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Oracle RAC - Roadmap for New Features

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Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) Roadmap for New Features describes and discusses best practices for new features introduced with Oracle RAC 12c as well as Oracle RAC 18c and provides a short outlook of the road ahead.

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Oracle RAC - Roadmap for New Features

  1. 1. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |
  2. 2. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) – Roadmap for New Features Markus Michalewicz, Senior Director of Product Management Dave Hickson, Database Architect, BT Tak Wang, Vice President, Oracle RAC Development October 22, 2018 Confidential – Oracle Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted
  3. 3. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Safe Harbor Statement The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, timing, and pricing of any features or functionality described for Oracle’s products may change and remains at the sole discretion of Oracle Corporation. 3
  4. 4. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda Overview Better Management Better Availability Better Scalability & Performance The Road Ahead 1 2 3 4 5 4
  5. 5. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda Overview Better Management Better Availability Better Scalability & Performance The Road Ahead 1 2 3 4 5 5
  6. 6. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Scalable Sequences Continuous Application Availability Oracle RAC Sharding Cluster Domains Cluster Health Advisor (CHA) RAC Reader Nodes Application Continuity (AC) Oracle Flex ASM & Flex Clusters Rapid Home Provisioning (RHP) Cluster Health Monitor (CHM) Oracle Quality of Service Management (QoS) Policy-Based Cluster Management Oracle RAC One Node & RACcheck Oracle ASM Cluster File System (ACFS) Oracle Grid Infrastructure (GI) UCP and OCI Load Balancing Support for RAC Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) Cluster-Managed Services Oracle Clusterware Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) Oracle 9i Oracle RAC’s Journey into the Autonomous Database 20-years of continuous innovation* Oracle 18c * Documented features list is selective; 20 years include development time 6
  7. 7. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle RAC Innovation Spin-Off 1 Oracle Autonomous Health and the Autonomous Health Framework (AHF) 7 http://oracle.com/goto/ahf
  8. 8. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle RAC Innovation Spin-Off 2 Oracle Fleet Patching & Provisioning (FPP) and Gold Image Management formerly Oracle Rapid Home Provisioning (RHP) 8 http://oracle.com/goto/fpp (http://oracle.com/goto/rhp)
  9. 9. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle RAC Innovation Spin-Off 3 Application Continuity & Continuous Application Availability – the new MAA* standard * MAA = Maximum Availability Architecture 9 http://oracle.com/goto/ac
  10. 10. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle Autonomous Database Highlights Self-Driving Automates database and infrastructure management, monitoring, tuning Self-Scaling Scales online for highest performance and lowest cost Self-Repairing Protects from all downtime including planned maintenance Enabled by Applied Machine Learning 10 1 2 3 4 5
  11. 11. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle RAC Development Focus Areas Better scalability & performance Efficient management for large scale deployments Better availability 11
  12. 12. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda Overview Better Management Better Availability Better Scalability & Performance The Road Ahead 1 2 3 4 5 12
  13. 13. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | What If…You have Hundreds of Environments And what if… – Software Installation – Storage configuration – Diagnostics setup … would have to be performed only once and can then be re-used multiple times? … allowing you to save many hours performing these tiring tasks? 13
  14. 14. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Cluster Domain Cluster Domain-Based Management Facilitating … – Fleet Patching & Provisioning (FPP) / formerly Rapid Home Provisioning (RHP) – Autonomous Health Framework (AHF) – Automatic Storage Management (ASM) and hosted on a dedicated cluster – the Domain Services Cluster (DSC) – all three management tasks can be centralized and diagnostics can be optimized for Member Clusters in a Cluster Domain. 14 Domain Services Cluster FPP AHF Simplification and efficiency through centralization
  15. 15. Cluster Domains @BT David Hickson – Database Architect BT October 22, 2018
  16. 16. © British Telecommunications plc About BT •  The UK’s largest broadband provider •  The UK’s largest last-mile network provider •  The UK’s largest wide area network provider •  In EE, the UK’s best largest and best mobile network provider •  A global footprint operating in 180 countries •  BT Sport delivering Premiership and UEFA football •  All underpinned by Technology Department
  17. 17. © British Telecommunications plc Context – Existing RAC and Database Services in BT •  Large scale, on-premises Enterprise Cloud •  Oracle Database and RAC estate continuing to grow •  Oracle RAC databases mostly on 12.1 or 12.2 •  12.2 clusters only since April 2018 •  Lots of automation already but … •  We need smarter ways to –  Deliver RAC clusters more quickly –  Administrate more efficiently •  Goal: Reduce overheads of many RAC clusters
  18. 18. © British Telecommunications plc Cluster Domains – Why is this architecture attractive to us? •  I/O Server –  Replace hundreds of independent pools of storage with centralised pools –  Increase storage on member clusters without infrastructure changes •  Rapid Home Provisioning –  Centralised management of Oracle software for installation, patching, upgrading •  Autonomous Health Framework –  Replace many independent management repositories with one
  19. 19. © British Telecommunications plc Cluster Domains – Future Plans •  What we’ve done –  Testing of Cluster Domains and Member Clusters using 12.2.0.1 –  On virtualised infrastructure •  What we plan to do –  Cluster Domains are a significant architectural shift –  Proceed with Oracle Database 19c (AKA 12.2 Terminal Release) –  I/O server, Rapid Home Provisioning and Autonomous Health Framework
  20. 20. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | What’s Next for Cluster Domains? 1.  Transitions (*18c+) 2.  Domain Services Cluster Availability 3.  and Performance Planned Transitions 20
  21. 21. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | gridSetup and zip-based install for Oracle Grid Infrastructure NEW: RPM-based installs for the Oracle Database and Oracle Client ASM Management for NFS-based Clusterware files for easier management and thereby better availability. Separate Diskgroup for Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR) allows for more flexibility during Grid Infrastructure Installation Better Management Thanks to Your Feedback $ORACLE_HOME/gridSetup.sh Configure ASM on NFS 21
  22. 22. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Adapting to Your Feedback •  Desupport of Direct File System Placement for Oracle Clusterware Files – Introduced with Oracle Clusterware 12c Rel. 2 (12.2.0.1) – Effective with Oracle Clusterware 18c – Desupport revoked effective with Oracle Clusterware 19c •  Oracle Grid Infrastructure Management Repository (GIMR) – Around since Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 – Automatic Installation of the GIMR introduced with Grid Infrastructure 12.1.0.2 – Separate diskgroup installation introduced with Grid Infrastructure 12c Release 2 – Automatic install revised for Oracle Grid Infrastructure 19c •  Plans foresee a GIMR installation outside of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home for Standard Clusters •  Centralized GIMR hosting on a Domain Services Cluster (for Member Clusters) remains unchanged 22
  23. 23. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Flex Cluster Massive Parallel Query Oracle RAC Oracle RAC Reader Nodes Oracle Flex Cluster – A Brief Review 23
  24. 24. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Flex Cluster Leaf nodes deprecated Massive Parallel Query Oracle RAC deprecated Oracle RAC Reader Nodes to be implemented on Hub nodes Flex Cluster – Changes Down the Road 24
  25. 25. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Deprecation = Room to Focus on Innovation •  Oracle Flex Cluster –  Introduced with Oracle Clusterware 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1) •  Target use case: Management of applications and database in the same cluster •  Databases are meant to be hosted on HUB nodes, applications on Leaf nodes –  Oracle Clusterware 12c Release 2 enabled two more uses cases: 1.  Massive Parallel Query Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 2.  Oracle RAC Reader Nodes –  Effective with Oracle Clusterware 18c •  Leaf nodes as part of the Flex Cluster architecture have been deprecated •  The “Massive Parallel Query Oracle RAC” use case has been deprecated •  The “Oracle RAC Reader Nodes” use case remains and will be supported on HUB nodes instead –  HA capabilities provided by Leaf nodes will be made available on Hub nodes as applicable •  The desupport of Leaf nodes and their respective uses cases is currently planned for Oracle Clusterware 19c 25
  26. 26. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda Overview Better Management Better Availability Better Scalability & Performance The Road Ahead 1 2 3 4 5 26
  27. 27. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Application Continuity & Continuous Application Availability Zero Brownout Reconfiguration Zero Downtime Maintenance Three Availability Focus Areas 27
  28. 28. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Innovation Under the Hood Multiple projects and features contribute to Zero Brownout Reconfiguration Maximum Availability Architecture 4x faster 1.5x faster •  Oracle RAC reconfiguration times reduced by –  4x between Oracle RAC 11.2.0.4 and 12 Rel. 2 –  1.5x between Oracle RAC 12c Rel. 2 & 18c –  for a total of 6x improvements between Oracle RAC 11.2.0.4 and 18c •  Selection of contributing features: –  Remastering Slaves (*12.1) –  Support for 100 LMS’s (*12.2) –  More Dynamic Remastering 28
  29. 29. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Contributing Features •  Remastering Slaves (1 slave per LMS) –  Starting with Oracle RAC 12.1, the LMS offloads heavy remastering work to the slave –  This improves LMS’s responsiveness for Cache Fusion requests during remastering •  Support for 100 LMS’s – change in default value –  Oracle RAC 12.2 supports up to 100 LMS’s (names: LMS0-LM99) as opposed to 35 –  On larger systems (lots of CPU, large SGA), more LMS’s will start by default –  More LMS’s means better reconfiguration time without any impact during runtime •  More Dynamic Remastering (DRM) –  Starting with Oracle RAC 19c, DRM is planned to more adaptively consider the overall system state 29
  30. 30. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Innovation on the Way to the Autonomous Database •  A proactive and automatic monitoring and correction framework –  Some functionality first introduced in Oracle RAC 12c –  Current framework used in Oracle RAC 18c; further enhancements planned for Oracle Database 19c –  Monitors various (currently ~50) metrics across different layers continuously •  Shares and considers information globally, but acts locally –  Detects problems before any disruption of service occurs •  v$ tables provide logs showing current system status and history of issues detected –  Identifies root cause accurately, based on current system situation •  Uses a combination of metrics to predict potential issues and identifies root cause(s) –  Resolves problems with minimum disruption, ideally before it happens •  Takes preventative action based on identified root cause –  Serializes actions across the cluster to minimize resolution impact •  Corrective actions are performed on per resource basis Introducing Database Reliability Framework (DRF) (Working Name) 30
  31. 31. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Patching Improvements •  OJVM is Oracle RAC rolling patch enabled with Oracle RAC 18c (18.4) – Non-Java services are available at all times – Java services are available all the time, except for a ~10 seconds brownout •  No errors are reported during the brownout •  Zero-Downtime Oracle Grid Infrastructure Patching (*18.3) – Patch Oracle Grid Infrastructure without interrupting database operations – Patches are applied out-of-place and in a rolling fashion with one node being patched at a time while the database instance(s) on that node remain up and running – Supported for Oracle RAC and RAC One Node clusters with two or more nodes 31
  32. 32. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda Overview Better Management Better Availability Better Scalability & Performance The Road Ahead 1 2 3 4 5 32
  33. 33. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Innovation Under the Hood Multiple projects and features contribute to Better Scalability & Performance 5x faster •  Oracle RAC performance has improved up to –  5x between Oracle RAC 11.2.0.4 and 18.1 especially for high contention workloads •  Selection of contributing features: –  Leaf Block Split Optimizations (*12.2) –  Scalable Sequences (*18c) •  Exadata-based optimizations: –  Undo RDMA-Read (*18c) –  “Smart Fusion Block Transfer” (*12.2) –  ExaFusion Direct-to-Wire OLTP Protocol (*12.2) 33
  34. 34. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle RAC Performance Features • Automatic Undo Management • Cache Fusion • Oracle Real Application Clusters • Session Affinity • PDB & Services Isolation • Service-Oriented Buffer Cache • Leaf Block Split Optimizations • Self Tuning LMS • Multithreaded Cache Fusion • ExaFusion Direct-to-Wire Protocol • Smart Fusion Block Transfer • Universal Connection Pool (UCP) Support for Oracle RAC • Support for Distributed Transactions (XA) in Oracle RAC • Parallel Execution Optimizations for Oracle RAC • Affinity Locking and Read-Mostly Objects • Reader Bypass • Flash Cache • Connection Load Balancing • Load Balancing Advisory • Cluster Managed Services • Automatic Storage Management 9i 10g 11g 12c 18c • Scalable Sequences • Undo RDMA-Read • Commit Cache • Database Reliability Framework Over two decades of innovation
  35. 35. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Contention can occur in any multi- user system (even in SI databases) Scaling out, contention can occur between instances (not only within an instance). From a contention perspective, the number of nodes is irrelevant. Contention – The Basics https://www.slideshare.net/MarkusMichalewicz/oracle-rac-internals-the-cache-fusion-edition write write write write Note: for scalability, only write/write contention needs to be considered. write write write write 35
  36. 36. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Frequent transactional changes to the same data blocks may result in “write hot spots” Pending redo must be written to log before the block can be transferred Contention can affect related data as much as it can affect the user data. Right growing indexes and index contention are common. In 99% of OLTP performance issues, write hot spots occur on indexes. Contention – Considerations https://www.slideshare.net/MarkusMichalewicz/oracle-rac-internals-the-cache-fusion-edition Sequence REDO 36
  37. 37. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | ExaFusion Direct-to-Wire OLTP Protocol allows the database to directly call into the InfiniBand HW. Smart Fusion Block Transfer Improves Cache Fusion latency by allowing LMS to serve dirty blocks as soon as a REDO flush is initiated 3x faster Right-Growing Index performance due to Leaf Block Split Optimizations, Scalable Sequences, Commit Cache Contention – The Solutions 37
  38. 38. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Undo RDMA-Read & Commit Cache •  Undo RDMA-Read (*18c) –  In some workloads, more than half of the remote reads are for Undo Blocks to satisfy read consistency –  Undo Block RDMA-read uses RDMA to directly and rapidly access UNDO blocks in remote instances •  Avoids having to activate a remote LMS to perform the operation •  Commit Cache (*18c) –  The Commit Cache maintains an in-memory, simple hash table of recent transactions on each instance –  Remote LMS directly reads the commit cache and sends back commit times for requested transactions •  Replaces having to send entire 8K transaction table block •  Customer test results: –  Up to 57% of the cache-fusion block traffic was eliminated –  cluster wait time down by 22%; DB CPU time down by 7% UNDO UNDO RDMA RDMA Inst 1 Inst 3 Inst 2 38
  39. 39. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Scaling the World’s Most Complex Enterprise Workloads •  Due to its market leading Cache Fusion algorithm, Oracle RAC scales 1.  any feature – e.g. Pluggable Databases, Oracle In-Memory and Oracle Data Guard 2.  most enterprise applications – e.g. Ebusiness Suite, SAP, Oracle Hospitality 3.  nearly all custom applications as used by many of Oracle’s 15000 RAC customers •  Without the need for significant application changes •  Especially on Oracle Exadata Database Machines •  Designed to support Oracle Autonomous Database Cloud 39
  40. 40. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Why Oracle Sharding? •  Some applications hugely benefit from “data dependent routing” –  Data dependent routing means that users are routed to where the data resides –  Routing can be performed within an Oracle RAC database or across independent databases –  Oracle Sharding is Oracle’s fully integrated data dependent routing solution •  Oracle RAC Sharding –  Affinitizes table partitions to instances •  for better cache utilization and reduced block pings between instances –  Takes advantage of direct routing API of Sharding: •  Requests that a specify sharding key are routed to the instance that logically holds the corresponding partition •  Requests that do not provide a partition key will be routed based on the default load balancing policy –  Adding a sharding key improves OLTP performance requires no changes to the database schema •  alter system enable affinity <TableName>; 40
  41. 41. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Another Innovation for Oracle RAC Oracle RAC Sharding 41 http://oracle.com/goto/sharding
  42. 42. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda Overview Better Management Better Availability Better Scalability & Performance The Road Ahead 1 2 3 4 5 42
  43. 43. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | The Road Ahead Leads into the Autonomous Database Cloud •  Future scalability & performance improvements – Tailor to scaling well within Exadata dimensions (“scale linear across 64 nodes, not 200”) – Are designed to meet ADB performance requirements and will grow as ADB enhances – Will leverage RDMA technology for server-less communication – Plan to use RoCE as the next-generation network for the cloud •  Details in MOS note “Oracle RAC Interconnect Protocols – Support and Roadmap (ID 2434852.1)” – Will substitute storage access with network-based access to data on remote nodes – Are likely to utilize NVM for storage on independent servers (eliminate shared disk) •  Future availability improvements – Will focus on reducing re-configuration times (brownouts) further to come closer to “zero” – Will provide even more ways to perform maintenance & admin tasks with no downtime 43
  44. 44. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |

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