Graphic Materials


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Graphic Materials

  1. 1. Working with Graphics Graphic Materials Graphics- are non-photographic, two dimensional materials designed specifically to communicate a message to the viewer. They often include verbal as well a symbolic visual cues.
  2. 2. Types of Graphics • • • Drawing Objects Pictures Diagrams
  3. 3. Drawing Objects- Include AutoShape, WordArt and Lines. Buttons to create new objects are in the drawing mode panel, and users can create new objects using operations on the canvas after selecting a drawing mode.
  4. 4. Types of Drawing Objects • AutoShape • WordArt • Lines
  5. 5. AutoShapes -is a tool to help you draw objects on your document. You can choose to have an AutoShapes toolbar or use the AutoShapes menu on the Draw toolbar. Once you insert an AutoShape, you can also put a Text Box inside it, or other shapes. You can move or resize them as you wish.
  6. 6. Examples of AutoShapes 1.Basic Shapes
  7. 7. 2.Block Arrows
  8. 8. 3.Equation Shapes
  9. 9. 4. Flowchart
  10. 10. 5. Stars and Banners
  11. 11. 6. Callouts
  12. 12. To Insert an AutoShape 1. Click on the Insert Menu – Picture – AutoShape 2. Select the AutoShape category you want. 3. Click the AutoShape you want to add. 4. The mouse pointer changes to a crosshair (+) 5. To insert a shape with a predefined (default) size, simply click on the document. To insert a different size, drag crosshair (diagonally) until the AutoShape is the size and shape you want. Observe that the drawing object is selected, as indicated by the eight sizing handles around it. (At this point, the drawing object can be moved by dragging, rotated, resized or deleted.) 6. To deselect the AutoShape, click outside it.
  13. 13. WordArt- is text with special effects. You can create shadowed, skewed, rotated, and stretched text, as well as text with particular shapes. The special text effect created with WordArt is a Drawing object, so you can also use buttons on the Drawing toolbar to change the effect, such as filling the text effect with a picture.
  14. 14. Examples of WordArt
  15. 15. To Insert a WordArt 1. Position the insertion point where you will insert the WordArt. 2. Click on the Insert menu – Picture WordArt; or simply click on the Insert WordArt button on the Drawing toolbar. The WordArt Gallery dialog box opens. 3. Select the style you like and click on OK. The Edit WordArt Text dialog box opens. 4. Choose the font style, font size, and font attribute you want. 5. Type your text in the space provided. 6. Edit your work when necessary 7. When done, click on OK 8. To edit your finished WordArt dialog box, then use the button you need for editing.
  16. 16. Line- is a one-dimensional element measured only in length. It is an abstract concept that is more perceived than actually viewed. Very few lines appear in nature, yet we see the edges of things around us, helping us to differentiate a shape or form from its surroundings.
  17. 17. Examples of Lines
  18. 18. To Add a Line, Arrow, Double-arrow 1. On the Drawing toolbar, click on the button–lines. 2. Click on the Line, Arrow or Double-arrow button. 3. Position the mouse where you want to insert the drawing object. 4. Drag the mouse until the drawing object is the size and shape you want. To Add a Curve, Freeform or Scribble 1. On the Drawing toolbar, click on the AutoShapes button – Lines 2. If the Curve button is picked: Click where you want the shape to start. Continue moving the mouse, clicking wherever you want to add a point to the curve. 3. If the Freeform button is picked: Drag to draw freehand shapes; click and move the mouse to draw straight lines. 4. If the Scribble button is picked: Drag the mouse pointer and draw like you would with a pen. 5. To end a shape and leave it open, double-click it at any point. 6. To close a shape, click near its starting point.
  19. 19. Pictures 1. ClipArt- in the graphic arts, refers to pre-made images used to illustrate any medium. Today, clip art is used extensively in both personal and commercial projects, ranging from home-printed greeting cards to commercial candles. Clip art comes in many forms, both electronic and printed. However, most clip art today is created, distributed, and used in an electronic form. Since its inception, clip art has evolved to include a wide variety of content, file formats, illustration styles, and licensing restrictions. Clip art is generally composed exclusively of illustrations (created by hand or by computer software), and does not include stock photography.
  20. 20. Examples of ClipArt
  21. 21. To Insert a Clip Art from the Clip Gallery 1. Place the insertion point where you want to insert a Clip Art. 2. Click on the Insert menu – Picture – Clip Art. The Clip Art Gallery opens. 3. Click on a given category. 4. Click on the desired picture, and then click on Insert Clip on the pop-up menu.
  22. 22. 2. Bitmaps images- are exactly what their name says they are: a collection of bits that form an image. The image consists of a matrix of individual dots (or pixels) that all have their own colour (described using bits, the smallest possible units of information for a computer).
  23. 23. Examples of Bitmaps
  24. 24. To Insert a Bitmap Image 1. Click where you want to insert the picture. 2. Click on the Insert menu – Picture – From File. The insert dialog box opens. 3. Locate the picture you want to insert. 4. Click on the Insert button located at the bottom of the dialog box.
  25. 25. 3. A photograph or photo- is an image created by light falling on a lightsensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic image such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see.
  26. 26. Example of Photographs
  27. 27. To Insert a Picture from a Scanner or Digital Camera 1. Set up the picture in the device. 2. Click where you want to insert the picture. 3. Click on the Insert menu – Picture – From Scanner or Camera. Note: This feature must be installed before you can use it. 4. Select the device you are using under Device. 5. Select either Web Quality (for onscreen viewing) or Print Quality (if printing). 6. Click either Insert (if you want to use the predefined settings) or Custom Insert (if you want to change image settings). 7. When the image appears in the document, make any changes you want.
  28. 28. Diagram- is a two-dimensional geometric symbolic representation of information according to some visualization technique. Sometimes, the technique uses a threedimensional visualization which is then projected onto the two-dimensional surface. The word graph is sometimes used as a synonym for diagram.
  29. 29. Types of Diagram 1. Graphs- are pictures that help us understand amounts. These amounts are called data. There are many kinds of graphs, each having special parts.
  30. 30. Types of Graphs 1. Circle Graph- is shaped like a circle. It is divided into fractions that look like pieces of pie, so sometimes a circle graph is called a pie graph.
  31. 31. Example of Circle Graph
  32. 32. 2. Bar Graph- uses bars to show data. The bars can be vertical (up and down), or horizontal (across). The data can be in words or numbers
  33. 33. Example of Bar Graph
  34. 34. 3. Picture Graph- uses pictures or symbols to show data. One picture often stands for more than one vote so a key is necessary to understand the symbols.
  35. 35. Example of Picture Graph
  36. 36. 4. Histogram- is a special kind of bar graph. The data must be shown as numbers in order.
  37. 37. Example of Histogram
  38. 38. 5. Line Graph- shows points plotted on a graph. The points are then connected to form a line.
  39. 39. Example of Line Graph
  40. 40. Types of Graph-based Diagram 1. Tree Diagram- refers to a specific type of diagram that has a unique network topology.
  41. 41. Example of Tree Diagram
  42. 42. 2. Network diagram may refer to: *Computer network diagram, a depiction of nodes and connections in a computer or telecommunications network *Graph drawing, methods for visualizing graphs and networks regardless of their application *Project network, a flow chart showing the sequence of a project's tasks and their dependencies *Social network, a social structure of individuals or organizations.
  43. 43. Example of Network Diagram
  44. 44. 3. Flowchart- is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting these with arrows.
  45. 45. Example of Flowchart
  46. 46. 4. Venn diagram- or set diagram is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of sets (aggregation of things).
  47. 47. Example of Venn Diagram
  48. 48. 5. Existential graph- is a type of diagrammatic or visual notation for logical expressions, proposed by Charles Sanders Peirce, who wrote on graphical logic as early as 1882 and continued to develop the method until his death in 1914.
  49. 49. Example of Existential Graph
  50. 50. How to Create a Graph using a Spreadsheet 1. Enter your data into the spreadsheet in a table format. 2. Select the cells that contain the information that you want to appear in the graph. If you want the column labels and the row labels to show up in the graph, ensure that those are selected also. 3. Press the F11 button on your keyboard. This will create your graph on a "chart sheet." A chart sheet is basically a spreadsheet page within a workbook that is totally dedicated to displaying your graph. 4. Use the Chart wizard Click insert then chart, if F11 doesn't work. In Gnumeric it won't work. Choose Chart Type. 5. On the Chart toolbar, which appears after your chart is created, click on the arrow next to the Chart Type button and click on the type of chart you want.
  51. 51. 2. Chart- is a graphical representation of columns and rows of numbers. Charts can make data interesting, attractive and easy to read and evaluate. You can interpret information easily, analyse and compare data clearly. Charts can make some dull numbers in your presentation interesting and attractive. They also help you make your audience understand what you are talking about.
  52. 52. Types of Charts 1. Column Chart- shows data changes over a period of time or illustrates comparisons among items. Categories are organized horizontally, values vertically, to emphasize variation over time.
  53. 53. Example of Column Chart 6 5 4 Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 3 2 1 0 Category 1Category 2Category 3Category 4
  54. 54. 2. Bar Chart- illustrates comparisons among individual items. Categories are organized vertically, values horizontally, to focus on comparing values and to place less emphasis on time.
  55. 55. Example of Bar Chart Category 4 Category 3 Series 3 Series 2 Series 1 Category 2 Category 1 0 2 4 6
  56. 56. 3. Line Chart- is a type of chart which displays information as a series of data points connected by straight line segments. It is a basic type of chart common in many fields. It is an extension of a scatter graph, and is created by connecting a series of points that represent individual measurements with line segments. A line chart is often used to visualize a trend in data over intervals of time – a time series – thus the line is often drawn chronologically.
  57. 57. Example of Line Chart 6 5 4 3 Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 2 1 0 Category Category Category Category 1 2 3 4
  58. 58. 4. Pie Chart- is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents.
  59. 59. Example of Pie Chart Sales 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr
  60. 60. 5. XY or Scatter Chart- displays series as a set of points. Values are represented by the position of the point in the chart space. Categories are represented by different points in the chart.
  61. 61. Example of XY or Scatter Chart Y-Values 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 Y-Values 1 0.5 0 0 1 2 3
  62. 62. 6. Area Chart- displays graphically quantitate data. It is based on the line chart. The area between axis and line are commonly emphasized with colors, textures and hatchings. Commonly one compares with an area chart two or more quantities
  63. 63. Example of Area Chart 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Series 2 Series 1
  64. 64. 7. Doughnut Chart- displays value data as percentages of the whole. Categories are represented by individual slices. Doughnut charts are functionally identical to pie charts.
  65. 65. Example of Doughnut Chart Sales 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr
  66. 66. 8. Radar Chart- is a graphical method of displaying multivariate data in the form of a two-dimensional chart of three or more quantitative variables represented on axes starting from the same point. The relative position and angle of the axes is typically uninformative.
  67. 67. Example of Radar Chart 1/9/2002 1/8/2002 1/5/2002 40 30 20 10 0 1/6/2002 Series 1 Series 2 1/7/2002
  68. 68. 9. Surface Chart- shows a threedimensional surface that connects a set of data points. A surface chart is useful when you want to find optimum combinations between two sets of data.
  69. 69. Example of Surface Chart 5 4 3 2 1 0 Series 3 Series 2 Series 1 4-5 3-4 2-3 1-2 0-1
  70. 70. 10. Bubble Chart -is a type of chart that displays three dimensions of data. Each entity with its triplet (v1, v2, v3) of associated data is plotted as a disk that expresses two of the vi values through the disk's xy location and the third through its size.
  71. 71. Example of Bubble Chart Y-Values 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 Y-Values 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 4
  72. 72. 11. Stock Chart- is often used for scientific data, for example, to indicate temperature changes. You may organize your data in the correct order to create this and other stock details.
  73. 73. Example of Stock Chart 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Volume High Low Close
  74. 74. To Add a Chart 1. From the New Presentation box, select the presentation that you want except for the AutoContent Wizard and then click on the OK button. 2. From the New Slide dialog box, select the AutoLayout with a placeholder for a chart and then click on the OK button. 3. The slide appears on your screen. Depending on the layout that you choose, your screen may look different. 4. Add the title and main text as needed. 5. Double-click on the object with a chart. The datasheet appears. Note: If the datasheet does not appear, click on the View Datasheet button to display the datasheet. 6. Type the actual data in the cell of the datasheet. As you type the actual data, your data replaces the old data. 7. When you have finished typing all the data, click anywhere outside the datasheet. A new chart is displayed on your screen.