Innovation & change


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Innovation & change

  1. 1. Rachel Bjerstedt
  2. 2. He who rejects change is the architectof decay. The only human institutionwhich rejects progress is the cemetery. ~ Harold Wilson
  3. 3. First Things First…Define and Understand. What is change/innovation? When is change/innovation necessary?
  4. 4. First Things First…Define and Understand.What is change/innovation? When is change/innovation necessary?Innovation means being willing to look at whatyou’re doing from a fresh perspective or to thinkoutside the box. Innovation fuels improvement:improved products and features, improvedmethods, and improved knowledge(
  5. 5. First Things First…Define and Understand.• what is change/innovation and When is change/innovation necessary?Talk of change typically begins with some peoplenoticing vulnerability in the organization. Thethreat of losing ground in some way sparks thesepeople into action.(Kotter as cited by
  6. 6. Models of Change/Innovation Theory X Theory Y John Kotter’s 8-Step Approach Thorntons 3-C Leadership Model Peter Senges 4 futures
  7. 7. Theory X Assumes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working Encourages an authoritarian style of management Management must actively intervene Assumes that workers:  Dislike working.  Avoid responsibility and need to be directed.  Have to be controlled, forced, and threatened to deliver whats needed.  Need to be supervised at every step, with controls put in place.  Need to be enticed to produce results; otherwise they have no ambition or incentive to work.(, 2011; Bobic & Davis, 2003)
  8. 8. Theory Y Assumes Employees ARE motivated and are self directed Encourages Participative style of management Management is decentralized It assumes that workers:  Take responsibility and are motivated to fulfill the goals they are given.  Seek and accept responsibility and do not need much direction.  Consider work as a natural part of life and solve work problems imaginatively.(, 2011)
  9. 9. John Kotter’s 8-Step Approach“All too often people and organizations don’t see the needfor change. They don’t correctly identify what to do, orsuccessfully make it happen, or make it stick. Businessesdon’t. School systems don’t. Nations don’t.” John Kotter (2006)
  10. 10. John Kotter’s 8-Step Approach“All too often people and organizations don’t see the need for change. They don’t correctly identify what to do, or successfully make it happen, ormake it stick. Businesses don’t. School systems don’t. Nations don’t.” John Kotter (2006)8 Step System Increase Urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real & relevant. Build The Guiding Team - get the right people in place with the right emotional commitment, and the right mix of skills and levels. Get The Vision Right - get the team to establish a simple vision and strategy, focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service and efficiency. Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to peoples needs. De-clutter communications - make technology work for you rather than against. Empower action - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognise progress and achievements. Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve - in bite-size chunks. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones. Dont let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and future milestones. Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion, new change leaders. Weave change into culture.(, nd; Kotter, 2006; PowerProjects, 2006)
  11. 11. Thorntons 3-C Leadership Model Identifies three specific leadership actions  Challenge  Share their vision  Set very high goals  Ask challenging questions  Confidence  Recognizing & rewarding  Providing professional development  Empowering with responsibility and authority  Coaching  Provide feedback  Pose questions to improve understanding  Set an example of continual self-improvement. (, n.d.)
  12. 12. Peter Senges 4 futures There must be a combination of;  Appropriate dialogue,  Consultation and  Empowerment Change cannot be easily imposed upon people Each individual has to learn how to lead themselves (leopard-learning, n.d.; )
  13. 13. ReferencesBobic, M. P., & Davis, W. (2003). A Kind Word for Theory X: Or Why So Many Newfangled Management Techniques Quickly Fail. Journal Of Public Administration Research & Theory, 13(3), 239.Kotter, John; Rathgeber, Holger; Spencer Johnson; Peter Mueller (2006-09-05). Our Iceberg Is Melting: Changing and Succeeding Under Any Conditions (Kotter, Our Iceberg is Melting) (Kindle Locations 130-133). St. Martins Press. Kindle (n.d) Theory X and Theory Y: Understanding team member motivation. Retrieved from A summary of the article: "Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail" by John Kotter. Harvard Business Review, March-April 1995. J%20Kotter.pdfThorntons 3-C Leadership Model. QuickMBA. (n.d) Thorntons 3-C Leadership Model. Retrieved from and change management models. http://www.leopard-