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CSC The Science and Economics of CO2 Extraction and Oil Manufacturing

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Presented at Cannabis Science Conference 2017 in Portland, OR
Now with data on both supercritical and liquid CO2 extraction of cannabis.

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CSC The Science and Economics of CO2 Extraction and Oil Manufacturing

  1. 1. www.outco.com Dr. Markus Roggen VP Extraction OutCo, San Diego 1 The Science and Economics of CO2 Extraction and Oil Manufacturing
  2. 2. www.outco.com Extracts should: 1. Represent the starting material 2. Deliver customized concentrate 2 Fallacies and Ignorance of Extraction
  3. 3. www.outco.com • Background on Extraction • Univariant Optimization • Multivariant Optimization, DoE • Supercritical vs. Subcritical • Other Concentrates • More Ways to Effect Molecular Makeup • Thanks / Product Plugs / Veneration 3 Abstract
  4. 4. www.outco.com Extraction: Removal of a substance from a matrix. Needs a solvent, e.g. butane, CO2, ethanol. Separation: Mechanical force, not chemical properties, dictates success, e.g. Rosin, Ice Water Hash, Kief 4 What is an Extract?
  5. 5. www.outco.com So many molecules we should keep track of 5 What is an Extract? >140 Cannabinoids >200 Terpenes ~30 Flavonoids Alcohols, Phenols Aldehydes, Ketones Alkaloids Carbohydrates, Fatty Acids Lactones
  6. 6. www.outco.com 6 What is an Extract?
  7. 7. www.outco.com 7 What is an Extract?
  8. 8. www.outco.com • Production Yield • Production Costs • Extract Constitution/Quality • Legal Aspects 8 What is the best Extraction System?
  9. 9. www.outco.com For what: • Yield per Run YpR • Yield per Week YpW • Cannabinoid Conc. CC • Terpene Content TC • Recovery Rec 9 Optimizing your Extraction (SFE) With what: • Temperature T • Pressure P • Time t • Flow Rate FR • Particle Size PS
  10. 10. www.outco.com For what: • Yield per Run YpR • Yield per Week YpW • Cannabinoid Conc. CC • Terpene Content TC • Recovery Rec 10 Optimizing your Extraction Process With what: • Temperature T • Pressure P • Time t • Flow Rate FR • Particle Size PS
  11. 11. www.outco.com For what: • Recovery Rec Optimizing your Extraction Process With what: • Time t 0 100 200 300 400 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 YieldTHC(g) Time (t) Optimizing Run TimeExperiment t (h) Rec (g) 1 4 53.0 2 8 103 3 18 263 4 34 367 Raw n/a 500 Mass Transfer Diffusion
  12. 12. www.outco.com For what: • Yield per Run YpR • Yield per Week YpW • Cannabinoid Conc. CC • Terpene Content TC • Recovery Rec 12 Optimizing your Extraction Process With what: • Temperature T • Pressure P • Time t • Flow Rate FR • Particle Size PS
  13. 13. www.outco.com For what: • Recovery Rec Optimizing your Extraction Process With what: • Particle Size PS Experiment PS (mm) Rec (g) 1 6 215 2 4 230 3 2 235 4 1 253 210 220 230 240 250 260 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 YpR(g) PS (mm) Optimizing Particle Size
  14. 14. www.outco.com 14 Design of Experiment to the Rescue • Test multiple factors simultaneously • Few test for whole space response surface • Higher order effects of factors • Fast and efficient
  15. 15. www.outco.com Expt. No. Temp. (˚C) Pres. (psi) A 34 1100 B 34 1900 C1 47 1500 C2 47 1500 D 60 1100 E 60 1900 Factor No. Factor Super - Super + Unit 1 Temperature 34 60 ˚C 2 Pressure 1100 1900 psi Temperature (˚C) Pressure (psi) Yield THC (g) 34 60 1100 1900 47 1500 0 Executing the DoE Critical Point: 304.25 K & 72.9 atm Factor No. Factor Super - Super + Sub - Sub + Unit 1 Temperature 34 60 5.0 29 ˚C 2 Pressure 1100 1900 900.0 1900 psi Expt. No. Temp. (˚C) Pres. (psi) F 5.0 900.0 G 5.0 1900 H1 17 1400 H2 17 1400 I 29 900.0 J 29 1900
  16. 16. www.outco.com a= 14.9 xT + 123 xp + 18.4 xTxp 16 Analyzing the DoE, THC Recovery (Super)
  17. 17. www.outco.com 17 Analyzing the DoE, THC Recovery (Sub) a= - 7.75 xT + 126 xp + 59.3 xTxp
  18. 18. www.outco.com a= - 14.9 xT - 11.7 xp + 16.8 xTxp 18 Analyzing the DoE, %Terpene (Super)
  19. 19. www.outco.com 19 Analyzing the DoE, %Terpene (Sub) a= 11.8 xT - 16.6 xp - 12.5 xTxp
  20. 20. www.outco.com 20 Visual Guide to Extracts
  21. 21. www.outco.com SFE, 900.0 – 1900 psi, 5.0 – 60 ˚C, 22h max 21 Compare Sub- and Supercritical Response Sub Super THC Recovery 60% 80% Terpene Fraction 52% at 34% yield 63% at 82% yield
  22. 22. www.outco.com • THC extracts faster than THCA • THC to THCA ratio adjusted by SFE 22 Lessons learned in SFE % Decarboxylation S.M. 7h 22h Exp. B 8.0% 25% 10% Exp. J 14% 25% 14%
  23. 23. www.outco.com • CBD extracts faster than THC • CBD to THC ratio adjusted by SFE 23 Lessons learned in SFE CBD/THC S.M. 7h 22h Exp. A 4.1E-03 1.3E-02 5.0E-03 Exp. J 1.7E-04 1.3E-03 3.1E-03 Bonus: Decarboxylation of CBDA slower than for THCA J. of Supercritical Fluids, 2010, 603
  24. 24. www.outco.com • Enrichment in minor cannabinoids • CBG enrichment by SFE 24 Lessons learned in SFE CBG/total Canna. S.M. 7h 22h Exp. B 2.9% 6.% 2.9% Exp. J 3.0% 13% 4.9% J. of Supercritical Fluids, 2010, 603
  25. 25. www.outco.com Changing terpene profiles in SFE • Sativa: rich in monoterpenes • Indica: rich in sesquiterpenes 25 Lessons learned in SFE Hazekamp, et al.; Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2016, 202 7h 22h
  26. 26. www.outco.com Rosin Press • Optimized for yield and quality by DoE • ~72% recovery achieved • Little effect on molecular makeup 26 Other Separation Methods Rosin Yield Rosin Quality
  27. 27. www.outco.com 27 Separation affects Extract Makeup Ice Water Hash • ~80% cannabinoid potency • ~25% recovery achieved • Little effect on molecular makeup 150 micron 25 micron
  28. 28. www.outco.com Apeks Supercritical • Andy Joseph, President • Jeremy Sexton, Director of Engineering Fritsch • Barry Schubmehl, Application Consultant • Leos Benes, Global Lab. Serv. Manager 28 Thanks
  29. 29. www.outco.com 29 OutCo Science Team: Taylor Trah, Blake Grauerholz, Chris Cortina, Matt Zbiec, Travis Kennedy OutCo Cultivation: Dr. Allison Justice OutCo Management: Lincoln Fish, Austin Birch, Ben Ballard Thank You
  30. 30. www.outco.com 30 Oversees all Extraction, Formulation and Production at OutCo. jointly leads OutCo’s R&D ● PhD in Organic Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Switzerland ● Postdoc in Physical Organic Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, San Diego ● Mentor, Board Member, Scientific Advisor to Cannabis Startups, Journals and the NCIA Public Presentations: ● Emerald Conference 2017 ● CannaCon Seattle 2017 ● ACS Conference 2017 ● CannMed (Harvard Medical School) 2017 ● Terpenes & Testing Magazine 2017 Dr. Markus Roggen Vice President, Extraction

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