Behaviour	
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Understanding	
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A	
   buyer	
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   sorghum	
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Behaviour change project design principles

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Behaviour change project design principles

  1. 1.       Behaviour  Change  Project  Design  Principles1     Understanding  the  Opportunity  for  Change   • • Actively  look  for  examples  even  if  only  from  a  small  group  of  the  actions  already  occurring.   This  will  signal  that  there  is  already  a  willingness  and  intention  to  take  action   There   has   to   be   a   value   placed   on   behaviour   restrictions.   Look   at   examples   of   how   the   community  sanctions  or  penalises  a  community  member  for  taking  on  a  unique  behaviour,   and  understand  what  the  core  rule  is  that  is  driving  the  community  response.    In  many  rural   communities   there   are   strong   norms   around   maintaining   your   position   within   the   community  hierarchy.  Behaviour  patterns  that  are  labelled  ‘individualistic’  can  threaten  this   norm   –   i.e   ‘tall   poppy’   or   pull-­‐him-­‐down   syndrome   (where   genuine   good   behaviours   are   resented,   attacked,   cut   down   or   criticised   because   their   talents   or   achievements   elevate   them   above   or   distinguish   them   from   their   peers).       If   this   is   known,   then   the   facilitation   tactics   used   can   be   adjusted   to   provide   the   right   mechanisms   for   widespread   adoption.     An   example   of   changing   tactics   is   by   moving   away   from   using   the   lead   farmer   model   to   demonstrate   new   farming   practices   and   towards   more   established   promotional   tools,   like   trial  packs,  promotional  discounts  and  contests     Testing  and  Re-­‐design   • • Identify  the  interventions  that  seem  most  feasible  and  useful,  roll  them  out  in  a  controlled   way  in  a  small  pilot  program,  and  tracking  outcomes  will  inform  an  iterative  process  of  re-­‐ design   Prototyping  and  a  willingness  to  experiment  and  tweak  are  crucial.  Over  time,  this  will  lead   to   an   intervention   or   a   small   set   of   interventions   that   are   both   psychologically   sound   and   administratively  and  logistically  feasible     Sequencing  and  Combining   The  design  principles  are  useful  to  understand  separately.  However,  to  ramp  up  adoption  it  is   critical  to  combine  and  sequence  them.                                                                                                                                 1  Adapted  from  Datta,  S.,  and  Mullainathan,  S.  (2012),  ‘Behavioral  Design  A  New  Approach  to  Development’,  Center  for  Global   Development,  CGD  Policy  Paper  016  November  2012      
  2. 2. Example:       A   buyer   of   sorghum   can   develop   contracts   to   include   an   agreement   for   all   farmers   that   payments   will   be   made   in   instalments   and   will   include   a   payment   of   school   fees   and   pre-­‐ payment   for   next   year’s   inputs.   (To   opt-­‐out   of   this,   famers   would   have   to   specifically   write   that   they   do   not   want   to   participate   in   these   programmes.)   This   agreement   could   be   followed   up   with   reminders   and   micro-­‐incentives   (possibly   via   e-­‐coupons)   to   get   farmers   to   plan   ahead   and   carry  out  specific  tasks  on  their  farm.    The  e-­‐coupon  incentives  could  be  in  the  form  of  discount   on   a   service   that   will   facilitate   the   task.     The   reminders   could   be   framed   to   imply   most   farmers   are  already  doing  the  task  i.e.  “Don’t  be  the  last  one  to  get  your  weeding  done!”      At  the  end  of   the  season,  a  sorghum  day  event  can  be  held  to  reward  sorghum  club  members,  and  give  them   the  opportunity  to  explain  how  easy  it  was  for  their  fellow  farmers  to  become  members  too.     The   local   radio   can   host   the   event,   and   all   presenters   can   clearly   focus   on   the   benefits   of   growing  sorghum  and  being  a  member  of  the  sorghum  club.           In   this   scenario,   all   the   principles   have   been   applied:   principle   1   (signing   a   contract   to   make   commitment   easier);   principle   2   (instalment   payments   to   reduce   the   need   for   self-­‐control);   principle   3   (contract   makes   the   payment   process   the   default   option);   principle   4   (SMS   reminders   and   e-­‐coupons   to   offer   micro-­‐incentives);   principle   5   (SMS   reminders);   principle   6   (sorghum   day   and   messaging   on   social   and   economic   benefits);   and   principle   7   (reminder   messaging  and  testimonial  messaging).      

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