Thailand Architecture

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Thailand Architecture

  1. 1. THAILANDPresented by:Marla Shiela Joy C. MendozaCrizaldo Guevarra
  2. 2. Geographical Settingo Total Land Boundary: 4,863 kmBorderso North- Laos and Myanmaro East- Laos and Cambodiao South- Gulf of Thailand ando Malaysiao West- the Andaman Sea ando MyanmarMaritime boundarieso Southeast- Vietnam in theo Gulf of Thailando Southwest- Indonesia ando India in the Andaman Sea
  3. 3. o Bangkok - capital o also called Krung Thep, meaning “city of angels” o Krung Thep was adapted from it‟s original name. (listed inguinness world book of records as the longest name of a place):o Krungthep Mahanakhon Bovorn Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilokpop Noparatratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniveymahasathan Amornpiman Avatansathit Sakkathattiya- avisnukarmprasit.
  4. 4. Historical Backgroundo Thailand - Prathet Thai, meaning “land of the free”o previously known as syam, or "dark brown" people. It was believed that Siam derived from the Hindi word shyam, or brown race, with a contemptuous signification.o Also spelled Siem, Syâm or Syâma, it has been identified with the Sanskrit Śyâma ( , meaning "dark" or "brown")o During the reign of Rama III (1824–1851,) a Scottish trader had experimental coins struck in England at the kings behest, Though not adopted for use, the name of the country put on these first coins was Muang Thai, not Siam.
  5. 5. Climateo Tropical – with temperatures ranging from 28-35°Co The area of Thailand north of Bangkok has a climate determined by three seasons whilst the southern peninsular region of Thailand has only two.
  6. 6. National Symbolso National Flower: “Ratchaphruek“ (or golden shower) The color of flowers is shining yellow contrasting great importance similarly to the color of their national religion „Buddhism and the color of Monday when His Majesty King of Thailand was born.o National Animal: “Chang Thai” (or Thai elephant) According to ancient royal Thai traditions, a white elephant is a noble beast of special importance, exemplifying a kings honor and glory.o National Architecture: “Sala Thai” (or Thai- style arbor) Sala Thai reflects knowledge of Thai people. It retains beauty, which is different from architectures of other countries, and foreigners can acknowledge „Thai-ness„ through Sala Thai.
  7. 7. Religion o 94% - Hinayana Buddhism or Theravada Buddhism o 3.9% are Muslims, o 1.7% are Confucianim and o 0.65% are Christians. o Hindus and the Sikhs o Buddhism, however, is the national religion of Thailand.
  8. 8. Theravada Buddhismo Theravada Buddhism reached Thailand around the 6th century AD.o Buddhism has also shaped much of Thailands culture. The early Thai architecture, literature, sculpture all reveal Buddhist influence. It had been a Thai tradition that Buddhist males above 20 yrs of age must practice at least 3 months of monk hood after which they could retreat to their normal lives. The Buddhist monks are treated with utmost respect throughout the country. The monks drape themselves with saffron colored robes. Golden stupas and steeply sloping roofs characterize The Buddhist temples. They also serve as the hub of important social activities. Most of them are situated in the countryside.
  9. 9. Muslimso The Muslims in Thailand are mostly Sunnis. The country allows its minority to practice the religion of their choice. The king attends the important Muslim religious festivals and those in the service of the government are allowed leaves on special religious events. There are about 2000 mosques and 200 Muslim schools in Thailand.
  10. 10. Confucianismo It is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system based on the teachings of Confucius who was a Chinese sage. This is practiced by a minority of the Thai people.
  11. 11. Christianso This religion was introduced in Thailand during the 16th and 17th centuries and has played an important part in the countrys progress. It was the Christians who introduced surgery, smallpox vaccinations and also trained the doctors in western medicine.o 5 major Christian denominations:o The Roman Catholic Church,o The Southern Baptists,o The Seventh Day Adventists,o The Church of Christ in Thailand ando the EvangelicalFellowship of Thailand
  12. 12. Hinduismo Hindu deities are worshipped by manyThais alongside Buddhism, such as thefamous Erawan shrine, and statues of Ganesh, Indra, and Shiva, as well as numerous symbols relating to Hindu deities are found, e.g., Garuda, a symbol of the monarchy.o The Hindus have their own religious shrines and also operate separate schools where they teach Sanskrit to the students.
  13. 13. Sikhismo Ladha Singh-first Sikh to migrate to Thailand (1890)o Sikhs began migrating to the Kingdom of Thailand in the early 1900s. By the year 1911, many Sikh families had settled in Thailand.o The Sikhs in Thailand perform many charitable functions such providing free school for the poor children and also aiding the aged.
  14. 14. Historical Periodso Ancient Civilization (Mon-Khmer and Malay - 9th to 13th Century)o Sukhothai (Mid 13th to 15th Centuries)o Ayutthaya (Mid 14th to late 18th Centuries)o Lanna (Mid 13th to 19th Centuries)o Rattanakosin (Late 18th Century to present)
  15. 15. Ancient Civilization (Mon-Khmerand Malay - 9th to 13th Century)o Prior to the arrival of the Tai people and culture into what is now Thailand, the region hosted a number of indigenous Mon-Khmer and Malay civilizations. Yet little is known about Thailand before the 13th century as the literary and concrete sources are scarce and most of the knowledge about this period is gleaned from archeological evidence.o The Chao Phraya valley in what is now Central Thailand had once been the home of Mon Dvaravati culture, which prevailed from the 7th century to the 10th century. The existence of the civilizations had long been forgotten by the Thai when Samuel Beal discovered the polity among the Chinese writings on Southeast Asia as “Tou-lo-po-ti”. During the early 20th century the archeologists led by George Coedès made grand excavations on what is now Nakorn Pathom and found it to be a center of Dvaravati culture. The constructed name Dvaravati was confirmed by a Sanskrit plate inscription containing the name “Dvaravati”.
  16. 16. Nanchao Period (650–1250)o Nanchao Period (650–1250): Located on the southwestern border of China‟s Tang empire (A.D. 618–907), Nanchao served as a buffer for and later rival to China. The Tai, a people who originally lived in Nanchao, migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries during the first millennium A.D.
  17. 17. Sukhothai Period (1238–1438)o Founded in 1238 by two Thai governors, Khun Bang Klang Tha(Si Inthrathit) and Khun Pha Muang who rebelled against the Khmers; and gave independence to the region.Golden Age of Thai cultureo “Thai” means “Free”o gained independence in 1238 and quickly expanded its boundary of influence.o A political feature which "classic" Thai historians call "father governs children" existed at this time.o King Ramkhamhaeng- the most famous and dynamic monarch ever to rule the Sukhothai kingdom.o King Ramkhamhaeng established the Thai Alphabet
  18. 18. Ayutthaya Period (1350–1767)o The city-state of Ayutthaya was founded by King U- Thong in 1350 and established its capital in 1351 on the Chao Phraya River in central Thailand, calling it Ayutthaya.o In 1360 Ramathibodi (r. 1351–69) declared Theravada Buddhism as the official religion and compiled a legal code based on Hindu legal texts and Thai custom that remained in effect until the late nineteenth century.o Ayutthaya as an island is formed by the gathering of three rivers, the Chao Phraya, the Pasak, and the Loburi and surrounded by rice terraceso King U-Thong and his immediate successors expanded Ayutthayas territory, especially northward towards Sukhothai and eastward towards the Khmer capital of Angkor
  19. 19. Ayutthaya Period (1350–1767)o The greater size of government could not remain the same as during the days of King Ramkhamhaeng KINGo The society during the Ayutthaya period was SOCIAL strictly hierarchical. There were, roughly, three classes of people, king at the top COMMONERS & of scale at the bottom of SLAVES social scale were commoners and the slaves.
  20. 20. Ayutthaya Period (1350–1767)Ayutthaya was a society of builders rather than sculptors.o It was preoccupied with building monuments to impress outsiders by sheer imensity.o It erected a major portion of its 400 wats in Ramathibodis reign and completed most of its major monuments in the first 150 years of its existence.
  21. 21. Ayutthaya Period (1350–1767) Ayutthaya had three palaces for its rulers: o Wang Luan (Royal Palace)- occupied by the principal king, situated on the northern rim of the city o Wang Na (Palace to the Front) built for the second or Vice- King, situated on the northeastern corner of the city o Wang Lang (Palace to the Rear) later occupied by princes of the royal blood, situated on the western part of the city
  22. 22. Lanna (Mid 13th to 19th Centuries)o Another Thai state that coexisted with Sukhothai was the eastern state of Lanna, centred in Chiang Mai.o Founded by King Phya Mangrai.o This city-state emerged in the same period as Sukhothai. Evidently Lanna became closely allied with Sukhothai. After the Ayutthaya kingdom had emerged and expanded its influence from the Chao Phraya valley, Sukhothai was finally subdued. Fierce battles between Lanna and Ayutthaya also constantly took place and Chiang Mai was eventually subjugated, becoming Ayutthayas vassal.o made use of wood but more of stones and bricks.o Wats or temples were the main structures built at this era.o Lannas independent history ended in 1558,
  23. 23. Lanna (Mid 13th to 19th Centuries)o This architectural style had its own distinctive characteristics which emphasizes on the enormous size of the shrines and relatively small sermon or temple‟s hall. Stupas were later built from mid 14th century onwards since the entrance of Lankawong Buddhism sect. The stupas were then built in Lanka style.
  24. 24. Thon Buri Period (1767–82)o After more than 400 years of power, in 1767, the Kingdom of Ayutthaya was brought down by invading Burmese armies, its capital burned, and the territory split.o General Taksin (now known as King Taksin the Great) managed to reunite the Thai kingdom from his new capital of Thonburi and declared himself king in 1769.o Later due to stress and many factors, King Taksin went mad. General Chakri (later becoming Rama I) helped run the empire instead. The King Taksin ordained as a monk and ventured into the forest and never to be seen again. General Chakri succeeded him in 1782 as Rama I, the first king of the Chakri dynasty. In the same year he founded the new capital city at Bangkok, across the Chao Phraya river from Thonburi, Taksins capital. In the 1790s Burma was
  25. 25. Thon Buri Period (1767–82)defeated and driven out of Siam, as it was then called. Lanna also became free of Burmese occupation, but the king of a new dynasty who was installed in the 1790s was effectively a tributary ruler of the Chakri monarch.
  26. 26. Rattanakosin (Late 18th Century to present)o It included vassal states of Cambodia, Laos, and some Malay kingdoms. The kingdom was formation by Chakri Dynasty until 1932 came into being when King Rama I ascended the throne in 1782.o King Rama I was determined to build a new capital to revive the glory and splendor of old Ayutthaya.o The new capital was located on the island of Rattanakosin, protected by river to the west, series of canals to the north, east and south.o Economic activity in the Rattanakosin Era was primarily agriculture.o Thai art, culture, philosophy, and literature was created, developed and mainly influenced by Buddhism and Hinduism religion.
  27. 27. Rattanakosin (Late 18th Century to present)o Architectures of this period are divided into 4 groups:o Architectural style of athe declining period of Ayuthaya (lopburi style and prang)Lopburi Architectural Styleo Were mostly constructed from bricks and cut stones with influences from both the Mahayana Buddhism sect and the Hinduism religion.Prango A prang is a tall finger-like Prang at Wat Arun spire, usually richly carved.
  28. 28. Rattanakosin (Late 18th Century to present)o Architectures constructed during the reign of King Rama III had either one of the two distinctive characteristics („in‟ or „out‟).o The „in‟ type was the one with traditional gable ends decorating the roof whileo the „out‟ type‟s, the gable ends of the roof were plainly constructed with bricks and stucco or
  29. 29. Geological Settingo Brick- (around 12th century)replaced sandstone as the favored mortar, bound with vegetable glue, and then sheathed in carved stoneo Stucco- a sand, lime, and glue mixture strengthened by a terra cotta armature, was later used to cover the brick wallso Wood- was employed in temple construction and craftsmen attained great skill in carving decorative elements, in the heavily forested north.o Sandstone- was used to form door parts, lintels, and rectangular windows
  30. 30. Geological Settingo Porcelain fragments- influenced by the Chinese, it can be seen in some ornamental decorationso Materials such as glass mosaic pieces highlighted gables and pillars, as well as wooden and stucco figures, and other decorative techniques utilized lacquer, gilt, mother-of-pearl inlay, gold leaf, and porcelain fragments to obtain the desired effect ofgleaming elegance.
  31. 31. Architectural CharacteristicsThai Architectureo reflects the influences of the Buddhist countries and of the various groups with which it has mingle ando associated for two millenia.o At various stages down the years, the cultures of Burma, China, Khmer, India and Sri Lanka, can all be seen to have had an important and distinctive influence on architecture in Thailand.o Most noticeable in Thai architecture are the swooping multi-tiered rooflines, the distinctly ornamental decorations, the stunning interior murals, the vivid colors and the lovingly crafted and gold- adorned Buddha images.
  32. 32. Traditional ArchitectureThai Houseo the basic thai house of the past, rarely seen today, was simple structure of bamboo and thatch, raised off the ground for protection against floods and wild animalso Most family life took place on a veranda-like platform outside the one or two rooms that served as sleeping quarters.o This model evolved into more complex structures of wood, varying both in form and decoration to suit conditions in different regions but always retaining their essential simplicity
  33. 33. Traditional ArchitectureCentral Plains Houseso Elevated on stout round posts, it has steep roofs with curved bargeboards and paneled walls leaning slightly inward; the various components are prefabricated to enable easy dismantling and reassembly. The simplest house consists of a single unit with an outside veranda, while those accommodating larger families might have several separate units arranged around a central platform.
  34. 34. Traditional ArchitectureThe Northern houseso The northern Thai houses differ significantly from its counterpart in the Central Plains.o The walls lean outward, giving it a sturdier look, and windows are often smaller.o Kalae- V-shaped decorative feature at the ends of the roofo Some authorities believe they represent a pair of buffalo horns.
  35. 35. Traditional ArchitectureNorthern rice barno A rice barn is a component of most traditional compounds in the northern region.o Raised on pillars and with a ladder for access, it is a solid structure with few windows, used to store grain.
  36. 36. Traditional ArchitectureRoyal houseso were similar in design to those of commoners except that they were generally closer to the ground and had more decorative features.
  37. 37. Traditional ArchitectureCharacteristicso Roof Gable (Ngao)o A distinctive feature of the Central Plains house is the elegant curved decoration at the ends of the peaked bargeboards surrounding the gables.o Known as ngao, it evolved from Khmer architecture and appears in elaborate form on religious buildings and palaces. A Stylized version can also be seen in domestic houses.
  38. 38. Traditional ArchitecturePanelingo Paneled walls are a relatively recent addition to the Thai houseGateo Houses belonging to more prosperous families usually have a gate, often sheltered by a Thai-style roof that opens on to the central platform.o A jar of water is placed at the bottom of the steps so that visitors and residents can wash their feet before coming inside the house.
  39. 39. Traditional Architecture The Sala o An open-sided pavilion o familiar structure in Thailand found in the courtyards of temples and along heavily traveled routes. o serves as a shelter, giving shade from the hot tropical sun and heavy monsoon rain. o It also is a „living room‟ and a hub for community social gatherings and village activities.
  40. 40. Religious Architectureo Regardless of historical period, the most important area of religious architecture is the Thai temple or wat.o The Thai wat is a group of buildings each serving various purposes and usually set within a walled enclosure.o In addition to being a place where the lessons of Buddha were taught, the Thai wat was traditionally a school, hospital, community center and even an entertainment venue.
  41. 41. Religious Architectureo follows a similar set of design principles and the same can normally be said for the functions of the various buildings within the complexo Architectural modifications have been made and the overall style of each of the buildings may vary considerablyo There is also a symbolic significance to each and every part of the Thai wat complex. The capitals of the columns, for example, are shaped like lotus buds or water lilies symbolizing the purity of Buddhas thoughts.
  42. 42. Religious ArchitectureParts of a WatThe Boto All wats usually include an ordination or assembly hall known as the bot or sometimes known as an ubosot. The bot is reserved for monks to perform ceremonies, meditate and sermonize. It faces east and usually houses the main Buddha image.o Ubosot:o Wat Benchamabophit
  43. 43. Religious ArchitectureBai Semaso Surrounding the bot are bai semas. These are sacred boundary stones, used to demarcate the sacred ground of the bot and to keep away evil spirits. Normally eight are used in total, but double slab stones for royal wats. This is also an example of how animist beliefs coexist with Buddhism.The Chedio The Chedi is a solid domeshaped structure where relics of Buddha may be housed, such as a bone fragment or hair, or the ashes of a past king. Some Thai wat complexes are specifically designed and built around the sacred Chedi.
  44. 44. Religious ArchitectureThe Vishnuo At the top of a Chedi may be a stylized thunderbolt sign of the Vishnu, an ancient Hindu lord of the universe.The Wihano A second assembly hall, similar to the bot but usually larger, is the wilhan. Within a complex, there may be several wilhan and each may have an eclectic mix of architectural styles. The wilhan is used by laypeople to make their offering before a large Buddha figure. Normally there are no bai sema surrounding the wihan.
  45. 45. Religious ArchitectureThe Prango A few wats have prangs, which are towering phallic spires as can be seen in the famous Wat Arun on the banks of the Chao Phraya river in Bangkok.The Chofao The chofa is perhaps the most recognizable architectural detail in any wat. Chofa means, „tassel of air‟ and its shape is thought to derive from a highly stylized Garuda, a fierce bird featured in Hindu mythology. The Garuda is also a royal symbol and can be seen on other buildings Chofa on the top of a roof Chofa on the top of a roof of Wat Pangsank Taii. denoting that of Wang Pangsank Taii they operate „by royal appointment‟.
  46. 46. Religious ArchitectureThe Mondopo The mondop is a square-based structure topped with either a cruciform roof or a spire. The edifice contains sacred text or an object of worship.The Bodhi treeo Most wats will also include a Bodhin tree (Ficus religiosa), also known as the Sacred Figar Pipal tree. The Buddha is thought to have attained Mondop at Wat Arun enlightment (Bodhi) while neditating under a Bodhi Tree at Boghi-Guy in India.
  47. 47. Religious ArchitectureThe Bodhi treeo Most wats will also include a Bodhi tree (Ficus religiosa), also known as the Sacred Figar Pipal tree. The Buddha is thought to have attained enlightment (Bodhi) while neditating under a Bodhi Tree at Boghi- Guy in India.The Cloistero The cloisters or main wall will enclose the main area of the wat complex (known as the phutthawat). The cloisters are sometimes painted with decorative murals and also may house a row of Buddha images. Cloister at Wat Phra Kaew
  48. 48. Religious ArchitectureThe Sanghawato These are the monks„ living quarters and dormitories and are usually in a separate compound.The Ho Rakangso These are bell towers and are used to toll the hour and summon the monks to prayer.The Minor Salaso This hall acts as a meeting The Ho Rakangs place for Pilgrims.
  49. 49. Religious ArchitectureThe Minor Salaso This hall acts as a meeting place for Pilgrims.The Ho Traio This is the wat library and houses Holy Scriptures. A ho trai is a rare feature of the wat complex. In the countryside they are usually on a high base or surrounded by water to minimize insect damage Ho Trai at Wat Phra Singh, by insects. Chiang Mai
  50. 50. Religious Architectureo A Kuti is a small structure, built on stilts, designed to house a monk. Its proper size is defined in the Sanghathisep, Rule 6, to be 12 by 7 Keub (or 4.013 by 2.343 meters). This tiny footprint is intended to aid the monks spiritual journey by discouraging the accumulation of material goods. Typically a monastery consists of a number of these buildings grouped together on a shared terrace, either in an inward facing cluster or lined up in a row. Often these structures included a separate building, called a Hor Trai, which is used to store scriptures.
  51. 51. Royal Architectureo Royal houses and mansions are typically a mixture of Thai wat, traditional Thai house style and western architecture.o Teak wood is the main structural material of such buildings, giving them their distinctive rich red color. The doors and windows
  52. 52. Royal Architectureo The red house at the National Museum in Bangkok is a typical royal house and a good example of Thai royal architecture.o Royal wats can be identified by usually have ornate pediments and frames, which are sometimes decorated in gilt bronze.o Like the Thai wat, the roof of the royal building will have a chofar and normally the roof tiles are made of finest teak wood.o the prefixes of Rat, Raja or Racha in their names. There are only 186 such wats under royal patronage in the whole of the country.
  53. 53. The Grand Palaceo Wat Phra came to be known as the Grand Palace, in which the earliest edifices contemporary with the foundation of Bangkok were the two groups of residences named the Dusit Maha Prasat and the Phra Maha Monthian.
  54. 54. The Grand PalacePhra Maha Montiano This consists of three main buildings,namely :1. The Audience Hall of Amarin Winitchai- where the ceremonies of the Court usually take place2. Paisal Taksin Hall where the coronation of a monarch takes place with its coronation chair and the octagonal seat wherethe monarch receives the peoples invitation to rule3. Descending from here we come to the antechamber to the Chakrapat Phiman building
  55. 55. The Grand PalaceDusit Maha Prasat Hallo Here we have an audience hall with a throne of mother-of- pearl surmounted by the usual ninetiered white canopy, the mark of a duly crowned king. At the back of this audience hall is yet a living quarter. All are built in pure Siamese architecture of perfect proportions.
  56. 56. o Boron Phiman MansionPhra Thinang Borom Phiman: built in the western style in 1903 by King Rama V for the Heir Apparent, the future King Rama VI, this mansion was also used at various times as a royal residence by King Rama VII (1925-1935), King Rama VIII (1935- 1946), and the present King Rama IX.
  57. 57. GOOD DAY!

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