doing venipuncture </li></ul><ul><li>Cradle elbow of forelimb with other hand </li></ul><ul><li>“ Roll” the vein to the top of the limb for access </li></ul><ul><li>* Can use tourniquet </li></ul>
  22. 22. Restraint for Venipuncture <ul><li>Jugular Venipuncture – Method 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Sternal recumbency </li></ul><ul><li>Slide cat to end of table </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cup” the head (fingers under jaw and thumb on top on head </li></ul><ul><li>With other hand grasp front legs above elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Extend head up and legs down to expose jugular vein </li></ul>
  23. 23. Restraint for Venipuncture <ul><li>Jugular Venipuncture – Method 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap cat in towel </li></ul><ul><li>Place in dorsal recumbency </li></ul><ul><li>Grasp head from back (thumb under jaw, fingers on top of head) </li></ul><ul><li>Hold forelimbs down under towel </li></ul>
  24. 24. Restraint for Venipuncture <ul><li>Femoral Venipuncture </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral recumbency </li></ul><ul><li>With one hand, scruff cat and brace the same arm against the cat’s spine </li></ul><ul><li>With other hand, grasp hind limbs above hocks </li></ul><ul><li>When ready, release the leg closest to the table while maintaining hold of top leg </li></ul><ul><li>Press that same hand against femoral vein to occlude it </li></ul>
  25. 25. Restraint for Nail Trimming <ul><li>Sternal recumbency </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re left-handed: </li></ul><ul><li>Hold the scruff and left front paw with thumb and index finger of your right hand and trim nails with left hand </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re right-handed: </li></ul><ul><li>Hold scruff and left front paw with thumb and left index finger and trim nails with right hand </li></ul>
  26. 26. Nail Trimming Equipment Guillotine type clippers Cat nail trimmers
  27. 27. Where to Trim Nails
  28. 28. Restraint Equipment - Towels <ul><li>Place cat in sternal recumbency on top of the towel, parallel with end of towel. Hold the scruff! </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap shortest end tightly around cat’s body, leaving the head exposed (make sure towel is not tightly wrapped around neck </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap the rest of the towel around cat’s body tightly </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for : </li></ul><ul><li>Examining eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Giving oral meds </li></ul><ul><li>Femoral, jugular venipuncture </li></ul><ul><li>IM injections </li></ul>
  29. 29. Restraint Equipment – Cat Bags <ul><li>Place cat sternally on top of open bag on table and scruff it </li></ul><ul><li>Use your body to keep cat from standing up </li></ul><ul><li>With other hand, bring up one side of neck strap and quickly bring up other band and fasten the bag. Watch your fingers! </li></ul><ul><li>Curl the cat’s hindlimbs up and into the bag </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure cat’s head is tucked under your elbow and zip it up </li></ul>
  30. 30. Restraint Equipment – Cat Bags
  31. 31. Restraint Equipment – Cat Muzzles <ul><li>Size Matters! </li></ul><ul><li>Sternal recumbency </li></ul><ul><li>Grasp scruff and one tab of muzzle with same hand </li></ul><ul><li>Bring muzzle up and around other side of face and secure on top behind ears tightly (velcro) </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure cat’s nostrils are exposed! </li></ul>