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caves noah madden


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caves noah madden

  1. 1. Caves, caverns and theunderground world...By Noah Madden.
  2. 2. Intro...Have you ever wondered aboutwhats inside of a cave?Well if you decide to watch thisreport done by me, Noah Maddenyou might just find out.......
  3. 3. How caves are formed.✦Most caves are carved out by running water,such as underground rivers.✦Many caves still have water deposits in them.✦Some water deposits in caves can bethousands of years old.✦Other caves are made of empty magmachambers.
  4. 4. The cave of crystals.This cave is located in Mexico and is full of 36feet long beams of gypsum.recently microbes dating back to near thebeginning of life were found frozen in thecrystals.
  5. 5. Crystal cave video
  6. 6. life in the cavernsNot many creatures livein caves or caverns,butthose that do are suitedfor the extreme.Some creatures such asth cave crayfish havelong lives, it is knownto live as long as 175years.
  7. 7. Life of the cave dwellersBecause ofthe caveslightlessenvironmentmanycreaturessuch asOlms haveno eyes.
  8. 8. locations of the crystal cave in mexicothe giant crystal cave in mexico is located 1,000feet under the city of Naica.
  9. 9. SpelunkingSpelunkingis the art ofexploringcaves.
  10. 10. Catacombs......Caves havebeenfrequentlyused inhistory.One examplearecatacombs:caves beingused astombs.
  11. 11. Bats.....bats are one of the best known cave dwellers.they are nocturnal animals;they sleep at night.Bats are the only flying mammals.
  12. 12. Cavemen.....Cavemen are named as they are because earlycavemen lived in caves.The caves provided a lot for the cavemen,shelter, storage space, a camp ground andother things.
  13. 13. The bones of 19 women and 25 childrenwere found there.Historians think that over 1000 peoplehid in the caves during an viking attack,and fires were set at the entrance to drivepeople out.Men were enslaved and thewomen and children were left to die.CAve stories:Dunmorecaves ; Ireland.
  14. 14. Minerals in caves........Many minerals are found in caves such as goldand limestone as well as calcite and Gypsum.
  15. 15. Stalagmites andstalactites...........Stalagmites and stalactites are rock formationsmade by the dripping water moving mineralsto form pillar like structures.
  16. 16. Cave drawings.......Cave walls have told us a lot about history.How? Cave drawings!!!!!!Were drawn by early humans on the walls ofcaves.
  17. 17. Dangers of caves......Caves may be cool, but they have manydangers.They can collapse at any moment andsome are filled with poisonous fumes.
  18. 18. Famous cave explorers......People have been exploring caves for a longtime.One of These people was Stephen Bishop, amixed race slave.He was one of the leadguides and explorers in the discovery ofMammoth cave
  19. 19. The fear of caves........The fear of caves is called Speluncaphobia.
  20. 20. 20Thanks for watching my report, I hope youlearned something new...Goodbye!
  21. 21. Bibliography10 cave animals: MNN - Mother NatureNetwork
  22. 22. Bibliography geographic news giant crystal cave /caves