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Cannabis Extraction:  A scientist’s approach to the industry

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Presented at San Diego Startup Week 2017.
A description of the risks and rewards for scientists to enter the cannabis industry.

Published in: Science
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Cannabis Extraction:  A scientist’s approach to the industry

  1. 1. www.outco.com 1 Dr. Markus Roggen VP Extraction OutCo, San Diego Cannabis Extraction: A scientist’s approach to the industry
  2. 2. www.outco.com • My Background • My descent into drugs • My daily drug use • My other habits • Why you should join in • How to get your fix 2 Abstract
  3. 3. www.outco.com 3 Where do I come from?
  4. 4. www.outco.com • Born in Germany • M/Sci Chemistry, Imperial College London, UK • Research Stay, NTU, Singapore • PhD Organic Chemistry, ETH Zürich, CH • PostDoc PhyOrg Chemistry, TSRI, USA • Laboratory Director, DaVinci Laboratory, CA, USA • VP Extraction, OutCo, CA, USA 4 Where do I come from?
  5. 5. www.outco.com 5 How did I get into drugs?
  6. 6. www.outco.com • Four options for chemists: • Academia • Industry • Startup • Traitor • Three ways to get a job: • Be amazing • Be pushy • Know the right people 6 How did I get here?
  7. 7. www.outco.com • Cannabis Industry is in its infancies • Great scarcity of scientists • Potential for large impact and fast rise • More than just science • Sin industries pay better • Prohibition did not work 7 Why drugs?
  8. 8. www.outco.com 8 What do I do at OutCo?
  9. 9. www.outco.com • Some Basics about Cannabis • Extracts and Compounds • How to optimize your extraction • Chemometrics • The Production Pipeline • Formulation • Collaborations 9 What are we up to?
  10. 10. www.outco.com • Cannabinoids: Over 140 known compounds • e.g. 11 different THC compounds • Terpenes: at least 200 identified • Flavonoids: more then 29 identified 10 What is there to extract?
  11. 11. www.outco.com 11 What extracts are out there? Kief Dry Sift BHO Glass ShatterCrumble Ethanol CO2 Oil
  12. 12. www.outco.com • In clean bucket dampen material with the solvent of choice. • Crush the plant material using a stick of clean, untreated wood or any other similar device. • Add solvent until the plant material is completely covered and soaked. • Pour the solvent oil mixture through a coffee filter into a clean container. • Add solvent to rice cooker until it is about ¾ full and turn on HIGH heat. • When the solvent has been boiled off, turn the cooker to LOW heat. At no point should the oil ever reach over 290˚ F or 140˚ C. • Remove the pot containing the oil from the rice cooker. Gently pour the oil into a stainless steel container • Place the stainless steel container in a coffee warmer. When there is no longer any surface activity on the oil, it is ready for use. • Suck the oil up in a plastic syringe. When the oil cools completely it should have the consistency of thick grease. 12 What is Rick Simpson Oil?
  13. 13. www.outco.com 13 Questions?
  14. 14. www.outco.com • Production Yield • Production Costs • Extract Constitution/Quality • Legal Aspects 14 What is the best extraction system?
  15. 15. www.outco.com For what: • Yield per Run YpR • Yield per Week YpW • Cannabinoid Conc. CC • Terpene Content TC • Extraction Efficiency EE 15 Optimizing your extraction process With what: • Temperature T • Pressure P • Time t • Flow Rate FR • Particle Size PS
  16. 16. www.outco.com For what: • Yield per Run YpR • Yield per Week YpW • Cannabinoid Conc. CC • Terpene Content TC • Extraction Efficiency EE 16 Optimizing your extraction process With what: • Temperature T • Pressure P • Time t • Flow Rate FR • Particle Size PS
  17. 17. www.outco.com For what: • Yield per Run YpR Optimizing your extraction process With what: • Time t 0 100 200 300 400 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 YieldTHC(g) Time (t) Optimizing Run TimeExperiment t (h) YpR (g) 1 4 53 2 8 103 3 18 263 4 34 367 Raw n/a 500
  18. 18. www.outco.com For what: • Yield per Run YpR • Yield per Week YpW • Cannabinoid Conc. CC • Terpene Content TC • Extraction Efficiency EE 18 Optimizing your extraction process With what: • Temperature T • Pressure P • Time t • Flow Rate FR • Particle Size PS
  19. 19. www.outco.com For what: • Yield per Run YpR Optimizing your extraction process With what: • Particle Size PS Experiment PS (mm) YpR (g) 1 6 215 2 4 230 3 2 235 4 1 253 210 220 230 240 250 260 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 YpR(g) PS (mm) Optimizing Particle Size
  20. 20. www.outco.com Chemometrics is the science of relating measurements made on a chemical system or process to the state of the system via applications of mathematical or statistical methods. The design of experiments (DoE) is used to gather as much useful information about the influence of factors on a certain response in an effective and economical way. 20 Introduction of Chemometrics and Design of Experiment
  21. 21. www.outco.com 1. Defining the problem • Extracting Cannabis with a 20L, 2000psi SFE 2. Determine the response • Yield THC • Percentage Terpenes 3. Determine the factors • Temperature and Pressure 4. Additional things to keep in mind • Comparison • Replication • Blocking • Orthogonality 21 Designing the first Design of Experiment
  22. 22. www.outco.com Temperature (˚C) Pressure (psi) Yield THC (g) 34 60 1100 1900 47 1500 0 Executing the DoE Critical Point: 304.25 K & 72.9 atm Factor No. Factor Lower Level Upper Level Unit 1 Temperature 34 60 ˚C 2 Pressure 1100 1900 psi Expt. No. Temp. (˚C) Pres. (psi) A 34 1100 B 34 1900 C1 47 1500 C2 47 1500 D 60 1100 E 60 1900
  23. 23. www.outco.com Executing the DoE Critical Point: 304.25 K & 72.9 atm Factor No. Factor Lower Level Upper Level Unit 1 Temperature 34 60 ˚C 2 Pressure 1100 1900 psi Expt. No. Temp. (˚C) Pres. (psi) THC (g) % Terp. A 34 1100 2.00 63.4 B 34 1900 334 6.30 C1 47 1500 17.9 39.5 C2 47 1500 18.1 36.0 D 60 1100 0 0 E 60 1900 144 10.2 Temperature (˚C) Pressure (psi) Yield THC (g) 34 60 1100 1900 47 1500 0 400
  24. 24. www.outco.com A Taylor expansion describes the response surface. Matrix algebra solves the Taylor expansion. Y=bX b=(X’X)-1X’Y a=bX 24 Calculating response surface of DoE y0+ ixi+ iixi 2+ ijxixj i i i j
  25. 25. www.outco.com a= - 47.95 xT + 119.05 xp - 46.95 xTxp 25 Analyzing the DoE, THC yield
  26. 26. www.outco.com a= - 14.875 xT - 11.725 xp + 16.825 xTxp 26 Analyzing the DoE, %Terpene
  27. 27. www.outco.com 27 Questions?
  28. 28. www.outco.com • Sub-critical • More factors, more focus • Upscale, better instrumentation 28 Future plans 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Pressure(psi) Real Time Ext. Pressure
  29. 29. www.outco.com • Cultivation • Harvest • Dry • Trim • Cure • Mill • Extraction • Raw Oil Processing • Oil Finishing • Formulation • Lab testing for pesticide / microbial / potency / terpenes at all steps of the way Pipeline Surfing
  30. 30. www.outco.com • Optimized environment • Pest management • Clean room practices • Preventative measures • Culling of hazardous plants 30 Cultivation
  31. 31. www.outco.com • Arrangement of plants • Removal of leaves • Even air circulation • Sterility • Consistent RH & Temperature • Water Activity <0.65Aw 31 Drying Cannabis
  32. 32. www.outco.com 32 The CURE • RH of 30-40% • 2+ Weeks – Longer is better! • Glass vs. Plastic • Increase aroma • Degrade chlorophyll • Decarboxylation
  33. 33. www.outco.com • Inhalation: Fast acting, high peak concentration of cannabinoids • Ingestion: Slower, gradual uptake of cannabinoids • THC is metabolized to 11-OH-THC in the liver, which is more potent • Various concentrate products, guided by market research and patient feedback • Constant formulation design and improvements to meet patients needs and demands 33 Formulation
  34. 34. www.outco.com 34 Questions?
  35. 35. www.outco.com 35 What else do I do?
  36. 36. www.outco.com • Mentor at Canopy San Diego, Canopy Boulder, Greenhouse Ventures • Member of Scientific Advisory Committee of NCIA • Member of Scientific Advisory Board of Terpene and Testing Magazine • Board Member for multiple Startups • Speaker, Author, Educator 36 What else do I do?
  37. 37. www.outco.com 37 Why we need you?
  38. 38. www.outco.com • Science is lacking • The industry needs educators • Bring in outside perspective • More knowledge than Dr. Google in a basement 38 Why we need you?
  39. 39. www.outco.com 39 Why we need you? Biosynthesis: Eur. J. Biochem. 268, 1596 (2001) Stereodivergent Synthesis: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 13898
  40. 40. www.outco.com 40 Why we need you? Cell 167, 750, October 20, 2016
  41. 41. www.outco.com 41 Why we need you? Anandamide From Sanskrit ”ananda” for Joy, Bliss 2-Arachidonoylglycerol Present in relatively high levels JWH-108 One of over 450 synesthetic cannabinoids developed by Prof. John W Huffman / Clemson to study the endocannabinoid system THC
  42. 42. www.outco.com 42 Why it’s different than biotech?
  43. 43. www.outco.com • Mature industries have set career paths and hierarchies • All your coworkers are PhDs from the same universities • There is literature about what you have to do • People have no idea what you do, but they admire it 43 Why it’s different than biotech?
  44. 44. www.outco.com • Conversion between THC and CBD is not an oxidation • No testing regulation for CA, yet • Solvent limits are ridiculously high in CO (e.g. butane: 5000ppm, xylenes: 2170ppm) • Indica vs. Sativa • Organic, Artists 44 Thoughts on Cannabis vs. Science
  45. 45. www.outco.com 45 How to get into the cannabis field?
  46. 46. www.outco.com • Better not to know the “right” people • Join an “established” company • Start your own thing • Come from a position of strength • Don’t beg 46 How to get into the cannabis field?
  47. 47. www.outco.com • Most companies are expanding • Bring your outside expertise • Location, location, location! • Company culture is even more important 47 Established cannabis companies
  48. 48. www.outco.com • What is your idea? • For ancillary consider Canopy San Diego • For hands-on research: Talk to me! 48 Start your own
  49. 49. www.outco.com 49 What to look out for?
  50. 50. www.outco.com • Licenses • Legality • Background • What is your / their risk limit? • Company culture • Look past the window-dressing 50 What to look out for?
  51. 51. www.outco.com 51 Why do it?
  52. 52. www.outco.com • Startups are stressful • I had to get fingerprinted for my job • I change clothes and backpack when I travel • No job security in startups • Cannabis is schedule 1, there is Jeff Sessions! • Startups are glorious • I work with illegal drugs! • Startups have great perks • We work in warehouses outside of the city! 52 Don’t!
  53. 53. www.outco.com 53 OutCo Science Team: Taylor Trah, Blake Grauerholz OutCo Cultivation: Dr. Allison Justice, Chris Cortina OutCo Management: Lincoln Fish, Austin Birch, Ben Ballard, Alex Bryan Thank You
  54. 54. www.outco.com 54 Oversees all Extraction and Formulation Operation at OutCo. Leads many of OutCo’s research projects. ● PhD in organic Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Switzerland ● Postdoc in physical organic chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, San Diego ● Mentor, Board Member, Scientific Advisor to Cannabis Startups, Journals and the NCIA Public Presentations: ● Emerald Conference 2017 ● CannaCon Seattle 2017 ● ACS Conference 2017 ● CannMed (Harvard Medical School) 2017 ● Terpenes & Testing Magazine 2017 Dr. Markus Roggen Vice President, Extraction

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