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Queensland University of Technology – University of Tartu
m.larosa@qut.edu.au, marlon.dumas@ut.ee
From Conceptual to Execu...
What’s this tutorial about?
2
Conceptual process model Executable process model
ATAMO*
* “And Then A Miracle Occurs”
1. BPM practitioners seeking to bridge
business – IT
2. BPM instructors / teachers
3. Business process modeling and automa...
The BPM lifecycle
4
Process
identification
Conformance and
performance insights
Conformance and
performance insights
Process
monitoring and
co...
Process
discovery
Process
identification
Process
analysis
Process
implementation
Process
monitoring and
controlling
Proces...
Conceptual “to-be” process models
• are made by domain experts
• provide a basis for communication
amongst relevant stakeh...
Bridging the gap: one task at a time
1. Identify the automation boundaries
2. Review manual tasks
3. Complete the process ...
Our running example
Customer
Supplier 1
Supplier 2
Seller
10
Our running example
1. Identify the automation boundaries
Principle: not all processes can be automated.
-> Start by identifying each task’s t...
In BPMN: specify task markers
Automated tasks
13
User task Manual task
In our example…
automated
user
manual
2. Review manual tasks
Principle: if it can’t be seen by the BPMS, it doesn’t exist.
-> Find ways to support manual tasks ...
Alternative: isolate manual tasks
16
Alternative: isolate manual tasks
Segment 1 Segment 2
Segment 3
17
Prescription fulfillment process:
• Once the prescription passes the insurance check, it
is assigned to a technician who c...
Possible solution
19
• Physical data objects
• Messages bering physical data objects
• Data stores (both physical and electronic)
• Pools & lan...
3. Complete the process model
Principle: exceptions are the rule.
-> Add exception handlers
Principle: no data = no decisi...
In our example…
22
In our example…
23
4. Adjust task granularity
Principle: BPMSs add value if they coordinate handovers of
work between resources.
-> Aggregate...
Look around
25
Candidate tasks for aggregation may not necessarily be
consecutive due to a sub-optimal order of tasks in t...
An exception to the rule
26
Our example…
Before Step 1After Step 4
Sales process at a B2B service provider:
1) Identify tasks type
2) Review manual tasks
3) Complete the process model
4) Ad...
Possible solution
29
30
Possible solution
31
Possible solution
End of Part I
Queensland University of Technology, University of Tartu
m.larosa@qut.edu.au, marlon.dumas@ut.ee
Part II: the “last mile”
Bridging the gap: one task at a time
1. Identify the automation boundaries
2. Review manual tasks
3. Complete the process ...
5. Specify execution properties
-> Process variables, messages, signals, errors
-> Task and event variables and their mapp...
Let‘s take a step back: BPMSs
Business Process Management System
38
Process modeling tool
• To create and modify executable process models (by specifying
execution properties)
• To store and...
Example process modeling tools
40
Bonita Soft Bonita Open SolutionIBM Business Process Manager
Execution Engine
• Instantiates executable process models (also called “cases”)
• Orchestrates distribution of work items ...
Worklist Handler
• Imagine it as an “inbox”
• Offers work items to process participants and allows
participants to commit ...
Example worklist handlers
43
Bonita Soft Bonita Open Solution
Administration & Monitoring Tools
• To manage automation solutions
• To configure access to system components
• To monitor...
Example monitoring & administration tools
45
IBM BPM Process Admin Console
IBM BPM Process Portal
Perspective BPMOne
External Services
• Expose a service interface with which the engine can interact
• The engine provides the invoked servic...
Example external services
47
Bosch Visual Rules editor
Evolution of the BPMS Landscape
© BPTrends 50
BPMS Landscape
51
Big vendors
• IBM BPM
• Oracle BPMS
• Microsoft
BizTalk, Wf
• SAP NetWeaver
BPM
• Software AG
webMethods...
BPMS classification according to BPMN support
1. Pure BPMN: (re)designed from the ground up to
follow the spec to the lett...
Let‘s take a look at a concrete BPMS
Cheat sheet
1. Control flow
2. Data flow
3. Resources
> specify sequence flow expressions…
> specify data types and data m...
• Long-awaited BPM textbook
• Covers the entire BPM lifecycle
• Running examples & questions
• 100+ exercises with and
wit...
http://fundamentals-of-bpm.org
• Lecture notes
• A/V recordings
• Quizzes
• Tutorials
• and more…
Queensland University of Technology, University of Tartu
m.larosa@qut.edu.au, marlon.dumas@ut.ee
That’s it!
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From Conceptual to Executable BPMN Process Models A Step-by-Step Method

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Step-by-step tutorial showing how to turn BPMN process models designed by business analysts into executable processes deployable in a Business Process Management System. This tutorial was first given at the 11th International Conference on Business Process Management in Beijing, China on 29 August 2013. The tutorial is part of a series of lectures available at http://fundamentals-of-bpm.org

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Good job Marlon. very very nice organised and practical presentation. I was looking for something alike for some few weeks. the great point is putting it on a nut shell. thanks for shareing knowledge.
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  • An enhanced and improved version of this presentation has been integrated into our free online course "Fundamentals of Business Process Management". The next delivery of the course will start on 10 October 2016. This delivery will consist of three parts, all of them free. Further details are available here: https://moocs.qut.edu.au/
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  • Dear Filipe
    Thanks for the feedback. What we meant to say is that the BPMS generally will not use the pools and lanes during execution. This does not mean you cannot define them, just that the BPMS will 'ignore' them since participant information needs to be captured in the 'participant' field anyway.
    On the other hand, from a documentation perspective, it makes a lot of sense to capture pools and lanes in the model, certainly.
    So instead of using the adjective 'irrelevant', we should perhaps have said 'optional'.
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  • Nice presentation and thank you for sharing.

    One question: I didn't understood the slide 20 where you say Pools & Lanes are irrelevant for execution.

    Actually, one thing I also usually do is to create a Collaboration diagram where I represent the conceptual model and the executable model using defining a pool as the Process Engine. In this pool I limit the symbols to the ones allowed by the BPMS I will use. But I always include lanes.
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From Conceptual to Executable BPMN Process Models A Step-by-Step Method

  1. 1. Queensland University of Technology – University of Tartu m.larosa@qut.edu.au, marlon.dumas@ut.ee From Conceptual to Executable BPMN Process Models A Step-by-Step Method
  2. 2. What’s this tutorial about? 2 Conceptual process model Executable process model ATAMO* * “And Then A Miracle Occurs”
  3. 3. 1. BPM practitioners seeking to bridge business – IT 2. BPM instructors / teachers 3. Business process modeling and automation researchers Basic knowledge of BPMN assumed Who’s this tutorial for?
  4. 4. The BPM lifecycle 4
  5. 5. Process identification Conformance and performance insights Conformance and performance insights Process monitoring and controlling Executable process model Executable process model Process implementation To-be process model To-be process model Process analysis As-is process model As-is process model Process discovery Process architectureProcess architecture Process redesign Insights on weaknesses and their impact Insights on weaknesses and their impact The BPM Lifecycle (revisited) 5
  6. 6. Process discovery Process identification Process analysis Process implementation Process monitoring and controlling Process redesign Process implementation The well-known gap… To-be process model To-be process model Executable process model Executable process model 6
  7. 7. Conceptual “to-be” process models • are made by domain experts • provide a basis for communication amongst relevant stakeholders • must be understandable • must be intuitive and may leave room for interpretation • contain purely a relevant set of process information Executable process models • are made by IT experts • provide input to a process enactment system - BPMS • must be machine readable • must be unambiguous and should not contain any uncertainties • contain further details that are only relevant to implementation The result: two sides of the story 8 “to-be executed” process model
  8. 8. Bridging the gap: one task at a time 1. Identify the automation boundaries 2. Review manual tasks 3. Complete the process model 4. Adjust task granularity 5. Specify execution properties 9 Part I Part II Adapted from teaching material of Remco Dijkman, TU/e.
  9. 9. Our running example Customer Supplier 1 Supplier 2 Seller 10
  10. 10. Our running example
  11. 11. 1. Identify the automation boundaries Principle: not all processes can be automated. -> Start by identifying each task’s type: Automated tasks User tasks 21 Manual tasks 3 12
  12. 12. In BPMN: specify task markers Automated tasks 13 User task Manual task
  13. 13. In our example… automated user manual
  14. 14. 2. Review manual tasks Principle: if it can’t be seen by the BPMS, it doesn’t exist. -> Find ways to support manual tasks via IT: • via user task • via automated task -> Isolate them and automate the rest 15
  15. 15. Alternative: isolate manual tasks 16
  16. 16. Alternative: isolate manual tasks Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3 17
  17. 17. Prescription fulfillment process: • Once the prescription passes the insurance check, it is assigned to a technician who collects the drugs from the shelves and puts them in a bag with the prescription stapled to it. • After that, the bag is passed to the pharmacist who double-checks that the prescription has been filled correctly. • After this quality check, the pharmacist seals the bag and puts it in the pick-up area. • When a customer arrives to pick up their prescription, a technician retrieves the prescription and asks the customer for their payment. Assume the pharmacy system automates this process. Identify the type of each task and link manual tasks to the system. Quiz: let’s consider this process fragment
  18. 18. Possible solution 19
  19. 19. • Physical data objects • Messages bering physical data objects • Data stores (both physical and electronic) • Pools & lanes • Text annotations Remove or neglect, depending on BPMS BPMN elements irrelevant for execution 20
  20. 20. 3. Complete the process model Principle: exceptions are the rule. -> Add exception handlers Principle: no data = no decisions, no tasks handover. -> Specify all electronic business objects 21 It happed for real!
  21. 21. In our example… 22
  22. 22. In our example… 23
  23. 23. 4. Adjust task granularity Principle: BPMSs add value if they coordinate handovers of work between resources. -> Aggregate any two consecutive tasks assigned to the same resource -> Refine tasks that are too coarse-grained 24
  24. 24. Look around 25 Candidate tasks for aggregation may not necessarily be consecutive due to a sub-optimal order of tasks in the conceptual model.
  25. 25. An exception to the rule 26
  26. 26. Our example… Before Step 1After Step 4
  27. 27. Sales process at a B2B service provider: 1) Identify tasks type 2) Review manual tasks 3) Complete the process model 4) Adjust task granularity Quiz: let’s consider this process model 28
  28. 28. Possible solution 29
  29. 29. 30 Possible solution
  30. 30. 31 Possible solution
  31. 31. End of Part I
  32. 32. Queensland University of Technology, University of Tartu m.larosa@qut.edu.au, marlon.dumas@ut.ee Part II: the “last mile”
  33. 33. Bridging the gap: one task at a time 1. Identify the automation boundaries 2. Review manual tasks 3. Complete the process model 4. Adjust task granularity 5. Specify execution properties 34
  34. 34. 5. Specify execution properties -> Process variables, messages, signals, errors -> Task and event variables and their mappings to process variables -> Service details -> Code snippets -> Participant assignment rules and user interface structure -> Task, event and sequence flow expressions -> BPMS-specific: work queues, forms, connectors…
  35. 35. Let‘s take a step back: BPMSs
  36. 36. Business Process Management System 38
  37. 37. Process modeling tool • To create and modify executable process models (by specifying execution properties) • To store and retrieve automation solutions from a process model repository • May import from conceptual process modeling tools 39
  38. 38. Example process modeling tools 40 Bonita Soft Bonita Open SolutionIBM Business Process Manager
  39. 39. Execution Engine • Instantiates executable process models (also called “cases”) • Orchestrates distribution of work items to process participants and software services in order to execute a business process from start to end • Logs execution data 41
  40. 40. Worklist Handler • Imagine it as an “inbox” • Offers work items to process participants and allows participants to commit to these work items • Handles participants’ work queues and work item priorities • May provide social network capabilities 42
  41. 41. Example worklist handlers 43 Bonita Soft Bonita Open Solution
  42. 42. Administration & Monitoring Tools • To manage automation solutions • To configure access to system components • To monitor participants availability and performance of process cases 44
  43. 43. Example monitoring & administration tools 45 IBM BPM Process Admin Console IBM BPM Process Portal Perspective BPMOne
  44. 44. External Services • Expose a service interface with which the engine can interact • The engine provides the invoked service with the necessary data it will need to perform the activity for a specific case • Examples: rules engine, email or Twitter notification, DB connector, CRM connector… 46
  45. 45. Example external services 47 Bosch Visual Rules editor
  46. 46. Evolution of the BPMS Landscape © BPTrends 50
  47. 47. BPMS Landscape 51 Big vendors • IBM BPM • Oracle BPMS • Microsoft BizTalk, Wf • SAP NetWeaver BPM • Software AG webMethods • Pagaystems PegaRULES Other closed-source • Appian BPMS • BizAgi BPM Suite • Bosch inubit Suite • OpenTex tBPM • Perceptive BPMONe • Progress Savvion • TIBCO ActiveMatrix BPM Commercial open-source • Bonita Open Solution • Camunda Fox • Intalio|BPM • JBoss jBPM Community open-source • Shark • YAWL
  48. 48. BPMS classification according to BPMN support 1. Pure BPMN: (re)designed from the ground up to follow the spec to the letter • IBM BPM, Appian BPMS, Camunda Fox 2. Adapted BPMN: use a BPMN skin but rely on internal representation – predate BPMN • Bonita Open Solution, BizAgi BPM Suite 3. Non BPMN: proprietary language and semantics • Bosch inubit Suite, BPMOne, YAWL 52
  49. 49. Let‘s take a look at a concrete BPMS
  50. 50. Cheat sheet 1. Control flow 2. Data flow 3. Resources > specify sequence flow expressions… > specify data types and data mappings > specify participants assignment rules, service details... 57 ERP Senior Finance Officer Finance Department Check Invoice Mismatches Enter Invoice Details mismatch exists no mismatches Block Invoice Invoice received Invoice posted Post Invoice Invoice blocked Invoice InvoiceReport InvoiceInvoice DB
  51. 51. • Long-awaited BPM textbook • Covers the entire BPM lifecycle • Running examples & questions • 100+ exercises with and without solutions • Based on BPMN • Available as Springer eBook, Apple iBook, Amazon… • Chinese translation coming soon Want to know more?
  52. 52. http://fundamentals-of-bpm.org • Lecture notes • A/V recordings • Quizzes • Tutorials • and more…
  53. 53. Queensland University of Technology, University of Tartu m.larosa@qut.edu.au, marlon.dumas@ut.ee That’s it!

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