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Land and Place as
Principal Investigator:
Turning
the Research Spiral
North American Association of Environmental Educator...
Abstract
This session envisions a future in which the presence of place and land as a complex, emergent,
participatory bei...
Welcoming Place
Image: Hauk, © 2014, Composite Dream Synthesis Image from
Earth Dream Thread 01–C02- Traveling Tsunami Bea...
Honoring Layers of Place
Places include many layers of meaning and significance, including the geological,
ecological, myt...
Inviting Place In
Where do you find yourself now? How
might you invite the wisdom and
presence of this place, its multiple...
Orientation
M. Leetch, 2017, Place Terrain Weaving
M. Wood, 2015, Ear to Mother Earth.
Acrylic on canvas with soil.
Frameworks & Possibilities
Environmental and sustainability educational researchers conduct inquiry in a complex entanglem...
Guiding Questions
What is place? What is land? Where is the “self” positioned in this question or do such research
constru...
Emerging movements
informing this work
Dignity of Living Beings and Plants
Multispecies Ethnographies
Gaia Theory
Rights o...
Experiential Dimensions for Practitioner Inquiry - Resources
Nine
Informing Theories
and Examples for
Land and Place as PI
We explore nine different
converging theories informing the
...
Indigenous Ways of Knowing / IEK
“The depth of indigenous knowledge rooted in the long inhabitation of a particular place ...
Research Example - Indigenous Ways of Knowing / IEK
● Idle No More is an indigenous social movement that began as a
grassr...
Nature as Teacher in Sustainability Education
● Sustainability Education is a discipline that includes the transdisciplina...
Research Example - Nature as Teacher in Sustainability Ed
Multimedia art explorations below are examples of nature as teac...
Land Pedagogies and Research
Some scholars argue for a construct of land-based pedagogy rather than critical pedagogies of...
Research Example - Land Pedagogies
Community Priestesses Catalyzing Indigenous Biocultural Resurgence
“Abstract: Black and...
Critical Place Inquiry
● Argues that it is important to critically consider place in
inquiry as it is influenced by resear...
Research Example - Critical Place Inquiry while Walking the
Monterey Bay
Using a multi-day walking pedagogy as a means to
...
Feminist Materialisms
“The point that concerns us is that if the spatio/temporal order of things
is truly muddled and any ...
Research Example - Feminist Materialisms
Jackson, M. A. (2017). Process and emergence: A topographic ethnography of the em...
Earthvox Activity
In resonance with Olsen’s Body and Earth
(2002) and Macy’s Work that Reconnects
(With Johnstone, 2012; w...
Terrapsychology
“Terrapsychology is a set of research methods for exploring ‘our largely unconscious
(because disregarded)...
Research Example - Leetch’s Terrapsychological Inquiry
“This finding molecule considers the ways the placefield
communicat...
Gaian Lens / Gaian Meta-Methodologies
The Gaian Lens focuses on four criteria that
are directly related to land and place ...
Research Example- Gaian Lens/Meta-Methodologies
Dr. Hauk’s (2014) dissertation is a rich
partnership with the living earth...
Living Systems Considerations in Ethical Research
● Conducting ethical research involves educating human research
designer...
Example - Living Systems Considerations in Ethical Research
Mandy Leetch’s Visual Ethical Reflection on Living
Systems Con...
Bioculturally Responsive
Curriculum Development
Bioculturally responsive curriculum extends the idea of culturally respons...
Example - Bioculturally Responsive Education
Dance Your Fears Away is a multicolored skirt made out of ink-
scribbled note...
Vibrant Discussion
We offer questions for
environmental and sustainability
educational researchers to
consider... Hauk, 20...
Guiding Discussion Questions
What is place? What is land? Where is the “self” positioned in this question or do such resea...
Contact Us
Marna Hauk, PhD
Institute for Earth Regenerative Studies
PO Box 55995 Portland, Oregon 97238
earthregenerative@...
Resources &
References
Land and Place as
Principal Investigator:
Turning the Research Spiral
General and Practitioner References
Brown, V. A., Harris, J. A., & Russell, J. Y. (2007). Tackling wicked problems through...
References - Bioculturally Responsive Curriculum Design
Cultural Survival Journal.
Fisher, M., Hauk, M., & Wood, M. (2016)...
References - Critical Place Inquiry & Land-Based Pedagogies
Bang, M. et al (2014). Muskrat theories, tobacco in the street...
References - Feminist Materialisms
Barad, K. M. (2003). Posthumanist performativity: Toward an understanding of how matter...
References - Gaian Methodologies and Gaian Lens
Hauk, M. (2012). WWGD - What Would Gaia Do? Gaian methods: Researching as ...
References - Indigenous Ways of Knowing & Ecol. Knowledge
Abate, R., & Kronk, E. A. (Eds.). (2013). Climate change and ind...
References - Living Systems Considerations in Ethical Research
Capra, F. (2002). The hidden connections: A science for sus...
References - Nature as Teacher in Sustainability Education
Edwards, A. (2005). The sustainability revolution: Portrait of ...
References - Terrapsychology
Chalquist, Craig. (2007). Terrapsychology: Reengaging the soul of place. New Orleans, LA: Spr...
Thank you
May your research
listening for the principal
intelligence of land and
place flourish...
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2017- Slides - Land and Place as Principal Investigator - Turning the Research Spiral - NAAEE 2017 Research Symposium - Hauk Leetch Wood Kippen - Final Posted

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Imagine a future in which land and place increasingly serve as co-researchers or principal investigators in environmental and sustainability education research. Land-based pedagogy, critical place inquiry, indigenous knowledge systems and indigenous ways of knowing, feminist materialisms, bioculturally responsive curriculum development, nature as teacher, terrapsychology, living systems ethical research considerations, and Gaian methods all converge. These slides and briefing paper help explore questions of consent, data-gathering, authorship, and ethics through experiential, collaborative dialogue with examples, paradigms, and methods. Participants walk away with knowledge of effective practice and a resource bibliography to continue to innovate away from anthropocentric assumptions in environmental and sustainability education and towards more inclusive paradigms, methodologies, lenses, and frames for higher quality research.

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2017- Slides - Land and Place as Principal Investigator - Turning the Research Spiral - NAAEE 2017 Research Symposium - Hauk Leetch Wood Kippen - Final Posted

  1. 1. Land and Place as Principal Investigator: Turning the Research Spiral North American Association of Environmental Educators 14th Annual Research Symposium Facilitated Issue Discussion Slides & Briefing Paper October 18, 2017 Marna Hauk, PhD, Mandy Leetch, Mandisa Wood, Rachel Kippen Prescott College, Prescott, Arizona
  2. 2. Abstract This session envisions a future in which the presence of place and land as a complex, emergent, participatory being informs environmental and sustainability education research. We draw from and expand upon the rich body of research that centers lands and places, indigenous knowledge, interconnection, and regenerative practices in inquiry. Land-based pedagogy, critical place inquiry, indigenous knowledge systems and indigenous ways of knowing, feminist materialisms, bioculturally responsive curriculum development, nature as teacher, terrapsychology, living systems ethical research considerations, and Gaian methods converge. Participants walk away with knowledge of effective practice and a resource bibliography to continue to innovate away from anthropocentric assumptions in environmental and sustainability education and towards more inclusive paradigms, methodologies, lenses, and frames for higher quality research. Related Briefing Paper Available https://docs.google.com/document/d/1dcqk7pWAbWhzeLUGpTyEhxh6YDxw3dnd61D5 O0vaAf4/edit?usp=sharing
  3. 3. Welcoming Place Image: Hauk, © 2014, Composite Dream Synthesis Image from Earth Dream Thread 01–C02- Traveling Tsunami Bear Dream [Participant P1-01-006] - Composite of These Images: Southside Klamath Gold Bear Statue, Public Domain; Hokusai, The Great Wave off of Kangawa, 1823-1829, Public Domain.
  4. 4. Honoring Layers of Place Places include many layers of meaning and significance, including the geological, ecological, mythological, indigenous, settler-colonial, biocultural, human-plant guilds, linguistic, herstorical/historical… Inviting land and place as principal investigator involves honoring all the layers of place. Several of the informing theories we touch on in this study of theoretical convergence offer practices and ideas for involving place in research… Visual Credits: Geological Time Spiral, Wikimedia Commons; McCloskey Map of Cascadia, 2015; Chalquist Terrania Visual
  5. 5. Inviting Place In Where do you find yourself now? How might you invite the wisdom and presence of this place, its multiple layers, creatures, histories, herstories, namings, qualities, gifts, betrayals, exhaustions, minings, pollutions, injustices, generosities, ceremonies, plant-pollinator-medicine guilds, and reverberant springtimes and seasons, into this activity of reading, sensing, and learning that you are engaged with right now?
  6. 6. Orientation M. Leetch, 2017, Place Terrain Weaving M. Wood, 2015, Ear to Mother Earth. Acrylic on canvas with soil.
  7. 7. Frameworks & Possibilities Environmental and sustainability educational researchers conduct inquiry in a complex entanglement of agencies. We imagine a future in which land and place are increasingly acknowledged and participate as co-researchers or principal investigators. Indigenous ways of knowing, indigenous ecological knowledge, and land based pedagogy insights argue for a reframing, (re)surfacing earth system, land, and place as primary entities and relationships, suppressed in settler colonial research constructs (Bang, 2014; Cajete, 2008; Calderon, 2014; Hauk & Kippen, 2017; Kimmerer, 2013; McCoy, Tuck, & McKenzie, 2016; Tuck, McKenzie, & McCoy, 2014; Simpson, 2011). Sustainability education acknowledges nature as teacher as a core precept (Nolet, 2009); wouldn’t sustainability educational research acknowledge nature as researcher? Critical place inquiry (Tuck & McKenzie, 2015) has integrated these insights, evolving critical pedagogies of place’s dual emphasis on reinhabitation of native ancestral lands and decolonization (Greenwood, 2008; Greenwood & Smith, 2014), to center indigenous voice and the decolonization of ancestral lands (Tuck & McKenzie, 2015). Feminist materialisms return the information coming from quantum physics through a lens of interconnection, finding that reality is encountered as the self-similar, multi-scale unfolding of agential beings (Barad, 2007, Haraway, 2016). Terrapsychological constructs about placefield valences such as place history, infrastructure, culture, and genius loci as well as phenomenon such as ecoreactivity and land trauma and detailed methodological approaches such as archetypal geography, dialogical alchemy, lorecasting, and psychocartography offer another direction for land and place research (Chalquist, 2007, 2010). Living systems (Capra & Luisi, 2014) invite ethical considerations. Duran’s (2006) construct around Earth amends offers one aspirational standard for research. These are active questions and practice embedded in Gaian methodologies.
  8. 8. Guiding Questions What is place? What is land? Where is the “self” positioned in this question or do such research constructions reconstitute “self”/“Self”? How do ethical consent and authorial credit operate? What does research look like when land or place is the “principal investigator”? As co-researcher? How do the above listed ontoepistemic constructions and paradigms help inform land/place as researcher questions? How do human researchers communicate with places/land and document such communication? What are quality criteria for these kinds of inquiries? How might human researchers metabolize their place-connection in a way that serves all beings?
  9. 9. Emerging movements informing this work Dignity of Living Beings and Plants Multispecies Ethnographies Gaia Theory Rights of Nature/Constitutional Earth Rivers as Living Beings... Dignity of Living Beings and Plants Multispecies Ethnographies Gaia Theory Rights of Nature/Constitutional Earth Rivers as Living Beings...
  10. 10. Experiential Dimensions for Practitioner Inquiry - Resources
  11. 11. Nine Informing Theories and Examples for Land and Place as PI We explore nine different converging theories informing the idea of Land and Place as Principal Investigator
  12. 12. Indigenous Ways of Knowing / IEK “The depth of indigenous knowledge rooted in the long inhabitation of a particular place offers lessons that can benefit everyone, from educator to scientist, as we search for a more satisfying and sustainable way to live on this planet.” -- Kawagley & Barnhardt, 1998 ● Land is an essential interconnected source of health that provides nation-based regenerative resurgence. ● Indigenous epistemologies are rooted in multicontextual ways of knowing and sharing knowledge through support for indigenous and non-native educators, allies, and leaders. Scholars using IWOK look to the construction of knowledge, the voices sharing wisdom, and experiential ways of knowing that have historically been excluded and erased. ● Indigenous people, and practitioners of indigenous traditions are key stakeholders in global climate mitigation and have demonstrated long-term stewardship of the earth (Bautista, 2015). ● EE should consider the emphasis environmental scholars have placed on technocentric and development-based approaches that highlight Western science and development as sustainable practices (Johnson et al, 2016). Values of technology over land as wisdom holder could magnify ways of knowing rooted in settler colonial epistemologies. Plants are consumed and tinctures from the Piri Piri plant are dropped into the eyes of women to induce a meditative trance that guide energy in the form of geometric patterns in ceremonial Shipibo (Peru) textiles (Gunderson, n.d.). Image Credit: https://img1.etsystatic.com/191/0/14671947/il_570xN.132 4705301_73zd.jpg
  13. 13. Research Example - Indigenous Ways of Knowing / IEK ● Idle No More is an indigenous social movement that began as a grassroots counter action to Canadian policies that have been detrimental to First Nations people and the land. ● Idle No More offered a “transformative vision of decolonization and the possibilities for a genuine alliance between natives and non-natives, one capable of re-imagining nationhood” (Klein, 2013, para 2). ● Idle No More is a leaderless movement that created brave spaces for indigenous voices. From this space, Leanne Simpson, a Mississaugua Nishnaabeg scholar published an article titled Aambe! Maajaadaa! (What #IdleNoMore Means to Me) (2012). Simpson reframed “aggressive acts” giving examples of militarized policing and policies that threatened her community as they came together for purposes of living on the land, ceremony, and gathering of medicines. Women of Idle No More used round dances and marches not initially as a form of activism but in the spirit of resurgence and “celebrating our nation on our lands in the spirit of joy, exuberance, and individual expression” (Simpson, 2011, loc. 60). Image Credit: Tim Raybould, 2012. Women walk to Parliament Hill. https://pbs.twimg.com/media/A-qUAkfCUAAgz7j.jpg
  14. 14. Nature as Teacher in Sustainability Education ● Sustainability Education is a discipline that includes the transdisciplinary research of scholars with diverse backgrounds and approaches to the definition of sustainability. Overall SE scholars are concerned with local and global efforts to create equitable and sustainable communities, just and bioculturally responsive scholarship, and the maintenance of a healthy interconnected and regenerative society. Frequently SE scholars look to the economy, environment, changing climate, and incorporate science, social science, and environmental studies to envision complex adaptive systems. ● In the article Preparing sustainability-literate teachers author Victor Nolet (2009) “distills nine themes of sustainability literacy, including stewardship, respect for limits, systems thinking and interdependence, economic restructuring, social justice and fair distribution, intergenerational perspective, nature as model and teacher, global citizenship, and importance of local place” (Hauk, p. 35). ● Nature as teacher is an integration of Indigenous knowledge and Western scientific methods. Nature as teacher encourages scholars to use models such as regenerative design or biomimicry, that are respectfully inspired by and “in accordance with the needs and cycles of the natural world” (Nolet, 2009, p. 426). Feet at Edge of Lake Temescal. Digital Image by Mandisa Wood. 2015. Oakland, CA.
  15. 15. Research Example - Nature as Teacher in Sustainability Ed Multimedia art explorations below are examples of nature as teacher in Environmental Education and Sustainability Education autoethnographic research. The artist, Rachel Kippen used recovered microplastics and body printing with oil on canvas as an embodiment of nature as principal investigator. Her art forms have intersections with indigenous spiritual practices, just sustainabilities, and environmental justice. Kippen, All Bottled Up, 2015 Kippen, Painted Lady Life Cycle Series 1, 2014 Kippen, Lands of Plenty, Hands Empty, 2015
  16. 16. Land Pedagogies and Research Some scholars argue for a construct of land-based pedagogy rather than critical pedagogies of place (Tuck & McKenzie, 2015). Advocates of land-based pedagogies argue that though critical pedagogies of place connects learners to place and provides a mental framework for reconsidering power structures, it does not sufficiently emphasize the indigenous connection to the land or recognize that colonization and settler-colonialism of land are rooted in the exploitation of both land and people. When articulating a pedagogy to inform educators and learners about place and social issues, it is more comprehensive and equitable to consider that “land-based education, in resurging and sustaining Indigenous life and knowledge, acts in direct contestation to settler colonialism and its drive to eliminate Indigenous life and Indigenous claims to land” (Wildcat et al, 2014, p.3). While traditional formalized school structures tend to promote a colonial mentality and educate learners through incomplete history texts that promote societies of production and consumption, land pedagogies disrupts this framework with an intention towards reclaiming the land as a process and context for learning with the “goal of giving an indigenous nation the skills, knowledge, and values to rebuild a nation according to their indigenous worldview and culture” (Simpson, 2014, p.1). Hauk & Kippen, 2017, in press, Table 1 Land as a Living Presence - Contests Settler Colonialism - Disrupts Formalized School Structures - Reclaims Land
  17. 17. Research Example - Land Pedagogies Community Priestesses Catalyzing Indigenous Biocultural Resurgence “Abstract: Black and brown women’s bodies are sites of wisdom and justice, and when used in community ritual, the body functions as a public site of resistance, resurgence, and liberation. The author interviewed practitioners from earth-based traditions to examine the powerful goddesses and earth beings they embodied during community rituals. The paper used an intersectional ecofeminist lens to analyze how rituals weave a collective regenerative biocultural consciousness in urban spaces. Priestesses of indigenous spiritual traditions in Oakland, California use rituals as a form of activism to heal the land and community. Through community rituals, local women create counter narratives to disrupt state-sanctioned systems of oppression and the destruction of the earth. Ontological values are embedded in myths and rituals. Rituals carry the living across a numinous threshold to the world of spirit.” (Wood, 2017) Gathering Wisdom. Digital Image by Mandisa Wood, 2016. Black Dove Rising. Richmond, California.
  18. 18. Critical Place Inquiry ● Argues that it is important to critically consider place in inquiry as it is influenced by research and influences research. ● It is often minimized as an afterthought or disingenuously added to a research process. ● Understands that “places themselves are mobile, shifting over time and space and through interactions with flows of people, other species and social practices” (Tuck & McKenzie, 2015, p. 19). ● Considers the land in place, and nonhuman inhabitants of the land ● Endeavors towards a “relational ethic of accountability to people and place” (Tuck & McKenzie, 2015, p. 19) ● Educators engaging in Critical Place Inquiry are challenged to expand their scope to include their own and others’ social and ecological contexts Oak tree, Rachel Kippen, 2017 Major Theorists: Kate McCoy Eve Tuck Marcia McKenzie David Gruenewald/Greenwood Greg Smith “A critical pedagogy of place aims to contribute to the production of educational discourses and practices that explicitly examine the place-specific nexus between environment, culture, and education. It is a pedagogy linked to cultural and ecological politics, a pedagogy informed by an ethic of eco-justice (Bowers, 2001), and other socio-ecological traditions that interrogate the intersection between cultures and ecosystems” (Gruenwald, 2003). Gruenewald, David A. (2003). The best of both worlds: A critical peda of place. Educational Researcher, 32(4), 3-12. Tuck, E. and McKenzie, M. (2015) Place in research: Theory, methodology and methods. New York, NY: Routledge.
  19. 19. Research Example - Critical Place Inquiry while Walking the Monterey Bay Using a multi-day walking pedagogy as a means to invite place into research, letting the land and stories from the regions traversed help to guide and form an environmental justice curriculum. Recognizing that participants who walk the Monterey Bay are influenced differently by place and shape place in their own unique way. Considers the human and nonhuman inhabitants of the land. Invites discussions and storytelling about the indigenous Ohlone people and the waves of settler colonizers in the Monterey Bay. Research participants discuss the death of a sea lion, Rachel Kippen, 2016 Research participants break at an undeveloped sand dune, Rachel Kippen, 2016. Link to original curricular design: https://storify.com/RachelKippen/monterey-bay-walking-migration
  20. 20. Feminist Materialisms “The point that concerns us is that if the spatio/temporal order of things is truly muddled and any one thing (e.g. photon, person, concept) is inseparable from another, then what we mean by mediation and identity require review. Karen Barad invents the neologism ‘intra-action’ to complicate the assumption that entities pre-exist their relations, and the manoeuvre breaks the equation of mediation with an ‘in-between’, a dead space, a gap, nothing or absence. More brutally, we might say there is no distance or space in between things because there are no ‘things’, no givens” (Kirby, 2017, p. 16). Barad’s theory of agential-realism proposes an embodied and embedded ethico-ontoepistemology; a method for relating ethically with all beings as diffracting and entangled material agencies which represent the same queer and quantum phenomena (Barad, 2007). Intra-Active Digital Image by Amanda Leetch, 2016, CC3.0 Major theorists: ● Karen Barad ● Donna Haraway ● Rosi Braidotti ● Vicki Kirby ● Manuel DeLanda ● Jane Bennett Fractal Self-Similarity, Mandy Leetch, 2017
  21. 21. Research Example - Feminist Materialisms Jackson, M. A. (2017). Process and emergence: A topographic ethnography of the embodiment of place and adventure tourism in Khumbu, Nepal. (Order No. 10277933). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Sciences and Engineering Collection. (1906303252). Retrieved from http://ezproxy.prescott.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1906303252?accoun tid=28426 Jackson’s research used a diffractive methodology to inquire into the embodiment of place as it relates to adventure tourism and settler colonial relations in Khumbu, Nepal. Starting from a place of climate risk for ecosystems, livelihoods, and lives (of human and more than human beings) Jackson reframes the complex relationship between the anthropogenic adventure industry and relationships amongst humans and other beings. Jackson’s work looks at agency and relationships amongst dirt and stone trails, glaciers, and mountains in the context of adventure activities around the Mount Everest basecamp, with the Himalaya as co-creator and co-researcher. Gokyo Lake, Nepal: LINK “I asked not what this place is but how, which allowed for an understanding of human and more-than-human contextual experiences and note the reactions and responses of such relationships. The key to my inquiry was an intimate and embodied awareness of place and experience, in turn, developing a pedagogical praxis tool to facilitate such embodied awareness with place. This new materialist framework urges a rethinking of the influence and agency of matter and proposes a multi-species perspective, reframing human enactments of the Anthropocene and complicit behaviors of this epoch.” (Jackson, 2017, p. 2)
  22. 22. Earthvox Activity In resonance with Olsen’s Body and Earth (2002) and Macy’s Work that Reconnects (With Johnstone, 2012; with Brown, 2014), Earthvox is the imaginary or felt experience of listening for and hearing the voice of the planetary system, including in educational research (Hauk, 2014a, p. 253). Take a moment now and tune into the place in which you find yourself. Root your toes down in and jot on a piece of paper some of the Earth voices you hear. You can notate quotations from the rumbling Earth with downward or upward strokes: //what she is saying or an upward orison of convivial inspiration writ(h)ing in worms// LaylaLoveandAmandaSage,2013Link “About Earthvox...Due to its species-ism, this voice analogy is an approach fraught with potential misappropriation, projection, and/or inaccuracy of the related analogies flowing from this usage. Also, as the living planetary system unfurls and flourishes at scales beyond our human ken, Earthvox is more polyvocal than mono-/deistic. Even knowing all this, given the feminist insight regarding reclaiming voice as a form empowerment and de-objectification, I experiment with Earthvoice here for the ways in which the research seemed to and we might encounter the Earth in its/her super- emergence, imaginatively as (a set of) polyvocal superpower(s).” (Hauk, 2014, p. 253) - Hauk calls this kind of creative, intentional projection a “projective symbiosis” (Hauk, 2015)
  23. 23. Terrapsychology “Terrapsychology is a set of research methods for exploring ‘our largely unconscious (because disregarded) connections to and interdependencies with the multi-leveled presence of our living Earth, including specific places, creatures, and materials’ (Chalquist, 2010, p. 6). A type of Gaian method, terrapsychology examines geology, human cultural relationships, place-names, experiential tracings, cultural phenomena, and mythologies of places and things to surface converging deep meanings, syndromes, and phenomena. Terrapsychology imagines places are archetypally alive and explores the significance and possibilities within the embedded archetypes. It also engages, re-imagines, and can work to heal distortions places are evidencing (echoed in the human experience with/in them) and it imagine the possibilities of places and materialisms. This method also suggests there are correspondences between place patterns and human’s psychological and pedagogical experiences, such that ‘working conscientiously with the deep connections between self and world heals the split driving environmental crisis and self-alienation and invites new delight in the complexity of our ties to nature, place, creatures, and things’ (p. 8).” Quoted from M. Hauk, 2016, “Gaia Taking Back Disneyland: Regenerative Education for Creative Rewilding,” pp. 150-151
  24. 24. Research Example - Leetch’s Terrapsychological Inquiry “This finding molecule considers the ways the placefield communicates most directly in its own symbolic language. The phenomenological nature of the self-field intra-action ensures that the patterns one perceives are related to one's own position relative to those patterns. These findings are the sets of easily discernable communiqués that I was particularly well-positioned to notice. This theme has to do with what the place allows, and what it rejects, what it creates and reinforces... Place speaks in a myriad of vocalizations, symbolic, metaphoric, narrative expression. These symbolic communications are lush and complex. They reveal more the more you turn your attention toward them, but they are invisibilized to those who do not know how to listen. The way Lowell communicates is always bitter-sweet, with hope flowering from the darkest circumstances, but enthusiasm tempered by the wisdom of experience.” (Leetch, 2017, pp.136-137)
  25. 25. Gaian Lens / Gaian Meta-Methodologies The Gaian Lens focuses on four criteria that are directly related to land and place as principal investigator. Gaian works meet the following, in relation to Earth systems: ● Connect and collaborate ● Embed and embody ● Extend and extol ● Thrum and thrive Six Disciplinary Convergences of the Gaian Lens “Gaian methods offer an emerging set of qualitative methods for researching as Gaia, sourced from and nourishing the life of a living, interconnected planet. Research institutions, hands-on educators, and mixed methods researchers will want to understand and explore this field’s transdisciplinary, social justice possibilities. Gaian methods thrive at the intersection of complexity, Gaia theory, ancient cultural insights, ecopsychology, spirituality, philosophy, and embodiment. Gaian methods are connective, collaborative, embedding, embodying, immersive, honoring, planetary, and life-giving.” (Hauk, 2012, p. 2) Composite Image by Mandy Leetch, 2017. Images from Leetch (2017) or Pixabay, 2017, CC0
  26. 26. Research Example- Gaian Lens/Meta-Methodologies Dr. Hauk’s (2014) dissertation is a rich partnership with the living earth which creates a cohort of earth dreamers to inquire into the many complex portals which open to Gaian creativity, design and education. Hauk focuses specifically on how Gaia participates in research through the poly-perspective elements of voice (earthvox), catalytic symbols (ecofractal patterns), and the intrachange amongst researcher and Gaian presence (e/mergence and inmergence). “I asked the earth dreamers in the final survey imaginally what the earth might want to share through them. Several shared something similar to one participant’s words of encouragement and how ‘The earth is dreaming us back home. She is dreaming us back into our true selves, our highest gifts, and our responsibility to each other. She is asking us to find a way to make love the priority and place it above all else’ (Scale 1 Post-Survey, December 21, 2012), echoing another’s words, “Her dreaming brings us into being” (Scale 1 Post-Survey, December 20, 2012) (Hauk, 2014, p. 254). Hauk, M. (2014). Gaia e/mergent: Earth regenerative education for empathy, creativity, and wisdom (Doctoral dissertation). Proquest (UMI 3630295), http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/1563382491.html?FMT=ABS
  27. 27. Living Systems Considerations in Ethical Research ● Conducting ethical research involves educating human research designers and design collectives to extend ethical considerations beyond the human to human-nature symbionts and expanded natural systems understandings. ● Institutional review board (IRB) processes were originally established as a safety check on exploitative academic research practices. Now, as concretized in policy mechanisms within the academy, IRB “protective” processes ironically tend to fortify mainstream (and colonizing) research approaches while excluding and corralling qualitative inquiry. ● Academic institutions, such as Prescott College, have spent multiple years incorporating Living Systems Considerations in Ethical Research. Photo Credit, © 2016, Tanya Miller from Applied Ecobricolage: Mountain Being(s)/ Mountain Becoming(s). The researcher actively engaged in activities to seek consent of the mountains she was researching.
  28. 28. Example - Living Systems Considerations in Ethical Research Mandy Leetch’s Visual Ethical Reflection on Living Systems Considerations in Her Terrapsychological Research (2015) “Notice how the tree grows through these three frames from bottom to top, with the metal support beam standing in for trunk in the middle? This column is literally rooted in ontological and epistemological questions. The title of a particular article The past was never simply there to begin with and the future is not simply what will unfold (Mauthner, 2015), perfectly evokes the questions of the nature of reality and time in terms of Barad’s (2007) agential realism, with the goal of diffracting the linearity found in sociological study so that history is understood as perpetually reconstituted in the moment. The top pane in particular begs a series of questions about the nature of history, the history of reality and the stories we tell to link them together, inspired by Gafijczuk’s virtual witnessing (2013), which layers the past over the present to stand at the threshold of fragmentation that is the immersive narrative of which now is history’s future. The middle pane again interweaves the natural metaphor through the industrial process, putting a spider web over the warp spindles of the weaving machines. I am evoking Ingold’s phenomenological SPIDER (2011, chapter 7) as a way of understanding being as a linking-extending-experiencing enmeshment of sensor with wideware; an extended reality of perceptual processing in which causality and agentiality are constantly complicated. The bottom frame, a tree encased in a brick courtyard, asks questions about what is, but does not assume to make prescriptions regarding what should be. This, instead, is the work of this research.” Multimedia artworking by Amanda Leetch, 2016: “A Fly Eyed Place Mind”
  29. 29. Bioculturally Responsive Curriculum Development Bioculturally responsive curriculum extends the idea of culturally responsive curriculum to include the more than human (Hauk, 2016b). Bioculturally responsive curriculum extends learner identities, embedding them within biocultural and naturecultural affiliations, and Gaian dimensions (de la Bellacasa, 2010; Fawcett, 2013; Hauk, 2010, 2012, 2016a, 2016b). This approach welcomes complexity concepts such as emergence and symbiosis to include interwoven and mutually reciprocal naturecultural affiliations. This kind of curricular approach involves extending the six identified practices of culturally responsive teaching (Villegas & Lucas, 2002, p. 20) to biocultural dimensions, for example: (a) being socioculturally and bioculturally consciousness; (b) affirming views of students in diverse ecocultural embedments; (c) taking active responsibility and catalyzing change to make school curriculum and contexts more bioculturally equitable; (d) understanding how naturecultural cross-species, place-, land-, and cross-scale affiliations form and promote affiliation and mutuality, reciprocity, and biocultural fusion; (e) bring to the learning encounter field knowledge of cultures that are bioculturally responsive in their learning and natureculture-making praxis; and(f) design experiential learning and instruction that builds on and extends what students have already intuited or been inhabiting while also stretching them “beyond the familiar” (riffing on Villegas & Lucas, 2002, p. 20). (Passage from Hauk, 2016c, p. 7) Check out Samantha Frost (2016) Biocultural Creatures: Toward a New Theory of the Human Hill Maid, Corrigan Gardens, UK
  30. 30. Example - Bioculturally Responsive Education Dance Your Fears Away is a multicolored skirt made out of ink- scribbled notes on binder paper. The skirt was created using regenerative design principles with the intent to illustrate “creative flow.” The artist began with the morning pages exercise made popular by the author and artist Julia Cameron (2002) in her book The Artist’s Way. Cameron described the morning pages as basic tool for creative awakening and recovery (Cameron, 2002, p. 9, 11). While writing in a free flowing manner, the artist revealed deep feelings about returning to the High School of her youth to teach College courses, the same school where she experienced extreme racism and discrimination as a teen. To create the skirt the artist trimmed the paper in strips. Next the strips of words were painted with acrylic paint and strung together with bits of old fabric. Bringing color to the skirt and smudging it with herbs helped to release the negativity of old memories. Mariwó is a raffia skirt worn in rituals or dances often honoring warrior deities. The raffia skirt is worn by both men and women to honor West African orisha. ​ Reference: Cameron, J. (2002). The artist's way. New York: Penguin.​ Mariwó: Dance Your Fears Away. Digital Image by Mandisa Wood, 2016.
  31. 31. Vibrant Discussion We offer questions for environmental and sustainability educational researchers to consider... Hauk, 2014, p. 251 - Synthesis Image of Earth Dream Thread 01-C07– Holding the Land Dream [Participant P1-01-023.] Visual synthesis includingGeorge Caitlin, 1832, Beautiful Grassy Bluffs 110 Miles Above St. Louis (Painting, Public Domain); Marie Longo, photograph, Bird Count 2013 New Jersey. Land and Place as Principal Investigator: Turning the Research Spiral
  32. 32. Guiding Discussion Questions What is place? What is land? Where is the “self” positioned in this question or do such research constructions reconstitute “self”/“Self”? How do ethical consent and authorial credit operate? What does research look like when land or place is the “principal investigator”? As co-researcher? How do the above listed ontoepistemic constructions and paradigms help inform land/place as researcher questions? How do human researchers communicate with places/land and document such communication? What are quality criteria for these kinds of inquiries? How might human researchers metabolize their place-connection in a way that serves all beings? Follow up question: How do multispecies ethnographies relate to land agencies in research?
  33. 33. Contact Us Marna Hauk, PhD Institute for Earth Regenerative Studies PO Box 55995 Portland, Oregon 97238 earthregenerative@gmail.com earthregenerative.org And Prescott College Mandy Leetch Prescott College mleetch@gmail.com Mandisa Wood Napa Valley College Prescott College mandisa.wood@student.prescott.edu A. Rachel Kippen City of Watsonville Prescott College amanda.kippen@student.prescott.edu Photo Credit: Mandisa Wood, Chickens at Black Dove Rising Permaculture Farm
  34. 34. Resources & References Land and Place as Principal Investigator: Turning the Research Spiral
  35. 35. General and Practitioner References Brown, V. A., Harris, J. A., & Russell, J. Y. (2007). Tackling wicked problems through the transdisciplinary imagination. New York, NY: Earthscan/Routledge. de la Bellacasa, M. P. (2010). Ethical doings in naturecultures. Ethics, Place & Environment, 13, 151–169. Duran, E. (2006). Healing the soul wound: Counseling with American Indians and other native peoples. New York: Columbia Teacher’s College Press. Fawcett, L. (2013). Three degrees of separation: Accounting for naturecultures in environmental education research. In R. P. Stevenson, M. Brody, J. Dillon, & A. E. J. Wals (Eds.), International handbook of research on environmental education (pp. 409-417). New York, NY: Routledge. Harding, S. (2010). Animate earth: Science, intuition, and Gaia. Totnes, Devon, GBR: Green Books. Hauk, M. (2013/in press). Five fractal geometries for creative, sustainable, and just educational design. AERA proceedings paper 2013, in press in S. Gerofsky (Ed.), Geometries of liberation. Palgrave-Macmillan. Original paper retrievable from link Hauk, M. (2015, October). Ecofractal poetic medicine processes for the regenerative Earth [Research workshop and paper]. Fifth International Symposium on Poetic Inquiry. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. Hauk, M. (2016a). Gaia taking back Disneyland: Regenerative education for creative rewilding. In J. C. Garlen & J. A. Maudlin (Eds.), Teaching with Disney (pp. 149-160). New York, NY: Peter Lang. Hauk, M. (2016b). Queer earth: Troubling dirt, humanness, gender, assumptions, and binaries. In V. Bloomfield & M. Fisher (Eds.), LGBTQ voices in education: Changing the culture of schooling (pp. 186-200). New York, NY: Routledge. Hauk, M., & Kippen, R. (2017, In press). Just sustainability arts: A vibrant convergence. Special issue on Environmental Justice and Sustainability. Interdisciplinary Environmental Review. Keating, A.L. (2013). Transformation now! Toward a post-oppositional politics of change. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. Macy, J., & Brown, M. Y. (2014). Coming back to life: The updated guide to the Work that Reconnects. Gabriola, BC: New Society Publishers. McKenzie, M., Hart, P., Bai, H., & Jickling, B. (Eds.). (2009). Fields of green: Restorying culture, environment, education. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton. Olsen, A. (2009). Body and Earth: An experiential guide. Hanover, NH: University of New England Press. Rumbold, J., Allen, J., Alexander, L., & van Laar, C. (2008). Knowing differently together - Intersubjective responding. In. P. Liamputtong & J. Rumbold (Eds.), Knowing differently: Arts-based and collaborative research (pp. 297-326). New York: Nova Science Publishers. Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Preparing culturally responsive teachers: Rethinking the curriculum. Journal of Teacher Education, 53 (1), 20-32. Retrieved from http://www.smc.edu/StudentServices/TitleV/Documents/Faculty/Teaching_Pedagogy/Preparing_20Culturally_20Responsive_20Teachers.pdf
  36. 36. References - Bioculturally Responsive Curriculum Design Cultural Survival Journal. Fisher, M., Hauk, M., & Wood, M. (2016). Bringing biocultural STEM to life [Presentation and briefing sheets]. 45th Annual North American Association of Environmental Education, Madison, Wisconsin. Retrieved from https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/10DXKiMZ6JISXgRPWQZU7IyUjn6eAMEcSJCVeRBDROKA/edit?usp=sharing Hauk, M. (2016b). Nurturing bioculturally responsive curricula. In V. E. Bloomfield & M. E. Fisher (Eds), LGBTQ voices in education: Changing the culture of schooling (pp. 186-200). New York, NY: Routledge. Loh, J., & Harmon, D. (2014). Biocultural diversity: Threatened species, endangered languages. The Netherlands: WWF Netherlands. Retrieved from http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/biocultural_report__june_2014.pdf Maffi, L. (2001). On biocultural diversity: Linking language, knowledge, and the environment. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Maffi, L. (2005). Linguistic, cultural, and biological diversity. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29, 599-617. doi 10.1146/ annurev.anthro.34.081804.120437 Maffi, L. (2014). Biocultural diversity toolkit: An introduction to biocultural diversity. Terralingua. Retrieved from. http://www.terralingua.org/bcdconservation/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/tk_1_Primer.pdf Maffi, L., & Woodley, E. (2010). Biocultural diversity: A global sourcebook. New York, NY: Earthscan. Naban, G. (2016). Ethnobiology for the future: Linking cultural and ecological diversity. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Terralingua - http://www.terralinguaubuntu.org/ Turner, N. (2009). Earth’s blanket: Traditional teachings for sustainable living. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Turvey, S. T., & Pettorelli, N. (2014). Spatial congruence in language and species richness but not threat in the world’s top linguistic hotspot. Proceedings of The Royal Society B, 281, 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1644 Wilder, B.T., O’Meara, C., Monti, L., and Nabhan, G. P (N.P.) The importance of indigenous knowledge in curbing the loss of language and biodiversity. BioScience, XX, 1-11.
  37. 37. References - Critical Place Inquiry & Land-Based Pedagogies Bang, M. et al (2014). Muskrat theories, tobacco in the streets, and living Chicago as Indigenous land. Environmental Education Research, 20(1), 37–55. Calderon, D. (2014). Speaking back to Manifest Destinies: A land education-based approach to critical curriculum inquiry, Environmental Education Research, 20(1), doi: 10.1080/13504622.2013.865114 Grande, S. (2015). Red pedagogy: Native American social and political thought. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield. Greenwood, D., & Smith, G. A. (2014). Place-based education in the global age: Local diversity. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis. McCoy, K., Tuck, E., & McKenzie, M. (2016). Land education: Rethinking pedagogies of place from indigenous, postcolonial, and decolonizing perspectives. New York, NY: Routledge. Simpson, L. B. (2014). Land as pedagogy: Nishnaabeg intelligence and rebellious transformation. Decolonization, Indigeneity, Education & Society. 3(3), 1-25. Tuck, Eve, & McKenzie, Marcia. (2015). Place in research: Theory, methodology, and methods. New York, NY: Routledge. Tuck, Eve, & McKenzie, Marcia. (2015). Relational validity and the “where” of inquiry: Place and land in qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 21(7), 633. Wildcat, Matthew, McDonald, Mandee, Irlbacher-Fox, Stephanie, & Coulthard, Glen. (2014). Learning from the land: Indigenous land based pedagogy and decolonization. Decolonization, Indigeneity, Education & Society, 3(3), i-xv. Wood, M. (2017, October 15). Community priestesses catalyzing indigenous biocultural resurgence. Association for the Study of Women and Myth 2018 Conference Proposal.
  38. 38. References - Feminist Materialisms Barad, K. M. (2003). Posthumanist performativity: Toward an understanding of how matter comes to matter. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 28 (30), 801-831 Barad, K. M. (2007). Meeting the universe halfway: Quantum physics and the entanglement of matter and meaning. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Barad, K. (2012a). Intra-actions/Interviewer: A. Kleinman. Mousse, 34, 76-81. Barad, K. (2012b). Nature’s Queer Performativity. Women, Gender and Research, 1(2), 25-53. Barad, K. (2012c). On touching: The inhuman that therefore I am. Differences, 23(3), 206-223. Barad, K. M. (2014). Diffracting diffraction: Cutting together-apart. Parallax, 20(3), 168-187. Bennett, J. (2004). The Force of Things: Steps toward an Ecology of Matter. Political Theory, 32(3), 347-372. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4148158 Bennett, J. (2016). The Enchantment of Modern Life: Attachments, Crossings, and Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Dolphijn, R., & Tuin, I. . (2012). New materialism: Interviews & cartographies. Ann Arbor, MI: Open Humanities Press. Haraway, D. (1992). The promises of monsters: A regenerative politics for inappropriate/d others. In L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, & P. A. Treichler (Eds.), Cultural studies (pp. 295-337). New York: Routledge. Retrieved from http://lib.znate.ru/docs/index-151099 Haraway, D. J. (2016). Staying with the trouble: Making kin in the chthulucene. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Jackson, M. A. (2017). Process and emergence: A topographic ethnography of the embodiment of place and adventure tourism in Khumbu, Nepal. (Order No. 10277933). Available from Dissertations & Theses @ Prescott College; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Sciences and Engineering Collection. (1906303252). Retrieved from http://ezproxy.prescott.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1906303252?accountid=28426 Juelskjaer, M. (2013). Gendered subjectivities of spacetimematter. Gender and Education, 25(6), 754-768. Kirby, V. (Ed). What if culture was nature all along? New materialisms. Edinburgh, UK: Edingurgh University Press. McKenzie, M. (2005). The ‘post‐post period’ and environmental education research. Environmental Education Research, 11(4), 401-412.
  39. 39. References - Gaian Methodologies and Gaian Lens Hauk, M. (2012). WWGD - What Would Gaia Do? Gaian methods: Researching as earth--Planetary qualitative methods. Presented at the 2012 Conference for the Association for the the Study of Women and Myth. Hauk, M. (2013). Five fractal geometries for creative, sustainable, and just educational design. [Conference paper]. Paper presented at the 2013 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco, CA. Hauk, M. (2014). Gaia e/mergent: Earth regenerative education for empathy, creativity, and wisdom (Doctoral dissertation). Proquest (UMI 3630295). Retrieved from http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/1563382491.html?FMT=ABS Hauk, M. (2015). Dreams of earth: Earth dreaming as eco-resilience practice for the long emergency. Ecopsychology, 7(4), 258-265. Hauk, M., DeChambeau, A., & Landsman, J. (2010, May). Gaian methodologies [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.earthregenerative.org/gaiamethods/ Hauk, M., & Landsman, J. (2010, October). Gaian methodologies –An emergent confluence of sustainability research innovation [Presentation]. Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. Conference theme, “Campus Initiatives to Catalyze a Just and Sustainable World.” Denver, Colorado. Retrieved from http://earthregenerative.org/pdf/AASHE-2010-HAUK-LANDSMANN-GAIAN-METHODOLOGIES-PRESENTATION-FINAL.pdf Hauk, M., Landsman, J., Canty, J., & Caniglia, N. C. (2010, October). Gaian methodologies: An emergent confluence of sustainability research innovation. Proceedings paper presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education Conference, Denver, CO. Retrieved from http://earthregenerative.org/pdf/GAIAN-METHODS-FINAL-HAUK-LANDSMAN-CANTY-COX-CANIGLIA-AASHE-2010.pdf Macy, J., & Brown, M. Y. (2014). Coming back to life: The updated guide to the work that reconnects. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada : New Society Publishers Macy, J., & Johnstone, C. (2012). Active hope: How to face the mess we're in without going crazy. Novato, CA: New World Library. Mertzner, R. (1993). The split between spirit and nature in European consciousness. ReVision, 15(4), 177-185. Mies, M., & Shiva, V. (2014). Ecofeminism. London, UK: Zed Books. Gaian Methods Website - 100+ resources, many annotated: www.earthregenerative.org/gaiamethods/
  40. 40. References - Indigenous Ways of Knowing & Ecol. Knowledge Abate, R., & Kronk, E. A. (Eds.). (2013). Climate change and indigenous peoples: The search for legal remedies. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Cajete, G. (2008). Seven orientations for the development of indigenous science education. In N. K. Denzin, Y. S. Lincoln, & L. Tuhiwai Smith, (Eds.), Handbook of critical and indigenous methodologies (pp. 487-46). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Hart, M. (2007). Indigenous knowledge and research: The míkiwáhp as a symbol for reclaiming our knowledge and ways of knowing. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3(1), 83-90. Kawagley, A. O., & Barnhardt, R. (1998). Education indigenous to place: Western science meets native reality. In G. A. Smith & D. Williams, Ecological education in action. Fairbanks, Alaska: State University of New York Press. Kimmerer, Robin. (2013). Braiding sweetgrass: Indigenous wisdom, scientific knowledge, and the teachings of plants. Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed Publications. Klein, N. (2013). Dancing the world into being: A conversation with Idle No More’s Leanne Simpson. Yes Magazine, 5. Retreived from http://www.yesmagazine.org/peace-justice/dancing-the-world-into-being-a-conversation-with-idle-no-more-leanne-simpson Kulnieks, A., Longboat, D. R., & Young, Y. (Eds.). (2013). Contemporary studies in environmental and Indigenous pedagogies: A curricula of stories and place. Springer. (Link to Excerpt) Simpson, L. (2011). Dancing on our turtle's back: Stories of Nishnaabeg re-creation, resurgence and a new emergence. Winnipeg: Arbeiter. Simpson, L. (2012). Aambe! Maajaadaa!(what# IdleNoMore means to me). Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society Blog. Tuck, E., McKenzie, M., & McCoy, K. (2014). Land education: Indigenous, post-colonial, and decolonizing perspectives on place and environmental education research. Environmental Education Research. 20(1), 1-23. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2013.877708
  41. 41. References - Living Systems Considerations in Ethical Research Capra, F. (2002). The hidden connections: A science for sustainable living. New York, NY: Anchor Books. Capra, F., & Luisi, P. L. (2014). A systems view of life. New York: Cambridge University Press. Crowell, S. & Reid-Marr, D. (2013). Emergent teaching: A path of creativity, significance, and transformation. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Education. Davis, B. & Sumara, D. J. (2008). Complexity as a theory of education. Transnational Curriculum Inquiry, 5(2). Retrieved from http://nitinat.library.ubc.ca/ojs/index.php/tci Hauk, M., & Caniglia, N. C. (2014). Redesign by Earth: Infusing living system considerations in ethical review and the Institutional Review Board. International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry. Urbana, Illinois. Horn, J. (2008). Human research and complexity theory. In M. Mason (Ed.), Complexity theory and the philosophy of education. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell. Lynch, T., Glotfelty, C., & Armbruster, K. (2012). Bioregional imagination: Literature, ecology, and place. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Margulis, L. (1998). Symbiotic planet: A new look at evolution. New York, NY: Science Masters/Basic/Perseus. Mason, M (Ed.). (2008). Complexity theory and the philosophy of education. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell. Willemsen, A. (2008). The dignity of living beings with regard to plants: Moral consideration of plants for their own sake. Berne: Federal Ethics Committee on Non-Human Biotechnology (ECNH).
  42. 42. References - Nature as Teacher in Sustainability Education Edwards, A. (2005). The sustainability revolution: Portrait of a paradigm shift. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers. Goleman, D., Bennett, L., & Barlow, Z. (2012). Ecoliterate: How educators are cultivating emotional, social, and ecological intelligence. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass and the Center for Ecoliteracy. Gough, A. (2004). The contribution of ecofeminist perspectives to sustainability in higher education. In P. Corcoran & A. E. J. Wals (Eds.), Higher education and the challenge of sustainability (pp.149–161). Netherlands: Springer. Hauk, M. (2014a). Gaia e/mergent: Earth regenerative education catalyzing empathy, creativity, and wisdom (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest (UMI 3630295) from http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/1563382491.html?FMT=AI Nolet, V. (2009). Preparing sustainability-literate teachers. Teachers College Record, 111(2), 409-442. Stevenson, R.P. et al. (Eds.). (2013). International handbook of research on environmental education. New York, NY: Routledge. Sterling, S. (2001). Sustainable education: Re-visioning learning and change. Devon: Green Books.
  43. 43. References - Terrapsychology Chalquist, Craig. (2007). Terrapsychology: Reengaging the soul of place. New Orleans, LA: Spring Journal Books. Chalquist, C. (Ed.). (2010). Rebearths: Conversations with a world ensouled. Walnut Creek, CA: World Soul Books. Chalquist, Craig. (2012). TI2: An integrative methodology for coming home to place, nature, matter, and earth. [Terrapsychology II]. Unpublished manuscript. California Institute for Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA. Retrieved from http://www.terrapsych.com/TI%20updated.pdf Chalquist, C. & Rankin, S. (2010). Enriching the inquiry: Validity and methodology in terrapsychological work. In C. Chalquist (Ed.), Rebearths: Conversatiosn with a world ensouled. (pp. 317-327). Walnut Creek, CA: World Soul Books. Conn, S. A. (1995). When the Earth hurts, who responds? In T. Roszak, M. Gomes, & A. Kanner (Eds.), Ecopsychology: Restoring the earth, healing the mind (pp. 156-171). San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books. Hauk, M. (2015). Dreams of earth: Earth dreaming as eco-resilience practice for the long emergency. Ecopsychology, 7(4), 258-265. Rankin, S. (2010). Tracking the voices of the land. In C. Chalquist (Ed.), Rebearths: Conversations with a world ensouled. (pp. 287-296). Walnut Creek, CA: World Soul Books. Schnider, L. Z. (2010). Eco-Dreaming: The whale’s tale. In L. Buzzell & C. Chalquist (Eds.), Ecotherapy: healing with nature in mind (116-122). Berkeley, CA: Counterpoint. Singer, T. (Ed.). (2010). Psyche & the city: A soul’s guide to the modern metropolis (pp. 383-394). New Orleans, LA: Spring Journal.
  44. 44. Thank you May your research listening for the principal intelligence of land and place flourish...

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