Development of a Conceptual Space Smart Kitchen Mixer


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The authors and designers Marlene Holm and Olof Nordström, have developed a product concept based on the former kitchen mixer Electrolux N15, that fills the gap in the product segment that is referred to as ’Urban Compact Living’, in which there is currently no equivalent product offered.
The focus has been on understanding the market segment and defining the target customer in order to conduct multiple user tests and observations to design a product with high usability and user satisfaction.
Two stand mixers of the wall mounted model Electrolux N15, with all the attachments and manuals, was purchased and forms the base for making the practical tests and studies.
Much of the work consists of usability analyzes in order to understand what users want, both what they consciously seek but also implicit needs; what they do not yet know that they want. User studies are conducted where users are observed and the product’s usability is analyzed with the help of a CW, -Cognitive Walkthrough and a PHEA, -Predicted Human Error Analysis test.
Electrolux's design dna is analyzed to create a product that exudes their visual brand identity and meet the customer expectations. The idea generation is an iterative process where creative tools such as brainstorming, exploratory sketching and clay modelling are used to create the concept, its features and final design. To further develop and visualize, the concept is 3D-modeled in CAD software and finally rendered into photo realistic images. A full scale prototype is made using a 3D printer to evaluate the shape and the size.
The result is an innovative, user friendly and time saving stand mixer that inspires people with an urban lifestyle and a compact living to a true and wholesome cooking experience.

This is a 30 credit Master Thesis for the MSc Industrial Design Engineer program.

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Development of a Conceptual Space Smart Kitchen Mixer

  1. 1. Development of a conceptualSpace SmartKitchen MixerMarlene HolmOlof NordströmMaster of Science in Industrial Design EngineeringProduct DesignMarch 2013Luleå University of Technology!,Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social ScienceDivision of Innovation and Design
  2. 2. AcknowledgementWe wish to express our sincere gratitude to the people that made this project possible.First of all, we want to thank our supervisor and professor Dennis Pettersson for believing inour project. Our sincere thanks also goes to our examiner Åsa Wikberg Nilsson for her greatadvice and assistance.David Eriksson for all the time he spent on helping us with feedback and guidance. We areof course extra thankful for him inviting us to work in his office at the design consultancy firmSKAPA. We also want to thank Johan Unga for the inspiration and moral support at theoffice.We are grateful and indebted to David & SKAPA for tutoring and giving us full access to their3D printer, 24/7, for weeks. Because of their selfless contribution, they gave us theopportunity to make a full-scale prototype, even though the project took place in Stockholm.A special thanks goes to Gerard Cina who supported us with great inspiration, informationand materials that otherwise would be impossible to find.We also want to thank all the people that assisted us with information in the interviews anduser study, especially Tina & Stig Holm, Eva Forsberg, Karin & Martin Oskarsson and DavidEriksson.For great inspiration and for believing in our project, we want to thank all our friends, inparticular Robert Bäcklund, Maria Persson, Anna Särhammar, Kamilla Prevolnik and BjörnNygren.We wish to express our love and gratitude to our beloved friends and families; for theirunderstanding & endless love, through the duration of our studies.Marlene Holm and Olof NordströmStockholm, 08-03-2013
  3. 3. AbstractThe increased interest in cooking and culinary experiences of the urban Y-generation formsthe basis for this master thesis for the MSc program Industrial Design Engineering, LuleåUniversity of Technology Oktober 2012 – March 2013.The authors, Marlene Holm and Olof Nordström, have developed a product concept basedon the former kitchen mixer Electrolux N15, that fills the gap in the product segment that isreferred to as Urban Compact Living, in which there is currently no equivalent productoffered.The focus has been on understanding the market segment and defining the target customerin order to conduct multiple user tests and observations to design a product with highusability and user satisfaction.Two stand mixers of the wall mounted model Electrolux N15, with all the attachments andmanuals, was purchased and forms the base for making the practical tests and studies.Much of the work consists of usability analyzes in order to understand what users want,both what they consciously seek but also implicit needs; what they do not yet know thatthey want. User studies are conducted where users are observed and the product’susability is analyzed with the help of a CW, -Cognitive Walkthrough and a PHEA, -PredictedHuman Error Analysis test.Electroluxs design dna is analyzed to create a product that exudes their visual brandidentity and meet the customer expectations. The idea generation is an iterative processwhere creative tools such as brainstorming, exploratory sketching and clay modelling areused to create the concept, its features and final design. To further develop and visualize,the concept is 3D-modeled in CAD software and finally rendered into photo realistic images.A full scale prototype is made using a 3D printer to evaluate the shape and the size.The result is an innovative, user friendly and time saving stand mixer that inspires peoplewith an urban lifestyle and a compact living to a true and wholesome cooking experience.
  4. 4. List of Contents1 Introduction 61.1 Background 61.1.2 Project Background 61.2 Aim 61.3 Deliverables 11.3.1 Sub Deliverables 11.4 Delimitation 11.5 Project Process 81.6 Report Layout 82. The Present 92.2 Mixer Market 92.3 The Company 102.3.1. Electrolux Group 102.4 The Product 102.4.1 Design Features 102.4.2 Attachments 112.4.3 Wall Mounting 133 Theory 143.1 Facts of Stand Mixers 143.1.1 Facts of Spiral Mixers 143.1.2 Facts of Planetary Mixers 153.1.3 Facts of Baking & Cooking 153.3 Design Theory 153.3.1 Principles of Design 153.3.2 Elements of Design 163.3.3 Why Design? 163.3.4 Timeless Design 163.4. Product Experience 173.5 Usability 173.6 Technologies & Material 173.6.1 Induction Cooking 173.6.2 Load Cells 173.6.3. Stick Free Surfaces 183.7 Software & Prototyping 183.7.1 UGS Siemens NX8 183.7.2. Luxion KeyShot 183.7.3 3D-printing 184. Method 194.1 Design Process 194.2 Project Planning Methods 194.2.1 Concept Map 194.2.2 GANTT-Chart 194.3 Data Collecting Methods 194.3.1 Benchmarking 194.3.2 Digital Survey 204.3.3 User Interviews 204.3.4 Observations 204.3.5 PHEA 204.3 Analysis Methods 204.1.1 S.W.O.T. Analysis 204.1.2 User Scenarios 204.1.3 Matrix of Features 214.1.4 HTA - Function Analysis 214.4 Idea Generating 214.4.1 Moodboards 214.4.2 Wordle 214.4.3 Brainstorming 214.4.4 Visualstorming 214.4.5 Designing For The Extremes 214.4.5 Exploratory Sketching 224.4.6 Industrial Clay Modeling 224.5 Evaluation Methods 224.5.1 Explanatory Sketching 224.5.2 Design Specification 225. Research & Analysis 235.1 The Company 235.1.1 Electrolux Brand Identity 235.1.2 Design Language 235.1.3 Design Lab 24
  5. 5. 95.2 The Market 245.2.1 Market Segments 245.2.2 Competitor Analysis 255.3 The User 255.3.1 User Survey 255.3.2 Internet Observations 255.3.3 Habits 265.3.4 Scenarios 265.4 The Product 265.4.1 N15 Brochure 265.4.2 N15 Interview 275.4.3 Hands On Tests 275.4.4 Construction Analysis 275.4.5 SWOT Analysis 295.4.6 Conclusions of the Tests 295.4.7 HTA 305.4.8 CW and PHEA Test 305.4.9 Support Functions 315.5 Conclusion 315.5.1 Mission Statement 315.5.1 Target User 315.5.1 Feature Chart 316. Design Specification 377. Concept Development 377.1 Idea Generation 347.1.1 Moodboards 347.1.2 Wordle 347.1.3 Brainstorming 347.1.4 Extremes 357.1.5 Visualstorming 357.1.6 Exploratory Sketching 357.1.7 Clay Modeling 357.1.7 Conclusion 358. Further Development 378.1 Head Unit 378.1.1 Design & Form 378.1.2 Mechanics 378.1.3 Upper Arm 388.1.4 Lower Arm 398.1.5 Buttons And Rotary Switches 398.1.6 Built in scale 398.1.7 Induction 398.1.8 Timer 398.1.9 Effect 398.1.10 Cord Winder 398.2 Attachments 398.2.1 Hook & Beaters 398.2.2 Blender 408.2.3 Coffee Grinder 408.3 Interface Design 408.4 Mounting 428.3 Materials 418.1 Prototyping 428.1.1 CAD 428.1.2 Rendering 428.1.3 3D-Printing 429. The Result 439.1 The Product 439.2 Usage 459.3 Functions 499.3.1 Kneading, Whipping & Stirring 499.3.2 Blender 509.3.3 Coffe Grinder 509.3.4 Built in features 509.3.5 Cord Winder, ’Cable Cave’ 509.3.6 Mounting Plate - Knife Magnet 509.4 Design 519.5 Evaluatin 539.5.1 Prototype 539.5.2 CW & Error Analysis 5310. Discussion 5510.1 Process 5510.2 Further Development 5610.3 Recommendations 5611. Outcome 57References 57
  6. 6. 61 IntroductionThis report covers a master thesis in product design for the program IndustrialDesign Engineering at Luleå University of Technology conducted autumn 2012- spring 2013. The product development work has been performed by MarleneHolm and Olof Nordström where the stand mixer N15 has been modernized andadapted for todays market. The focus has been on understanding the marketsegment and finding the target customer to design a product based on the bestpossible user experience. In this first chapter we give a context for the project andstate the mission, vision and delimitation.1.1 BackgroundWhat is it that makes us recognize a product asbetter or worse than another one? Why do weinexplicably fall in love in certain products? Whatfactors are involved? How can we as productdesigners understand people around us so we cangive them what they really want?The purpose for this product development projectis to deliver a concept for a wall mounted standmixer based on the mechanical principles of theElectrolux N15.1.1.1 Project BackgroundThe idea of the thesis was born when an oldkitchen mixer was found in the kitchen of marlenesparents house. This model from Electrolux did notlook like any other kitchen mixer and appeared verycompact and functional. While we see an upwardtrend in traditional cooking, and thus also demandof kitchen machines, many people today are livingin compact one-person households. We saw aneed for a kitchen mixer like the one we found anddecided to find out how it would look and function ifit would be re-launched in the Electrolux range ofkitchen appliances. This thesis was conductedwithout the collaboration with Electrolux.Often, kitchen machines occupies large areas ofworkspace that exist in smaller apartments. Sincethey are generally heavy and large they are oftenseen as "clumsy" to both store and take out. In thesmaller household, it may therefore seemimpossible to invest in a kitchen machine. Electroluxhas over the years have many products on themarket, but one of their popular products has beendiscontinued, which has left a gap in this marketsegment. During some years in the mid-eightiesthere was a stand Mixer, the Electrolux N15, whichis a smart and compact solution for a wall-hungkitchen machine.What makes it unique is that it is hung on amounting plate screwed directly into the wall oronto a bracket mounted under the kitchen cabinet.It fits well both in the small student apartment aswell as in the large household and unlike todaysoptions, it doesnt occupy much space. With itsshort setup time, it is also quick and easy toprepare for use and with its various accessories it isversatile and has multiple uses.1.2 AimThe project aim is to develop a space smartconcept of a kitchen mixer that fills the gap in theElectrolux range that the stand mixer N15 madewhen it was taken out of production. The aim isalso to explore Electroluxs customer segments andto define the target customer for this productconcept. User-centered design methods foranalyzing the concept will be explored and carriedout to develop a concept with high usersatisfaction.
  7. 7. 7Furthermore, we want to understand the factorsthat make users experience a product as better orworse than another and as what it is that gives anunexplained relationship with their products. Whenwe understand the emotional experiences, we canhelp give users what they really want.1.3 DeliverablesWith a thorough needs analysis and a carefullyexecuted design process the objective for thisproject is to develop a feasible concept for a wallmounted stand mixer suitable for the Electroluxhome product range.This concept will be founded on the ElectroluxN15’s unique advantages and it is important thatthe product will meet user’s high demands on formand function. To understand the factors thatprovide as a good product experience and a trueproduct relationships a great emphasis is put onunderstanding the human satisfaction.1.3.1 Sub Deliverables1. Understand the culture of baking andcooking as well as the market of standmixers2. Identify the wants and needs of the standmixer users3. Analyze the Electrolux market and definethe stand mixer’s market segments4. Analyze the Electrolux N15 and find thestrengths and weaknesses5. Set up a list of requirements andpreferences for the Electrolux stand mixerconcept6. Sketching and brainstorming to findinteresting solutions and designexpressions7. Develop concepts that is realistic andconsistent with the Electrolux design.8. Develop a chosen design concept9. Further development of chosen conceptuntil every detail is worked thoroughly10. Deliver a final concept presented as 2Dand 3D renderings with productionrecommendations for further development1.4 DelimitationAll work needed for the realization of this conceptcannot be covered in this project due to the givenlimitations of time and resourses. Those arepresented in this section of delimitation.Recommendations for further work on this projectcan be found at the end of the report.1. The project focus on the Western marketand particularly Scandinavia as the foodhabits differ among regions and cultures andthe analysis is mostly taken place in Sweden.2. The final concept should contain technologythat is available or under development andrealistic to be available within 10 years.3. Electronic components will not be specified4. Methods of manufacturing will not be statedbut are taken into account in the designprocess5. No estimate of costs related to themanufacturing will be done.6. Strength calculations are not taken intoaccount.7. Packaging for the product will not bedeveloped.
  8. 8. 81.5 Project ProcessOnce the problem of the project is defined withlimitations and a clear picture of the purpose andobjective, the project is divided into five phases.Time limited phases with interim targets simplifydetailed project planning.The plan is used as a daily tool for direct feedbackon how the project goes according to schedule. AGantt-schedule was made based on the missionstatement. For each task the Gantt-schedule has avertical time line running along a time axis. Severaltasks can run parallel to each other along the timeaxis. (Johannesson, Persson & Pettersson, 2004)This project is divided into the following six phases.See figure 1.1.6 Report LayoutThis project follows a thesis report and contains,besides from the introduction, the theory sectionand at the methodology section a pre study, a userstudy, an analysis, a concept development, furtherdevelopment and that can be read for a deeperunderstanding, of the product developmentprocess. The theory section provides the readerwith information that is not considered to becommon knowledge but is essential for thedevelopment process. The reader can take part ofthe design process and the result without readingneither the introduction, the theory or themethodology section.Figure 2 The report layoutPre Study User Study Analysis Concept Development Further Development ResultFigure 1 The design process
  9. 9. 92 The PresentUrban compact living, that is where we are today. More time and inspiration in the kitchen,that is where we are heading. In today’s kitchens there is no product that alone offers the mostneeded functions e.g. mixing, chopping, kneading and grinding, that is always at hand. Insteadthe kitchens are cluttered with specialized appliances that steal space and are difficult to find.The stand mixer market has not evolved since the first stand mixers came along many decadesago. A smart kitchen machine once offered by the Electrolux may be the answer in our quest foran emphatic and inspiring concept2.1 Kitchen Kitchen MixerMarketKitchen mixers come in a wide range of models fromdifferent manufacturers, for both home andprofessional use. The main purpose of the kitchenmixer is to knead large dough and mix batter.Standard equipment also includes beater forwhipping cream. For most models, there areadditional equipment to buy, such as meat grinder,strainer and vegetable cutter. Some also havesausage horn, pasta rolls and blender.The Scandinavian market of kitchen stand mixers aredominated by two models, KitchenAid andAnkarsrum Assistent (former Electrolux Assistent).These two stand mixers were launched in the 1930srespectively 1940s and have, up to this day, onlyseen some minor design changes.The KitchenAid and the Ankarsrum Assistant havebecome design classics due to how well they meetthe criteria of timeless design, they have clearly stoodthe test of time. (KitchenAid 2012, 1a), (Assistent2012, 1a)Besides the KitchenAid and the assistent, mostmanufacturers of small kitchen appliances have akitchen mixer in their range of products.Assistent  Orginal  Kenwood  Kitchenaid   Krups  OBH  Nordica  Bosch  Figure 3 Six popular kitchen mixers
  10. 10. 102.2 The CompanySince the project deals with the development of an existingproduct from Electrolux, here is a brief introduction to theElectrolux Group and their brands.2.2.1. Electrolux GroupElectrolux is a Swedish company group which since1919 has delivered and manufactured homeappliances to households all around the world.Electrolux is a global leader in household appliancesand appliances for professional use, selling more than40 million products to customers in more than 150markets every year. They are investing heavily ininnovation and development with the goal of makingpeoples everyday life easier and more enjoyable.Electrolux products include refrigerators,dishwashers, washing machines, vacuum cleaners,cookers and air-conditioners sold under esteemedbrands such as Electrolux, AEG, Eureka andFrigidaire. In 2011 Electrolux had sales of SEK 102billion and 58,000 employees. (Electrolux group,2012)2.2.2 Electrolux BrandSince 2011, Electroluxs flagship brand "Electrolux"has changed its positioning, from being a brand in themedium segment, into offering premium householdproducts in the high-end segment.“Thinking of you” is the core message and expressesthe Electrolux offering; To maintain continuous focuson the consumer, whether it’s a question of productdevelopment, design, production, marketing, logisticsor service. The company focuses on innovations thatare thoughtfully designed, based on extensiveconsumer insight, to meet the real needs ofconsumers and professionals. (Electrolux, 2012 1a)Electrolux have the Scandinavian design values:"freedom, intuition, authenticity, comfort andsimplicity." (Electrolux group, 2012)2.3 The ProductElectrolux N15 is a stand mixer produced and sold inthe early 80s to the late 80s. It has a smart designwhere the machine’s functional elements are foldedout when used not to take away unnecessarilyworkspace when not in use.The purpose of the N15is that the machine will always be on display toencourage use, increase accessibility and leave morespace on the kitchen counter. With its unique design,it is still the only one of its kind.2.3.1 Design FeaturesWhen the kitchen machine is not in use, it is only justover 10 centimeters deep and usually mounted 5-10cm over the counter top so it does not occupy workspace . When in use, two arms are folded out fromthe stand mixer where bowl and accessories can befitted. Since its very neat, it is possible to remove itfrom the bracket and store it in a cabinet or kitchendrawer.In it’s initial state, when not in use, it has arectangular shape with the dimensions height; 262mm, width; 304 mm, depth; 100 mm. See figure 6Figure 5 Electrolux Thinking of youFigure 4 Electrolux N15
  11. 11. 11The machines main body is currently made of metaland the beige front covers, buttons and controls aremade of plastic. The mixer has three power outlets forthe equipment; a high speed on the upper arm and alow speed on both the upper and lower arm.The 1,7 m long power cord can be winded up on theback of the machine body.2.3.2 AttachmentsThe Electrolux N15 came with accessories to handlethe most common tasks when baking. For more usesit could be equipped with a variety of accessories tomeet most needs- See figure 7Standard accessories:• 1 Bowl – Container for ingredients• 2 Beaters - for whipped cream etc. (1)• 1 Dough hook – for kneading dough (2)• 2 Mixing hooks – for cookie dough etc. (3)• Protective cap for drive socket• Plate for wall mountingOptional extras:• Blender (4)• Vegetable cutter (5)• Mincer (6)• Feed plunger, sausage tube andstrainer unit for the mincer• Bracket for mounting under overheadcupboardFigure 6 Machine body illustrationFigure 7 Electrolux N15 and its attachments
  12. 12. 122.3.3 Usage & InterfaceTo Use Dough Hook, Beaters or Mixing HooksThe lower arm folds out to the first position. The otherarm folds all the way up past the fixed position bypressing and holding the release button. The bowl isplaced on the lower arm and, depending on whichone, the whisk, beater or dough hook is pushed intotheir drive sockets. The upper arm folds down to itshorizontal position where it snaps and locks.To Use the BlenderThe lower arm is folded out by holding the lower armrelease button. The blender container is placed on thesocket and rotated a quarter turn clockwise until it’slocked in position.To Use The Mincer, Strainer Or Vegetable CutterRemove protective cap from drive socket and mountthe attachment onto the drive socket by pushing it inand turning it counter clockwise until it locks.Handling the N15The machine is turned on by using the knob locatedon the front. The speed of the machine is setcontinuously by turning the knob clockwise. A fullspeed / pulse mode is available if this knob is turnedcounterclockwise. Then it reaches the maximumspeed immediately which stops when the knob isreleased. The machine is equipped with a mechanicalsafety feature that prevents the machine from startingwhenever the upper arm is not in a correct workingposition.Figure 8 N15 overview, closed
  13. 13. 132.3.4 Wall MountingThe Stand Mixer N15 is designed for mounting on thewall. It’s hung on a mounting plate which is screweddirectly onto the wall or to brackets mounted underthe wall cabinet. The mixer can easily be removed bylifting the machine up and then pulling it away fromthe mounting plate. See figure 10Figure 9 N15 overview, openFigure 10 ALT.1 Mounting plate screwed to the wall, ALT. 2 Screwed onto brackets
  14. 14. 143 TheoryThis chapter is a literature review of knowledge and information that has been important forthe implementation of this project. A compilation of information is presented here to give thereader some facts to understand the result obtained in this work.3.1 Facts of Stand MixersTo understand the product, heres a review of theproduct segment of kitchen appliances.A mixer is a kitchen appliance with the main purposeof mixing, beating, kneading and whipping food. Astand mixer is larger and equipped with a morepowerful motor than a regular hand mixer and is alsomounted on a stand for bearing the weight. Thereforeit’s suitable for larger quantities of food processingand only require the user to maneuver the machine.They often have a variety of optional extra accessoriesthat make them a multi functional kitchen appliance.The names for different kitchen appliances can beconfusing. The correct terms for the appliances arecan be seen in figure 11.Stand mixers are available in with two differentconstructions; spiral and planetary.(Acitydiscount, 2012)3.1.1 Facts of Spiral MixersThe spiral mixer consists of a spiral shaped agitatorthat is stationary while the bowl rotates. They aresuitable for mixing dough as they do it fast and aregentle to the dough, which does not increase itstemperature as much, which is desirable for its rise.The spiral mixer has attachments for whipping andbeating but is not ideal for this purpose.Stand Mixer / Kitchen Mixer! Mixer! Hand Mixer!Blender! Food Processor!Figure 11 Correct terms for food preparation kitchen appliances
  15. 15. 15Figure 12 The spiral mixer Ankarsum Assistent3.1.2 Facts of Planetary MixersThe planetary mixer system has a fixed bowl and arotating planetary head with an agitator that spins inthe counter direction. With the planetary motion itreaches the whole bowl which is more suitable forbeating and whipping ingredients than mixing dough.3.1.3 Facts of Baking & CookingYeastYeast is the "heart of the dough" and has theimportant task of making the bread porous, whilegiving the bread flavor and aroma. It is a natural baseingredient when baking plain bread or wheat bread.The yeast break down the sugar to carbon dioxideand alcohol. The carbon dioxide forms small bubbles,which makes the dough rise and become fluffy. If thedough liquid is too hot the ability to rise will weaken.For the dough to rise well with fresh yeast, theoptimum temperature is 38 ° C. It should neverachieve more than about 45 ° C, since the yeast iskilled at higher temperatures. (Kronjäst, 2012)KneadingA good dough requires substantial kneading and it isusually better done with the machine as it alsosimplifies the work.The dough should be worked and processedaccording to the time in the recipe, to get a goodresult and much volume to the bread. A stand mixerkneads the dough fast, compared to hand-kneading,which rises the temperature of the dough. To longkneading time can rise the temperature to the pointwhere the yeast begins to die off. (Kronjäst, 2012)3.2 Design TheoryThere are a handful of universal design prinicples that applyyto several fields, including fine arts, graphic design, industrialdesign and architecture. In the following section, a generallyaccepted list of the design principles are presented. The listmay differ some between books and articles but the context isstill the same.3.2.1 Principles of DesignUnityBrings a harmony among the elements, all part of thedesign is treated as equally important. A balancebetween unity and variety must exist for a design tobe exciting but not chaotic. Unity can be achieved byusing methods of proximity, similarity, continuation,repetition andrhymes.BalanceAn equality in shape, form, value, color etc.RepetitionRepeating a design element makes a pattern whichmakes an eye-catching and interesting featureFigure 13 The planetary mixer KitchenAid
  16. 16. 16ProximityProximity creates a relationship between elements ina way that makes them visually connected, thisminimizes clutter and increases the comprehension.Similarity and ContrastContrast in color, value, size/shape and directionmake unique elements stand out in a design. (White,2011)Figure 14 Principles of design3.2.2 Elements of DesignThe list in this section describes the most commonly useddesign elements. Applying the design principles to these designelements are important aspects for making a good design.LineThe mark on a surface that makes a shape, or anoutline, it can be of any thickness. Lines can be usedto describe the form and divide the product into areaswhere they can be distinguished by different colors ormaterials. Lines can create a sense of flow.Form3-dimensional object with volume and thickness.ShapeShape is a 2-dimensional line and can be of ageometric or organic character but are always flat.ValueValue is the shade of a color, how light or dark it is,which can be used for leading the eye or emphasizinga design.SpaceSpace is the volume where the design take place.Both negative and positive space is important whendefining a form.SizeSize is how large or small an area is.TextureThe quality of the surface, smooth, rough, hard, matt,glossyColorColor is used to add emotion, mood or weight to adesign. Colors can be used for encoding functionsand for association with specific characteristics.(Butler, Holden & Lidwell, 2003)Figure 15 Elements of design3.2.3 Why Design?Shapes, colors, and characters are all attributes thatcan give the product an identity that lets peopleunderstand which company the product originatesfrom. Letting the product express the company originand give it a clear identity will reduce anonymity andcreate trust. Design is used as a competitive tool andcan when carried out properly provide added value tothe product. (Eppinger & Ulrich, 2003) (Österlin, 2010)Figure 16 Dieter Rams3.2.4 Timeless DesignDieter Rams’ 10 Principles for good design hasalmost become a golden standard to what is gooddesign. Timeless is best described as the opposite ofa trend. According to Rams, to be a design classic,the design should be unobtrusive and discrete toallow for the surrounding to change as trends comeand goes. (Vitsoe, 2012)
  17. 17. 173.4. Product ExperienceTo design a product that provides the best productexperience, the product developer always have to beempathetic and have the user in focus continuously,after all, it is the user the product is made for.Empathic design is achieved through observing andinteracting with the user to better understand theirneeds and appreciation.3.5 UsabilityThe definition of usability according to the ISOstandard 9231-11 is;"The extent to which a product can be used byspecified users to achieve specified goals witheffectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in aspecified context of use".(International standard, 1998)Figure 17 Illustration of usability3.6 Technologies &Material3.6.1 Induction CookingInduction heating is a way to cook food where thevessel is heated, as opposed to traditional cookingwhere heat is transferred between electric coil or gasto the pot.The change in a magnetic field can create voltage, theamount of voltage created is equal to the change inmagnetic flux divided by the change in time. Thegreater the change in the magnetic field, the greateramount of voltage and the warmer it gets. (Inductioncooking, 2013)Figure 18 Induction heating3.6.2 Load CellsLoad cells are used in digital scales to detect weightchanges.The load cell contains a strain gauges which deformwhen a weight is placed on the scale. The straingauge measures the deformation as an electricalsignal. This is possible sincethe strain changes the effectiveelectrical resistance in the wire.The electrical signal is amplifiedand the output signal calculatesthe weight applied.Load cells are rugged andcompact with no moving parts and are available in allsizes for both small and large loads. They measurewith high precision and can weigh both static anddynamic loads. (Load cell, 2013)Good design :… innovative…..makes a product useful… aesthetic…..makes a product understandable… unobtrusive… honest… long-lasting… thorough down to the last detail… environmentally friendly… as little design as possibleFigure 19 Illustration of loadcell
  18. 18. 183.6.3. Stick Free SurfacesNanotechnology can be used to produce unique,permanent and food-safe non-stick coatings. Thecoating gives an easy to clean, antibacterial surfacethat is resistant to temperature changes and pH-valuechanges.The nano-coating can be used on most surfaces, e.g.stainless steel, plastic and painted aluminum.The easy-clean nano-coating is uv-stable throughoutits lifetime. The coating cannot be removed byabrasion since it has a permanent chemical bond withthe substrate which enables excellent abrasionresistance. The coating also holds a high chemicalstability, it is resistant to all standard household andindustrial cleaners, except from concentrated lye.(Nanocare, 2013)Figure 20 Nanotechnology3.7 Software &Prototyping3.7.1 UGS Siemens NX8UGS NX8 is a CAD (computer aided design) softwarewhich is used to create solid model designs whichcan then be used as the basis for drawings,manufacturing and simulations.3.7.2. Luxion KeyShotKeyShot is a 3D rendering and animation softwareused for creating photo realistic images.3.7.3 3D-printing3D-printing is a rapid prototyping process used tocreate 3D models by building up layers of plastic. Themodel is formed from the molten plastic using thedata from a CAD drawing.
  19. 19. 194. MethodAs we see it, the design process is all about understanding the user, in order to design, buildand finally test the concept. The product development process has an iterative workflow wherethe steps are repeated throughout the process, until every detail is carefully designed. Thissection gives a further description of the methods used for planning, collecting data, analyzingit, generating ideas and finally evaluating them and implement them in a final design.Implementation and the results from the methods can be read in the following chapters.4.1 Design ProcessThe design process is generally a systematic processwhich is structured effectively to reach results withhigh quality. The design process is specificallycustomized to each projects but it’s usually aniterative process where idea generation and evaluationare performed alternately until the result issatisfactory.4.2 Project PlanningMethodsA well-planned project is essential for achieving agood result. A concept map is first created to ensurethat all important aspects of the project will becovered in the time plan. A time plan is then createdwith a Gantt-chart.4.2.1 Concept MapCreated with main branches, and sub branches, theconcept map clearly communicates structures in theproject, categorizes tasks and visually illustrates therelationships among them. See figure 21(Energy education, 2012)4.2.2 GANTT-ChartOne of most foreseeable ways of planning andstructuring a larger time limited project is with a Gantt-chart. The chart has a horizontal timeline on one axisand a vertical list of tasks in chronological order on theother axis. Every task will be presented with a bar,where the length corresponds to the duration of thetask. (Johannesson, Persson & Pettersson, 2004)4.3 Data CollectingMethodsIn our view, collecting data is crucial for understandingthe user, the market and the product which in turn iskey to design of successful products. Survey data isnot just statistical figures, but input that createsunderstanding and insights4.3.1 BenchmarkingBenchmarking is a process where all leading productsin the market for a specific product is mapped.Figure 21 Concept map
  20. 20. 20"Competitor espionage" can provide a lot of usefulinformation. Interesting solutions on competitor’sstand mixers can work either as inspiration or as afoundation for developing a similar but better suitedfor the own product.4.3.2 Digital SurveyA survey is a structured questionnaire given to asample of the population where the purpose is toidentify consumer behhavior patterns and giveproduct feedback. Much emphasis is put onformulating the questions in such a way that theparticipants will answer truly and from their ownexperiences. (Wärneryd, 1986)4.3.3 User InterviewsUser interviews are made with persons that have hada lot of experience with the product . It can also beprofessionals who have worked with the developmentor retail of the product’s. Documentation with video oraudio recording is preferable. (Branston, 2009)4.3.4 ObservationsObservations are data collection through recording ofbehaviors when a person is using a product. Thismethod provides information that cannot be reachedwith only interviews. Observations can for instanceshow unconscious behaviors and behaviors that theindividual might not want to discuss.Self observations by the designer who hasunderstanding of product conception can also provideuserful information. Video documentation is importantto analyze the observations later on. (Malhotra, 2008)4.3.5 PHEAPHEA, Predictive Human Error Analysis is used to findoperational errors when using a product. PHEA canpreferably be used together with a function analysismethod as the HTA method, see section 4.1.4. Beforethe PHEA is performed on the test persons it isimportant to first define the task steps (by using HTAfor example) and secondly identify possiblewrongdoings in each step.The test person is asked to perform each operationand the whole test is documented with a videocamera. The errors are identified by taking notes thatanswer the following four specific questions;(Bohgard, 2008)4.4 Analysis Methods4.4.1 S.W.O.T. AnalysisThe company, or in this case, the product is evaluatedas it is at the moment based on the four guidingprinciples; the good internal; strength, the badinternal; weakness, the good external; opportunity,the bad external; threat. The properties are presentedin a matrix. (Armstrong & Kotler, 2010)Figure 22 Illustration of S.W.O.T. analysis4.4.2 User ScenariosScenarios for the typical user can be pictured to getinputs to the design process and help the designer tounderstand how the product can be improved tobetter fit the users. (Branston, 2009)1. Will the user try to achieve the right result?2. Will the user notice that there is a possiblepath to the right result?3. Will the user associate the right action withthe right result?4. If the right action is performed, will the usernotice that this action brought her closer tothe completion of the task?
  21. 21. 214.4.3 Feature chartA matrix where the product’s future characteristics arefeatured with emotional to rational features on the x-axis and new to old features on the y-axis that iswanted or needed for the new product.4.4.4 HTA - Function AnalysisHierarchical function analysis is a method to breakdown a certain operation to see every step that userneed to perform to complete the task.The operation is divided into a series of steps andevery step is divided into hierarchically orderedsubsteps. When designing a product, it is useful tolook at the number of substeps in the design processin order to eliminate unnecessary substeps.(Bohgard, 2008)4.4 Idea Generating4.4.1 MoodboardsA moodboard is a collection of images on a boardthat together convey a certain mood where thepurpose is to inspire the designer or to communicatea desired direction for a project with a client.Moodboards can be made digitally or by hand.See figure 23Figure 23 Example moodboard4.4.2 WordleWordle is a creative way of using words by generatinga word cloud. The more the word is repeated within acertain text, the bigger and more prominent the wordgets in the cloud. In this project, Wordles will be usedto show how often users refer to certain features andcharacteristics. (Wordle, 2012)Figure 24 Example wordle4.4.3 BrainstormingBrainstorming is a verbal session that works as acatalyst for new ideas. This idea generating methodcan be used when the participants already have director indirect experiences related to the topic. Usually theideas are already there, they just need a trigger to bereleased. An idea can, for example, be a solution to aproblem or a direction for in which way the project isheading. A creative session of this kind should beintense and fun without giving any idea too muchattention. (Branston, 2009)4.4.4 VisualstormingVisualstorming is a visual version of brainstormingwhere doodling, small thumbnailsketches inspire and triggers theparticipants in the idea generatingsession. Both oral and visual inputs areusually combined In this creative method, which oftenleads to even more triggers. Since these early ideaswill be indicators for the project direction, it’simportant not to close any doors, but to let all ideasthrough. (Branston, 2009)4.4.5 Designing For The ExtremesWhen using personas in design processes it’scommon that the characters created are representingthe typical user or customer. By designing for theaverage user you often exclude the extremes. Ofcourse, keeping focus on the common mass is theobvious way to go at general, but by looking at theextremes as well, a lot of new input could result in aneven better product for all users. (Hustwit, 2009)D. Formosa (Objectified, 2009) describes that "whatwe really need to do to design is to look at theextremes - the weakest, with arthritis, the athlete, thestrongest, the fastest - because if we understandwhat the extremes are, the middle will take care ofitself".Doodle v. Scribbleabsent-minded
  22. 22. 224.4.6 Exploratory SketchingExploratory, or investigatory sketching is a methodwhere quick sketching is used to generate ideas andto explore solutions. The sketches are usually only forthe designer or for the designer team. As forbrainstorming, the aim is to generate as many ideasas possible. The sketches can be made with whateverpens or markers the designer is comfortable with,although, adding colors can add emotionalcharacteristics to a sketch. (Sjölén, 2005)4.4.7 Industrial Clay ModelingDesigning shapes and details in two dimension, eg.on a paper, can be challenging but with clay it’spossible to explore them in three dimensions. The clayis called industrial plasticine and is based on wax anddoes neither dry out or shrink. (Staedtler, 2012)4.5 Evaluation Methods4.5.1 Explanatory SketchingFocus on explaining the function, structure and formrather than sketches made for persuading and selling.Explanatory sketches are very useful throughout thewhole project, as design solutions have to beexplained in a fast and fairly accurate way all the time.(Sjölén, 2005)4.5.2 Design SpecificationThe specification of requirements describes therequirements and wishes the product must meet. It isimportant that the requirements are written asrequirements and not as solutions to the product.Some important and frequent headlines in thespecifications used in product development are: (Beitz& Pahl, 1995)• Geometry• Design• Materials• Market• Ergonomics• Maintenance
  23. 23. 235. Research & AnalysisThis chapters covers all the information gathered about the market & the competitors, thecompany; Electrolux, the machine; N15 and the stand mixer users. The information is gainedthrough benchmarking, interviews, surveys , self observations and function analyzes. Thisinformation is analyzed in order to get all the understanding needed to create a user centereddesign.5.1 The CompanyTo obtain a clear picture of AB Electrolux, a study ismade with a focus on products, values and vision.Product analysis includes products from past, presentand future and is carried out on websites, throughpublications and through hands-on experiences atElectrolux Home in Stockholm.5.1.1 Electrolux Brand IdentityElectrolux want to be perceived as the ”ThoughtfulDesign Innovator”.Their four brand values to support and achieve theirbrand identity goal are;1. EMPATHY–We have compassion for the experiences, thoughts andfeelings of others2. INSIGHTFUL–We are creating meaningful consumer value.3. PROGRESSIVE– We are challenge conventions to deliver industryshaping concepts.4. INGENIOUS– We create clever solutions and original experiences.(Dani, 2011)5.1.2 Design LanguageElectrolux offer, apart from domestic appliances;major and small appliances, products for professionaluse. The design languages differs between thedivisions and therefore we have focused to study thevisual brand identity of the small domestic appliancessince that is where our product belongs. (ElectroluxGroup, 2012 )The Electrolux design "DNA"; what distinguishes theirsmall appliances products, was analyzed by exploringtheir product range in Electrolux Home stores andonline. A list of Electrolux design cues was made.Figure 25 Thoughtful Design Innovator
  24. 24. 24The flow lineFlow lines are lines that describe the form and dividesthe product into segments where they can bedistinguished by different colors or materials. Itcreates a sense of flow.ColorsProducts in the segment of small appliances usuallycome in a color series. The customer can choose thecolor according to taste. The product can be adaptedto color in the home and kitchen and matched withother products.Materials & TexturesProducts often have combinations of materials withdifferent texture. For example; Hard and smoothplastic and metal with a silk feeling, shiny glass andbrushed metal.Characteristic shapesElectrolux uses soft shapes, but always combinedwith strict lines, to give products the minimalistexpression that is the essence of Scandinaviandesign. They often use a characteristic flow line thatcan be seen just above ”ergorapido”, between thetransparent and the metallic surface, in figure 26.HolesAnother characteristic detail is the round that createsa pattern. They are often used, for instance, onvacuum cleaners.Text & symbolsThe logo always have a central position on theproduct and if there’s a product name it’s oftenprinted with its own personal typeface.5.1.3 Design LabElectrolux has since 2003, annually arranged a designcompetition open for design students called DesignLab; ”Calling for inventions unseen and unheard of.”Every year the students creativity kicks off with theannouncement of the theme. The theme of the designlab 2013 is inspired urban living which confirms thatour focus on the urban generation of the thesis is welltimed. (Electrolux Designlab, 2013)Figure 27 Designlab 2013: Inspired Urban Living5.2 The MarketTo understand the market segment of stand mixers, aresearch study of its history, uses and performancehas been made, reading tests,Machines for both industrial and domestic use havebeen analyzed in order to understand how they areused and to find possible differences in machineconstructions and features.5.2.1 Market SegmentsKitchen mixers come in a variety of types fromdifferent manufacturers where price and performanceare varied. In general these variables are linkedtogether and the customer gets more, the more theypay. Stand mixers for domestic purposes areavailable from 2000 SEK up to 10 000 SEK, wherethe more expensive variants are often moresubstantial and powerful, and with more accessories.See a compilation of kitchen mixers in appendix XII.In general, kitchen mixers has not changedsignificantly since they came on the market. Sturdymaterials and solid design are still importantcharacteristics. However, many people buy kitchenmixers as an interior detail and therefore it is notunusual that the design is more important thanfunction for some customers.5.2.2 Electrolux’s Kitchen MixersElectrolux today offers kitchen mixers in two marketsegments, the assistent and the Grand Cuisine mixer.The Assistent Original from 1940, now manufacturedby Ankarsrum, is a spiral mixer in the price range ofFigure 26 Electrolux Ergorapido
  25. 25. 254000-6000 SEK, depending on the number ofincluded accessories. Today, the Assistent is apopular classic, with its solid construction, thepowerful motor and the largest bowl on the market.The Grand Cuisine is a planetary mixer that has notyet reached the market. It belongs in the upperpremium segment and will be sold in a packagetogether with other kitchen appliances.Electrolux also has a series of mixers for theprofessional kitchen where the largest is floor-mounted and can handle a big dough and are usedby restaurants and patisseries. (Elextrolux group,2012)5.2.3 Competitor AnalysisTo know the competing brand and their products,internet research and field observations in consumerelectronics stores were made. The result of themarket analysis showed the same models as themrepresented in the test in appendix XII.There is nothing similar to the N15 on the market forkitchen mixers. All of the competitors, except for theAssistent original and some Bosch machines, use theplanetary mixer system and all of them, except for aBosch machine is built on the same principle as theKitchenAid, launched in the 1930s.Test of the Electrolux Assistent OriginalExperimental testing of the Assistent Original is madeto get an understanding of how the largest of allconsumer kitchen mixers handle the dough and forinspiration and another point of view. A great feature ithas is a spatula attached to the inside the bowl,scraping down the dough toward the bottom. Thiscreates a good flow in the dough, folds it and keepsthe sides of the bowl clean.5.3 The UserUser studies consists of all sorts of observations thatbring understanding to how people think and howthey interact with the product. In this project the userstudy chapter covers everything from observations oninternet forums to video recorded tests. Theseobservations will reveal the user’s dreams, but alsotheir sources of irritation. The N15s design flaws andpossible solutions are identified with hands on testscarried out by the authors, with the help of the twopurchased N15’s.5.3.1 User SurveyThe user survey is conducted to ask about deepervalues, values that matter when choosing brand ontheir kitchen mixer. All participants in the survey ownsone and have experience using it. All the adjectivesdescribing the wants and needs of a stand mixerfound among the survey answers are collected andare presented in a wordle where the size representshow common the word was, see 29 and appendixIX.A recurring behavior was that almost everyone putaway their stand mixer when not in use and that theywould use it more often if they had been spared themoment of taking out and putting away the heavy,and bulky appliance. The participants also had manycreative ideas and feature requests for their kitchenmixers.5.3.2 Internet ObservationsListening to what users say when they are not awareof it will give greater understanding of user needs, butalso reveal design flaws. This information wasgathered from internet forums and facilitates todevelop a user-centered product. (Branston, 2009)Complaints and confusions;• The dough is climbing on the dough hook,KitchenAid.• Too small bowl, KitchenAid.• Hard to learn, the Assistent.• Weak motor, KitchenAid.• The dough is mostly tossed around in thebowl and is not getting kneaded, applies tomany models with the planetary mixersystem.• Difficult to pour in the bowl because of lackof space, KitchenAid.Figure 28 test of the Electrolux Assistent Original
  26. 26. 26Praises and wishes• Aesthetic & decorative• Pleasurable to cook & bake• Last for generations• Priceworthy5.3.3 HabitsIn our opinion, what distinguishes the user of thisconcept is that they want a practical and versatileproduct. They are not ready to compromise but wanta compact and neat unobtrusive product and astrong, sturdy and recognizable design icon at thesame time.The kitchen and the art of cooking is highlyassociated with daily luxury and has a significantimpact on how we experience quality of life.Without doubt, making quick and simple meals is asessential for todays users as the advanced and time-consuming cooking is. Quick meals are important forindividuals everyday life in order to cope with anactive lifestyle.Advanced cooking have never been more popular,especially with the growing interest in traditionalcooking like baking sourdough bread, makingsausage and pastries like macarons.5.3.4 ScenariosIn order to reach an understanding of customerrequirements, we believe it is important to understandthe situation, which is the origin and not only see thatthe requirement as they areScenarios can be used to design aproduct to fit the users lifestyle byfinding lifestyle values that aredeemed important. In this case,most stand mixers are designed the same andgenerally not suitable for a compact kitchen or anurban lifestyle.The target customer for this stand mixer concept istypically from the urban, y-generation with a compactkitchen. When the target segment is known, possibleuser scenarios can be predicted.Some possible scenarios5.4 The ProductThere are almost no information to find about the N15but luckily we came in contact with the Electroluxenthusiast Gerard Cina from Switzerland, with apassion for house hold appliances, who shared a lotof valuable knowledge about the product.5.4.1 N15 BrochureWe received N15 product brochures and user guidesfrom Gerard Cina. These documents gave us someinformation about the N15, how it was marketed andalso Electrolux own selling points. Most importantly,the brochure confirmed that it was beeing marketedas a very simple and space-friendly mixer that isalways at hand and is also able to process smallquantities.1. Grinding fair trade coffee beans for two2. Blending a raw food smoothie for twopersons3. Blending a protein shake with ice cubesfor one person to drink on the way to thegym.4. Shredding cabbage for a pizza sallad5. Kneading a pizza dough for six persons6. Grinding almond flour for macarons7. Whipping egg whites for macaronsScenarios n.A postulated sequeneceof possible events.Figure 29 Wordle based on the user survey
  27. 27. 275.4.2 N15 InterviewGerard Cina, gave us his personal opinions about theN15 and the market of kitchen mixers. This kind ofinformation, that is hard to find elsewhere, was veryuseful for the project.• The N15 was sold between 1981 and 1989.• The N15 was developed to meet the need forcompact kitchen appliances.• The N15 was still popular long after it wastaken out of production.• Customers prefer the classic design beforethe highly conceptual design lab design.• There is a trend for re-launching classicdesign appliances with strict design look. TheSwiss brand Turmix is an example.• He supposes people loved the N15 due tothe fact that ”it was easy to use, always athand, compact and ideal for smallquantities”.5.4.3 Hands On TestsIt’s crucial to make practical hands-on-tests and userobservations with the product. Two copies of theElectrolux N15 is purchased with all its originalaccessories and instructions before the analysisphase. See figure 31User testing are done with of all the features andaccessories of N15. The tests are filmed,documented and compiled in a hierarchical functionalanalysis.5.4.4 Construction AnalysisOne of the two purchased machines is opened tounderstand the construction of the machine. Seefigure 30Things that we noted about the construction is;• Although it’s a compact machine, there is stilla lot of space within the housing.• The motor is probably out of date and can bereplaced with a smaller motor with theequivalent effect or replaced with a strongerin the same size.• The circuit board is very large and most likelyout of outdated.• It’s possible to change the position of therelease button for the whisks and still use thesame mechanical solution.• The housing, where all the mechanics ismounted, is made out of die casted iron. Thefront casing is made out of durable acrylic.• All the mechanics seem to be of high qualitymaterials and is in perfect condition.Figure 30 Construction analysis of the N15
  28. 28. 28Figure 31 1: Prepared for baking. 2: Yeast mixed with water 3: Attaching the dough hook. 4: The mixer kneads the dough 5: Front view.6: Testing its limits. 7: Dough hook with a climb stop. 8: Kneading completed.
  29. 29. 295.4.5 S.W.O.T. AnalysisEvery strength, weakness, opportunity and threat thatis important in the development of this concept isadded into a S.W.O.T. chart, see figure Conclusions of the TestsBuilt in scaleA lot of recipies contains measurements ofingredients in weight instead of volume. This makesweighing ingredients an extra step in the bakingprocess that requires a scale and a bowl as additionalequipment.A way of cutting steps in the cooking process is toallow for weighing the ingredients in the bowl. Byadding the feature of a built in scale to the mixer theuser does not need that extra equipment and thebaking process gets more convenient and timeeffective.BowlFrom observations on internet forums it was foundthat many of the users prefer a larger bowl. Manybread makers were concerned with Kitchenaid’ssmall 4.8 liter bowl and preferred the Assistent’slarger 7 liter bowl.”If you want an aesthetically pleasing machine, you can invest in it. If youlike to bake properly then you should have something else.. KitchenAid’sbowl is too small, that’s what I think” - (Ekorrmamman, 2010)”I use the kitchenaid and almost always bake bread instead of buyingsourdough, plain dough, bun dough, cookie crumbs. Have never experiencedany problems with it. It’s possible that the bowl is too small.” (Brevett,2011)Figure 32 S.W.O.T analysis of the N15
  30. 30. 30Since this is a concept for an accessible kitchenmachine used daily for both big and small tasks itneeds to have a compact and neat design. Hence,it’s reasonable to have a bowl size that is smallenough to inspire people to use the machine, even forsmall quantitiesThe bowl is decided to hold asmuch dough liquids as possible butwithout being bulky. The maximumsize of the whole unit with bowlinclued must not exceed theexternal dimensions of the N15.Heat inductionIn the quest to minimize the numbers of steps in thecooking process, its a huge advantage to offer theability to heat the ingredients directly in the bowl. Theonly existing known technique for this is inductionsince this is the only technique that only heats thecooking vessel.5.4.7 HTAThe Hiearchical task analysis is make for the doughkneading process with the dough hook. Whenanalyzing the HTA, several tasks that makes thepreparations complicated and lengthy were found.Most time consuming are the steps that involvepreparing ingredients with the help of other kitchenappliances. Based on our tests, some of those are;• Measuring flour etc, measuring cups needsto be taken out, used and washed after use.• Measuring butter needs a scale that needs tobe taken out, reset and stored again• Melting butter needs a pot, and a stove tomelt it on, the pot then needs to be washedand stored.• Keeping track of the time needs a timerSee figure 34. The full size HTA chart can befound in Appendix XV.5.4.8 CW and PHEA TestFour test persons with no experience of this productconducts the usability test. The operations they haveto perform are;1. Prepare the machine for kneading dough2. Prepare the machine for blending3. Prepare the machine for whipping egg whites4. Prepare the machine for mincing meat5. Prepare the machine for shredding cabbageUsers want to learn by exploring, rather than byreading a manual. The Cognitive Walkthroughevaluates how well the products meet the usabilityexpectations, in other words, how easy the mixer is tolearn.When analyzing the test persons actions and errors itis extra important to see if mistakes are made byseveral persons and especially notice if the mistakesare repeated, even if they already realized that it waswrong since last time they performed the action.The Cognitive Walkthrough and PHEA charts with allgathered information can be found in appendix XVI.Dough Liquid n. The quantityof liquid in a bread recipet is acommon way of measuring thebowls capacity.Figure 33 Performing CW and PHEA with test personsFigure 34 HTA chart, mix dough
  31. 31. 315.4.9 Support FunctionsAfter having structured the HTA of the machine it’simportant to also identify the support functions asthey also contribute to a large part of the productsuser experience. The following list is our identifiedsupport functions.- Be mounted on the wall- Receive electricity- Set time or count down- Give feedback to user- Decorate the surrounding- Allow to be stored- Be easily cleaned- Save time for the user- Facilitate to make it cooking easier- Always be accessible- Protect the user- Inspire user- Withstand wear5.6 ConclusionIn the following section, the mission statement, thetarget user, and the design specification list, will bepresented along with a feature chart of the usersmost wanted qualities and functions.5.6.1 Mission statementA mission statement was created to concretize theproject assignment in one sentence"An innovative, user friendly and time saving kitchenappliance that inspires people with an urban lifestyleand a compact living to a true cooking experience."5.6.2 Target UserThe typical user is a small urban household from they-generation. They are busy, constantly connected,have many interests and are in to in quick, healthymeals on the go - as well as the latest gourmettrends. The target user often lives in apartments andwish they had more storage but most of all they wantto be instantly inspired and have their utilities ready attheir fingertips at all times. They are very sensitive todesign trends, particularly in the kitchen.5.6.3 N15 Feature ChartAll information from hands on tests and userobservations are compiled in a chart of the mostwanted and needed features, from rational to abstractand from new to exsisting, see figure 36Figure 35 Y-generation
  32. 32. 32Figure 36 Feature Chart
  33. 33. 336 Design SpecificationAs the focus in this project is solely to develop a concept, a design specification for features andcharacteristics is used instead of a technical list of requirements. The needs and demands inthis design specification have mainly come from market analysis, functional analysis, selfobservations, user tests, interviews and the survey. This specification is formulated from a userperspective, incuding user experience and usability.1. Technical AspectsThe same mechanical principle as the N15 with thesame power outlets androtation systemA more powerful motor than the N15 (300W) tohandle the tasks with ease2. FunctionalityAllow handling of the same tasks as the N15; Beating,mixing, kneading, grinding meat, blending, cuttingvegetables, stuffing sausage, strain fruitAllow grinding of coffee beansAllow heating of ingredients such as butter and yeastfor a more efficient and precise cooking and bakingAllow weighing of ingredients for a more efficient andprecise cooking and bakingAllow timer setting of the machines running timeVolume gradation in bowl and blenderAllow mounting of a spatula against the inside thebowl3. Design Demands (dimensions etc.)The dept of the machine should not exceed the deptof the N15, 13,5cmAllow mounting to wallAllow easy cleaning of the machine and itsattachmentsLubricating agents must not come into contact withfood4. ExpressionBe perceived as robust and powerfulPerceived as consistently amazing and always athandExpress honestyExpress durability; Last a lifetimeFit into the Electrolux product range5. MaterialAllow machine washing of the accessoriesEasy to clean6. MarketDesigned for the western market and particularlyScandinavia as the food habits differ among regionsand cultures.7. CustomizationAllow personal customization by offering the productin a selection of colorsOffer various attachments to personalize areas of useaccording to need8. InteractionImmobilizes when the arms are not in workingpositionBe intuitive and easy to handleAutomatic shut-off if overloaded not to damage motorand componentsAllow easy adding of ingredients in bowl while running
  34. 34. 347. ConceptDevelopmentWhen all analyzes are completed and the user’s need and wants are fully understood it is timeto concretize this knowledge down to solid concepts solutions. The unit as well as everyattachment is going through a thorough idea generation process to make a concept that perfectlyfits the user and is amazing in every aspect.7.1 Idea GenerationAll the creative methods in an iterative process arevery valuable in this extensive developing process,considering all the human factors, user perceptions,technical aspects and how many parts it is applied to.7.1.1 MoodboardsIn addition to all the self-composed moodboards,Electrolux own moodboards, used for understandingboth emotional and rational versions of people,products and places are used, see figure WordleEach one of the words used in the wordle representimportant qualities that are asked for by the users.The words were collected from the user survey andthe size represents how common the word wasStylish is not surprisingly the most important anddemanded quality of them all. Furthermore, it isconcluded from the wordle that it’s supposed to beclose at hands, every day, for many years to comeand always be powerful and yet simple, see figure 38.Figure 38 Wordle7.1.3 BrainstormingThroughout the data collecting and analysis stagemany problems and flaws related to the N15 or theproduct segment itself are revealed.Whenever a problem is identified, a variety ofsolutions immediately emerges. Many solutions tofundamental problems were found and documentedalready in the early stages. These are brought backfor iteration with the help of the brainstormingmethod.Figure 37 Electrolux moodboard
  35. 35. 357.1.4 ExtremesDifferent extremes are taken into considerationthroughout the whole process. When designing, thedesigner asks questions like; would this work well fora person with one hand, big hands or impairedvision? Other questions are ; would this work for afirst time user? and would this work for a person whois not used to new technology? By asking thosequestions, when visualstorming, sketching andmodeling, the design will be more user centered andmany more people than the "extremes" will bebenefited. (Objectified, 2009)7.1.5 VisualstormingWith the help of visual inputs from moodboards andpinterest the first ideas of form and function arediscussed, sketched and defined.Figure 39 Being creative at the SKAPA office7.1.6 Exploratory SketchingSketching is in this concept development the fastestway to communicate ideas and a great tool to buildon each others ideas to explore all the possibilities inthe concept. Sketching is also used after the maindesign is determined since there are still detailed workbefore the concept is complete. Explorative sketchingon top of the main design is used to test varioussolutions until every detail is perfect.Figure 40 Exploratory sketching of a mixer and its attachments7.1.7 Clay ModelingClay is used for evaluating the design and form ideasin three dimensions. They are modeled in 1/4 scaleand are primarily used for adding and adjusting detailsand are thereafter used for re-evaluation.Figure 41 Clay models in the early design phase
  36. 36. 367.1.8 Conclusion of ConceptdevelopmentThe most important thing that emerged during thedevelopment process was that if this productshould be an invaluable tool in the kitchen for theidentified target group must make it moreconvenient by removing any demanding or tediousstep in the kitchen. In addition, it must be adaptedto the lifestyle of the target users.These are some of the of the ideas for the conceptsthat were developed in the concept phase.» The machine has be able to be moved andstored easily; many designs of the head unitgot a sleek designs to be compact instead ofbulky. When mounting and unmounting themachine, it had to be fast and done withoutany tools. It was also decided that the machineshould be hung on the brackets on the wall.» To save space in the compact living kitchen,making the products usable for more than onefunction was key. There will just be one bowl,with a spatula, the bowl will work with smallerbatches as well. The pitcher will be designed todouble as a glass jar and be stylish enough toput on a table and serve drinks from.» Since many other appliances are used whileusing a kitchen mixer it was decided to build insome of the most frequently used functions tocut the need for other kitchen appliances. Thissaves time, dishes, and space in the cabinets.Timer, heat induction and scale will be build infeatures in the new kitchen mixer concept.» The space inside the machine had to beutilized. The empty space behind the rotaryswitch allows storage for the cable and plug. Acord winder makes it extra functional. It will beplaced in the right rear corner.» Three distinct concepts for the head units formand expression were created; the organic, thedesign lab, and the minimalist, see appendixXIX. The miminalist was the most suitable andwas chosen to be further development andconcretized.Figure 42 A collection of explorative and explanatory sketches created during the creative phase
  37. 37. 378.FurtherDevelopmentFurther development means detailing and fine tuning of the concept and includes interfacedesign and other technical solutions. Digital built-in scale and timer are new features thatminimizes the time for preparing and dish washing and adds extra value for the customer.8.1 Head Unit8.1.1 Design & FormThe shaping of the head unit is important whendesigning to fulfill the users expectations of usability. Itwas a big challenge since there are many aspects totake into account. Many features and functionsshould work together in harmony packed in theScandinavian heritage of the Electrolux designlanguage. Since all the part solutions and built infeatures was determined it was just down to nail thefinal design of the head unit. There were differentconcept designs developed throughout the process.Figure 43 Concept DesignsBy evaluating our concept designs and develop themduring an iterative sketching process, we could finallydecide in which direction in design that was the mostsuitable to reflect the Electrolux brand identity, meetthe user expectations and carry on the legacy of theN15.Figure 44 The chosen design for the head unitThe design chosen has aminimalistlistic appearance witha low scare factor.8.1.2 MechanicsThe mechanical principle of the drive will be the sameas for the N15, see figure 29. The electric motor isthought to be reduced in size while the effect isincreased due to the assumed development andmodernization of electrical motors.Low scare factor n. Theconcepts visual expression is easyto grasp, and does not followtemporary trends.
  38. 38. 38The power comes from an electric motor with twoshafts and is the large rectangle in figure 42. Theupper shaft operates the drive sockets in the upperarm through a worm gear. The wormgear drives a system of four gears.Thefirst gear drives the bevel gear thattransfers momentum and makes thebowl rotates. The second gear drives thesocket for the dough hook and the mincer. The thirdand fourth gear drives the whisks and beaters. Seefigure 42.Figure 45 The drivetrain, the colored areas are drive socketsThe lower shaft operates the drive socket in the lowerarm through a drive belt connected between the shaftand the drive socket.The bevel gear that transfers momentum and makesthe bowl rotate will be in the samepolymer to prevent noise and wearwhich would occur between two metalsurfaces if it was made of metal.8.1.3 Upper ArmButtonsAccording to our tests and studies, the biggestusability problem for the N15, is by far the placementof the release button for the upper arm. No matterhow long experience the user has with the product,the release button for the whisks are mistaken forreleasing the upper arm. Everything indicates that thebutton on the arm should instead interact with thearm.Furthermore the placement require both hands topress the release button and lift the arm. The buttonwill therefore be repositioned to the front and at theend of the upper arm, at the same place as therelease button for the mixer hooks and the beatersused to be.The button to release the mixer hooks or the beatersis relocated to the left side of the arm in level with thesocket its operating.PositionsWhen pressing the button to fold the arm up theresno need to press the lift button to pass the horizontalposition since there are no horizontal position on theway up. After the selected tool has been attached thearm will stop in its horizontal working position on theway down.SocketDesign should prevent user errors. When mountingattachments on the front socket, it’s easy to do itwrong since the socket is symmetrically shaped. Thismeans the attachment can be pushed in and turnedinto place at three different angles. Incorrect fitting isavoided by adjusting the Y-shaped socket so that it isnot symmetrical. This way the user instantly knows inwhich way the attachment should be mounted sincethere are only one way to do it.Figure 46 The old front socket the new asymmetric "Y"-socket.8.1.4 Lower ArmButtonThe button will be more visible compared to theexisting machines by moving it towards the userinstead of towards the back of the machine. It willhave a contrasting color to the machine body whichmakes it easy to notice.PositionsThe fixed positions are currently not intuitive. The armhas three positions, of which two are fixed, inextended and in half extended positions.Problems:Since the arm is fixed in the half extended position,it’s hard for the user to tell that there is a third positionwhere the arm is fully extended. In addition to this,there is no apparent reason for the fully extendedposition to be offered as an alternative since it givesno advantage over the half extended position.Solution:There will be two positions, one closed and not fixedand one 65° extended, fixed position.Bevel Gear n. Conicalshaped gear for angledtransmissionWorm Gear n. Long gearin shape of a screw forangled transmission
  39. 39. 398.1.5 Buttons And Rotary SwitchesWhen designing the buttons and rotary switches,emphasis is put on making them easy to distinguish.All buttons, except the rotary switch and the modebutton on the front, will have another surface textureand color than the surrounding surfaces. This tomake them more visible and tactile for a better userexperience.Furthermore, the rotary switch (1) and the modebutton (2) on the front have the same surface andcolor as the machine body but is raised from thesurface with a blended edge to enhance theirappearance as main buttons and also for a tactiledesign.To turn on the machine the rotary switch (1) is pushedso it pops out, about 2 cm from the body. This makesthe rotary switch grippable.The rotary switch will have a ring around it that is lit upwhen the machine is turned on. The light is whitewhen the machine is switched on. The color of thelight depends on the mode chosen.The rotay switch will be heavy but easy to turn thanksto bearings in the switch for easy and smooth control.The switch will have fixed positions to providefeedback.8.1.6 Built in scaleWith the help of a built-in scale in the socket on thelower arm, the user can measure the ingredientsdirectly in the bowl or the blender jar. Load cells aremounted between the chassi and the drive socketunit in the lower arm to measure the weight change.The user can thereby measure ingredients directly asit goes into the bowl and at anytime reset the scalefor a new measurement.8.1.7 InductionThe possibility to heat the bowl with induction, opensnew possibilities to be effective and creative in thekitchen. A copper coil is wound around the base ofthe drive socket in the lower arm.The induced current from themagnetic field rapidly heats thebowl to the desired temperaturewhich is regulated by a thermostat throughtemperature sensors. See figure 47.Figure 47. Intersection of the lower arms drive socket8.1.8 TimerThe timer starts to count up whenever the mixer isstarted. It instantly helps the user to keep track of thetime elapsed.It the user want to set the mixer for a specific time,the timer counts down from the set time and stopsthe machine when time has passed.8.1.9 EffectSince a strong motor is one of the most importantrequirements for the users, even if this is a smallerstand mixer, the 300 W motor is upgraded to a morepowerful motor.8.1.10 Cord WinderThe empty space in the lower right corner of the unitperfectly fits a cord winder. The plug is situated onthe back corner to be reachable when the machine ismounted but is still somewhat hidden. The cableretracts when the button next to it is pushed, just asthe cord function in most vacuum cleaners.8.2 AttachmentsThis concept is compatible with all the attachmentsand optional extras that were available for the N15but weve chosen to only develop and visualize thestandard attachments, the blender jug and our newattachment, the coffee grinder.8.2.1 Hooks & BeatersMixing hooksThe mixing hooks are increased in size and also getsa whole new look. The silhouette is more refined andthey are strengthened with extra material that isshaped as the Electrolux logo, see figure 48.Thermostat n. Regulates thepower to maintain correcttemperature.
  40. 40. 40Figure 48 Function model of the mixing hooksDough hookThe dough hook has a new spiral shape to knead thedough even better. It is made of stainless steel with aplastic cap to prevent dough, if climbing, fromentering the drive socket.BeatersThe beaters gets a more slimmed and elegantsilhouette, they will also be longer due to the largerbowl. The whisk will have flat loops instead of thinround wires.Stick Free CoatingAttachments such as the hook, whisks and beatersare coated with a non stick surface with the help ofnano material. The coating will avoid the doughclimbing up the attachments. The nano material isantibacterial and will also be added to the cord as itprevents the spread of germs.8.2.2 BowlThe bowl is decided to have the same function anddrive as before but will be more versatile.Bowl SizeThe volume of the existing bowl is 4 liters. By cuttingthe depth of the unit and thickness of the upper andlower arm the bowl size can be increased to 5 liters.The concept is extremeley compact and still holdsmore dough than the KitchenAid.InductionThe bowl will be made in stainless steel with a core ofaluminum in the bottom and a bit further up on thesides. The aluminum is a good heat conducter that isused to spread the heat evenly in the material. Thebowl will be heated in the bottom and normaltempered on the upper half.Rubber coated footThe foot will have a rubber coating for a tight fitting onthe rotating plate.8.2.3 BlenderA one liter blender jug is designed to double as aglass pitcher, sleek enough to be put on the table. Ithas a round base that transforms into a triangular top9.2.4 Coffee GrinderThe coffee grinder can grind both coffee beans andflour. Its attached on the front drive socket, as themincer. The grind level is adjusted by turning the frontwheel.The funnel is transparent to let the user keep track ofthe beans as it grinds. It has legs to allow the user toremove and store the grinder upright.8.3 Interface DesignThe mixer startup and its functions are controlled withthe interface on the front consisting of two buttonsand a backlit display; (1), (2) & (3).(1) - Power switch and speed control, (2) - Modeselector invisible display, (3) - It Shows informationabout mixer time, countdown timer, scale andinduction heater. A transparent surface on the bodymakes the display invisible when its not lighted.Figure 49 Great results when testing a spatula for N15
  41. 41. 41Figure 49 On/Off & Wheel, 2: Mode button, 3: "Invisible" displayTurn On The MixerTo turn the mixer on, button (1) is pushed.The ring lights up and the button pops out and turnsinto a turning wheelUse the MixerThe speed of the machine is set continuously byturning the wheel clockwise. The full speed mode isavailable if the wheel is turned counterclockwise andheld in its position. It then reaches the maximumspeed immediately and stops when the knob isreleased.The machine is equipped with a safety feature that willnot allow starting as long as the upper arm is not fullyrecessed or or in its extended, horizontal position.When the mixer is started a timer automaticallyactivates in the display showing actual mixing time.Use the ScaleThe scale mode is selected by pushing button onetime (2). The scale is tared by default and can bereset at any time by pushing and holding button (2)for two seconds. The weight is shown in the displayregardless of which mode the mode button is in.Use the TimerThe timer automatically starts to count the runningtime when any of the functions are started. The timeris always displayed regardless of which mode themode button is in.1. To set the timer, push the mode button (2)two times to select time mode. The displaywill show 00:00.2. Turn the rotary switch (1) until the displayshows the right time. When the rotary switchis turned slowly it’s changed by one secondat a time. When it’s is turned fast, the time ischanged by one minute at a time.3. Press two times on the mode button to starttimer.Use the Induction Heater1. The induction heating is selected by pushingthe mode button (2) three times.2. The temperature is shown on the display andis selected by turning the rotary switch (1)until desired temperature is shown.3. When the wheel is turned fast, thetemperature is changed by ten degrees at atime and when turned slowly it’s changed byone degree at a time.4. To confirm the selected temperature and turnon the heater hold the mode button (2) fortwo seconds.The display for the induction changes to red tovisualize that the heater is on and to make the useraware of that the bowl is warm.The current temperature is shown on the displayregardless of which mode the machine is in.8.3 MountingIt’s incredibly important that the solution for the wallmounting surpasses anything previously known, sinceit’s so such a central aspect of this concept.The current N15 has a large mounting plate that is thesame size as the machine and screwed to the wall oron brackets. The unsightly plate is still fixed on thewall and fully visible when the machine is lifted off thewall.The four aims for the idea generation for the wallmounting were;1. Be as discreet and neat as possible2. Be stylish3. Should leave as few defects on the kitcheninterior as possible in case the mounting isremoved4. If the machine is temporarily removed, themounting device should offer the possibility to beused for another purpose.Two main ideas that emerges during thebrainstorming processes were flat knobs and knifemagnets. The vibration absorber that is currently onthe mounting plate will either way be moved to themachine’s back.The idea to merge the idea of an ultra slim, mountingknob and a round, magnetic plate as mounting devicecame at the second brainstorming session.
  42. 42. 42To fix the machine on the the wall, the user simplyslide the machine over the knob. The machine has aroughing on the back that is half open and halfshaped by the knob. The vibration absorbing rubberstrips will be inside the cut out and between the walland the knob.The knob is flat and 100 mm in diameter at a distanceof 15 mm from the wall.8.4 MaterialsThe main body is die castedaluminum to be sturdy and durable enough to holdthe motor and gears. The covering fronts are made inacrylic. This concept has high strength polymer gearsand driving parts to maintaining the same high qualityas before and offer users the features they request;solid, sturdy, durable, robust and strong, as can befound in wordle figure 38 .8.5 Prototyping8.5.1 CADThe chosen concepts are modeled using UGS NX 8.Realizing concepts in this environment is a good wayto fine tune and concretize ideas.8.5.2 RenderingRendering the CAD-model is by far the greatest toolfor evaluating at this later part of the developingprocess, mainly because it’s a fast way of getting avery realistic three dimensionalpreview, in generally anymaterial and color thinkable.8.5.3 3D-PrintingWhen the design is evaluated and approved the CAD-files can be used for printing the parts in a 3D-printer.The printer used is a 3DTouchTMtriple head.Before the files can be imported into the 3D-printer,the parts have to be prepared by dividing them intoprinter friendly sections.Figure 50 3D-printing the lower arm socketUGS NX 8. Software for computeraided design (CAD). NX can build3D models with solid and surfacemodelling.Keyshot 3. Software for real timerendering photo realistic images of3D-models made in a CADsoftware.
  43. 43. 439 The ResultIn this chapter the final results of the product concept named spacemixer is presented. Theconcept and it’s features are visualized and the functions are explained with a step-by-stepguide. The thoughts behind the spacemixer’s design and form details are also given. Finally,the result is evaluated.9.1 The ProductThe kitchen mixer spacemixer is a concept based on the principles of the Electrolux N15. It has been developedto meet the needs and requirements of compact living users in the segment of generation Y.Figure 51 The final concept; spacemixer
  44. 44. 44Figure 52 All angles of spacemixerFigure 53 The product in use, viewed from below.
  45. 45. 459.2 UsageSome of the most important features of thespacemixer are explained and in figure 54 and 55.Figure 54 The features on the front explainedFigure 55 The features on the back explained
  46. 46. 46Figure 56 Handling the spacemixer, Step 1 - 51.Lift the machine and slide it onto the wall mountedplate. Vibration absorbers inside the slot makes surethe machine is firmly secured.2. Pull out the plug from the cord storage and plug itin the power outlet.3. Fold out the lower arm by pulling it toward you.4. Fold up upper arm by pressing the button on thearm and lifting it up.5. Attach any attachments of your choice in theupper arm, in this case the whisks.
  47. 47. 48Figure 57 Handling the spacemixer, Step 6 - 96. Attach any attachment of your choice on the lowerarm, in this case the bowl.7. Press and pop out the rotary switch to turn on themachine.8. Lower the arm, until it locks in place.9. Turn the rotary switch to start the machine andadjust the speed. Switch between the modes; scale,induction heater and timer with the mode button
  48. 48. 499.3 Functions9.3.1 Knead, Whip & StirFigure 58 The spiral and spatula are ready for kneading dough.Just like on professional spiral mixers that are madeprimarily for kneading dough, the spacemixerconcept has a spiral and a spatula. The spiralattachment for mixing the ingredients and thespatula for folding the dough and preventing thedough from sticking to the sides. This combination ofattachments makes the spacemixer very efficient forkneading dough.The smartmixer works the same way when mixing acookie batter or whipping eggs but instead of thespiral, the mixing hooks or whisks are used to mixand whip the batter.Figure 59 Whisks for whippingFigure 60 Hooks for mixing batterFigure 61 The spriral and spatula attached to the machine
  49. 49. 509.3.2 BlenderThe compact, 1 liter glassblender is intended to beused as both a blender and a jug. The triangular jugis made out of solid resistant glass and the lid ismade out of soft plastic with an extra smaller lid onfor adding ingredients while blending. The knives areremovable which makes it easier to clean. When theknives are removed it’s a safe and stylish jug. Theblender is used by attaching it to the high speeddrive socket on the lower arm. It’s fastened with aquarter turn clockwise.Figure 62 Top of the blender and lid.Figure 63 The blender on the machine9.3.3 Coffe GrinderThe new attachment is mounted on the front in thesame way as the mincer and snaps with a quarterturn counterclockwise. It is sturdy, in polished metaland has three support legs to stand upright whennot in use.Figure 64 The grinder standing on a tableFigure 65 The grinder mounted on the front socket9.3.4 Built in featuresThe new time-saving and precision-enhancingfeatures will make the work in the kitchen moreefficient and more fun with new opportunities tocreate culinary delicacies. The backlit display givesthe user feedback on features that, in a simple way,allows high precision in the kitchen. See figure 579.3.5 Cord Winder, ’Cable Cave’With the touch of a button the cord goes into themachine as on a vacuum cleaner which makes iteasy to store without a loose cable lying around. It isalso possible to keep it neat on the counter sinceonly the cord length needed has to be pulled out.See figure 559.3.6 Mounting PlateThe mounting plate has multiple uses and can serveas a magnetic knife rack if the machine is notmounted. It has a rubber absorber which eliminatethe risk that any vibrations is transplanted into thewall.
  50. 50. 51Figure 66 Exploded view of the mounting plate.Figure 67 The mounting plate as a knife magnet9.4 DesignThe design is inspired from the characteristic formelements often found in Electrolux products. Thebody has a matte surface, either black or white, thatadds a solid feel to the machine. The brushed metalflow line continues in a never-ending loop all aroundthe body that catches the eye and gives the soberlook a sense of motion. In contrast there are colorglimpses, around the front button and in the cablecave at the back. When the two arms unfolds morecolor are added since the insides of the both armshas the same colored surfaces of smooth and silkymetal. The characteristic Electrolux flow line isembedding the release button on the front of theupper arm. The round ventilation holes on the sideand under the lower arm forms a pattern that is atypical design feature found on Electrolux productsElectrolux Flow LineThe characteristic flow line seen on many Electroluxproducts is found on the smacemixer as well.Figure 68 Contrasts are found between materials.Figure 69 A never ending flow line around the machine body.
  51. 51. 52Figure 70 Holes underneath the lower arm to ventilate hot air.Material’s SurfaceThe machine housing is divided into two parts, thefront cover and the back cover. The back is madeout of die casted steel, it has to be sturdy andresistant since the motor and other components areattached to it and. The front cover is made out ofdurable plastic. The front and back cover are madeout of different materials but will both have the samematte and silky finish.High ContrastsThere are a lot of contrast when surfaces meet, inboth materials and colors. The shiny aluminum flowline that sweeps around the main body, is in largecontrast to the soft and smooth housing in metal andplastic. The machine’s inner metal sufaces comes invarious bursting colors that makes the spacemixerfeel vibrant and alive when opened, yet tidy andunobtrusive when closed. See figure 72HolesThe SpaceMixer has patterns of holes to ventilatethe hot air from the motor and from the drive belt inthe lower arm. The drive belt can be seen in figure70 and 71. The holes forms a pattern, a designfeature that can be found on many vacuum cleanersfrom electrolux.Figure 71 Holes to ventilate the hot air from the motor. The holes makes apattern on the spacemixers left side..Figure 72 Color collection
  52. 52. 53Figure 73 Electrolux logo on the front left side. Note the tag with the spacemixer logo on the left side.Raised buttonsAs we see it, a small buttypical Electrolux designelement is a round button thatis somewhat raised from thesurface, with an edge blend.This is a typical place for ameeting of two contrastingmaterials, like a button inrubber and a ring in metal orled light.9.5 EvaluationThis is a short recap of the development processand and an evaluation of the final product concept tosee how it meets the demands and needs that wereset up in the beginning.9.5.1 PrototypeA 3D printed full scale prototype was made forevaluating the actual size and form. If only using CADand computer rendered pictures of the product, itcan be hard to make an accurate estimation of howthe size and form are perceived. Since the objectivewas to get a slimmer shape of the main unit, wewere pleased when we saw the size of the 3Dprinted model because it felt neat and compact.Neat and compact were also two of the designrequirements set out in the beginning of the work.¨9.5.2 CW & Error AnalysisWhen using the cognitive walkthrough and erroranalysis with the test persons, it was possible toidentify errors in the original design of the product,including errors in; placement of buttons, deadlocks,feedback from the arms positions and settings.The space mixer concept is tested against the mostcommon handling errors found in the tests.Figure 75 The 3D-printed model made it easy to evaluate the size.Positioning of ButtonsOpening the upper arm is the hardest task to bothunderstand and to learn. All test personsexperienced problem with this task. After using themachine for many times, it’s still hard to open thearm using the right release button. The main reasonFigure 74 Raised buttons
  53. 53. 54is that the release button is illogical located on theright side, far away from where you are to lift thearm. The users instead use the button placed on thearm, where it feels natural to push and lift the arm atthe same time.For the lower arm, the release button will be movedcloser to the front.Figure 76 The position of the button on N15Figure 77 The upper arms release button on the smartmixerDeadlocksThe N15’s lower arm have two deadlock positions.First, when in use (¾ open) and fully extended. Therelease button has to be pressed to move the armfrom one position to another, this causes a lot ofconfusion.When the test persons found the release button andpressed it until it was fully extended, they missed themiddle position.For the smartmixer, the fully extended position isremoved, since it’s never a need for it. There will onlybe one fixed arm position; ¾ open. To open the arm,it’s just pulled out and to close it, the release buttonis pressed and pushed in.The N15’s deadlocks for the upper arm alsoconfused the test persons. When opening the upperarm, the arm will be locked in position when itreaches a horizontal position. The test persons nevergot any feedback that it was possible to raise thearm higher. This has to be done in order to place thebowl on the lower arm.The new smartmixer concept will have the releasebutton on the front of the upper arm which has to bepressed to lift the arm. On the way up, the arm willbe raised the whole way without any deadlockpositions. When the arm is lowered, it will be lockedin the horizontal position. By pressing the releasebutton, the arm can then be folded down completelyAsymetric SocketThe front drive socket for the N15 is symmetric.Most test persons positioned the grinder wrong andturned it the wrong way when locking it.By making the socket asymetric on the smartmixer,there is only one way to fit the grinder.Figure 78 The old front socket the new asymmetric "Y"-socket.
  54. 54. 5510. DiscussionIn this section we discuss the project’s process, project outcome and results, there after we alsogive recommendations for this project if it would be developed further and also list some of themost relevant ideas for a potential further development.10.1 ProcessThe idea and initiation for this project is entirely ourown which has definitely motivated and inspiring usthroughout this project.During a few weeks before the project start up wetried to establish contact with Electrolux but withoutsuccess. This project was carried out with no supportfunction from the company Electrolux, neither in termsof supervision, feedback or help with informationabout or the N15 product or company philosophies.Despite this, the project has run fairly smooth.We, the authors, have worked very closely togetherthrough the whole process and it was mostly whenwriting the report and working with the CAD-files thatsome tasks were divided between us.We faced some tasked that proved to be extra timeconsuming, the first was to accept a final design andsecondly a lot of trouble shooting with the 3D-printer.Pretty early, it was decided to make an extensive usercentered analysis and to focus on usability. We arevery happy about this decision because it gave moredimensions to this project and we also feel that welearned many new things from it.Figure 79 Formulating the design process in a project map
  55. 55. 5610.2 Further DevelopmentIn this section we have listed areas and specificpoints that need some further development to makethis concept realizable.» Define Materials» Calculate motor to get enough effect anddefine motor model» Soundtest the unit with the new motor» Define absorbent design and materials» Testing and evaluation of the whisks anddough hook to get best performance» Usability testing on this concept» Test if users are comfortable handling themachine with only one rotary switch and onemode button.» Test if users recognize the symbols10.3 RecommendationsAll ideas that are not covered in this report due totime limitations or that they are outside the frameworkare given a short presentation along with otherrecommendations in this section.» Develop a table stand that can be used as analternative to wall mounting. We recommenda L-shaped stand made out of a single pieceof material, preferrbly aluminum that haveenough rigidity to stand steady on thecounter top.» We recommend a moror effect on more than400 W but less than 800 W.» Mounting the stand mixer with brackets,screwed underneath the wall cabinet whichleaves the wall free from holes, which can bevaluable if the wall is tiled.» A special storage solution for all attachmentsthat makes it easy to store and easy toaccess. The storage can be in the bowl tosave space or in a drawer.» A wider range of accessories, e.g.a pastarolls or ice cream bowl can be developed andsold as extra accessories.» In addition to the blender, a single servemodel would be perfect for users making amorning smoothie or protein shake to go.