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Session 1 – A guide to University
Reading
To do a task
Notetaking
What is our aim?
 Give you a better understanding of what it's like to transition to university
 How different the learning and teaching is at university
 Give you a taster session with two patient case studies on cardiovascular diseases!
 Help you with your A-level revision
Our plan for the first session:
1. Why go to university?
2. Typical week at university
3. Differences with teaching and learning
4. Adapting to everyday life
5. Clubs and societies at University of Leeds
6. Financial support
7. Student support and wellbeing
Our plan for the following sessions:
Week 2 (7th of March)
 Learning about cardiovascular physiology using the workbook to prepare you for the case
studies
Week 3 (14th of March)
 First case study that we will do with you
Week 4 (21st of March)
 Second case study on a rare genetic disease related to cardiovascular disease that you
will answer in groups supervised by one of us
In one or two words what is your first impression about university?
Start a task
Scan this QR with your phone and send in your answers
I) Teaching and learning at University
‘university challenges you to become an independent critical thinker’
(University of Leeds)
Why go to University?
 You have a strong passion for your course
 Improve future career prospects
 Develop your independence and confidence
 Gain great experience in a new environment and meet new people
 Have fun!
Typical week at University
How different is learning and teaching at University?
 students are taught through a blended approach with both online and face to face
learning
 video and audio recordings from lectures are available through your virtual learning
environment (you will have access to this once you start university) so that you can go back
and watch the lecture contents
 researched based learning is also an important part of university that you will be
required to do (e.g: reading research papers and studies relevant to the topic you are learning)
 independent study and research are crucial to the course!!!
 plenty of opportunities of working with fellow students
 you will get assigned a personal tutor at the beginning of year 1 who will support and
advise you academically
 Assessments at University
 in 1st year: multiple choice questions (MCQs) or/and short answer questions used in
online time limited assessments (OTLAs)
 in 2nd and 3rd year: longer essays used in online time limited assessment (OTLAs)
 Assessements can be during the semester or during the exam period (January and May
every year)
 written lab reports, grant applications, oral presentation, reflective accounts, portfolios or
delivering poster presentations
 Different activities that you will do during your course will
include:
 project work
 laboratory sessions
 practical sessions
 field work
 independent study
What is hybrid learning?
 Autonomy over your learning
University is what YOU make of it!
 Having autonomy over my learning means working independently after each lecture,
managing and organising my work load, doing further reading on the topic, creating revision
material...
 Unlike school and college, you won't be led by the hand and helped every step of the
way!
 Lecturers and personal tutors are there to guide you but you are the one that has to initiate
the interaction if you want help
How do I become autonomous in my learning?
 I need to find an effective note taking technique during lectures (taking paper notes or
digital notes on the computer)
 For exams and assignments I need to research the topic and add to the notes I already
have from the lecture
 I need to have my own revision techniques
 I need to develop a good work routine giving time for my academic work and social life
 I need to develop healthy habits and try my best to attend every lecture
You can find more information on learning and teaching for Biomedical sciences courses
here:
https://courses.leeds.ac.uk/j416/biomedical-sciences-mbiol-bsc
II) Getting involved: Sports clubs and societies
 outdoor sports with sport facilities around campus and in Leeds (Wetwood sports park,
Boddington Playing fields, Yorkshire Dales, boat house near Twaite Mills Stourton)
 ‘Get out and get active’ programme: gives you the chance to try out a range of fun and
sociable healthy activities on campus and in the local countryside
 Leeds University Union clubs
More information can be found here:
https://www.leeds.ac.uk/around-campus/doc/sport-fitness
 The Edge: University Gym centre
 Volunteering opportunities
III) Financial support at the University of Leeds
Scholarships do not need to be paid back!
1. Sport scholarship program
 for athletes who are able to compete at high levels whilst studying
2. Coaching scholarships
 give students the opportunity to work alongside head coaches of the University of Leeds
to raise club performance
 application normally starts in Spring 2023 for September 2023 but you should check
this!
 email performancesport@leeds.ac.uk for more information
More information about scholarships can be found here:
https://sport.leeds.ac.uk/sport/performance-sport-scholarships/
3. Leeds Bursary
 non-repayable support for full-time and part-time UK students
 helps students with the costs of being at University (e.g: cash bursary, discount on your
fees, help with University accommodation)
 the level of support you receive depends on your household income
More information can be found here:
https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-university/doc/leeds-bursary
4. Scholarships on personal achievement
 This depends on household income level
 includes one to one support and advice sessions, group workshops, mentoring
opportunities, social events and monthly newsletters through the Plus Programme
 You need to meet the eligibility criteria
 You need to be entering Leeds as full-time level one undergraduate in the following
September.
More information can be found here:
https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-university/doc/personal-circumstances-scholarships
You can email them for more information: ugscholarships@leeds.ac.uk.
Scholarships FAQs: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-scholarships/doc/scholarships-
faqs
5. Plus Programme
 support scheme for UK-fee paying undergraduate and postgraduate taught
students who come from backgrounds that are less represented at university
 help with the transition, success and progression at University
Different ways the Plus Programme helps students:
 Signposting: at the beginning of the year if you feel like you have questions or need help
accessing different services, the programme will direct you in the right direction
 Events: they offer exclusive and free events all year for students to build skills and feel
comfortable at Leeds. Students can also have exclusive or priority on certain events and services
at the University.
 Clubs and Societies fund: helps you with the membership costs of joining clubs and
societies
 The Opportunities Fund: financially supports students for professional development
opportunities like internships, conferences or interviews.
 Weekly activity updates: keeps students updated on the best activities from all over
campus and the city of Leeds
 Mentoring opportunities: students can either have a go at mentoring other students
from the Plus Programme or have mentoring for them from professionals.
 Social Media Community: Subscribing to their social media as a way to meet other
students from the Plus Programme.
 Estranged and Care leaver Support: supports students who are estranged or care
experienced.
You can find more information about the Plus Programme here:
https://students.leeds.ac.uk/info/1000014/plus_programme
You can get in touch with the Plus Programme here: theplusprogramme@leeds.ac.uk.
6. Scholarships on academic achievement
 awarded by the School of Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences and School of
Molecular and cellular biology
 certain criteria need to be met
 Biomedical school offers means-tested scholarships
More information can be found here:
https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-university/doc/scholarships-academic-achievement
IV) Financial support from outside the University
1. Financial hardship funding
 University funded scheme for students and postgraduate researchers who face
unexpected financial difficulties and don’t have an alternative source of financial support
 Helps with living costs
 Certain criteria need to be met
 Can apply at any time or date
More information can be found here:
https://students.leeds.ac.uk/info/10231/university_financial_assistance_fund/618/start_your_applicati
on_now
2. Government funding:
 Tuition fee loans
 For UK undergraduate student in full-time or part-time education
 Covers full tuition fees
 Can apply to this regardless of your household income
 Student loans company will pay your tuition fees directly to the university each year
 It is repayable, you start paying it back after you graduate or leave your course and only
if you are earning a certain income
How can I apply?
 You need to create an account on Student Finance England and then start the
application
Student Finance England:
https://logon.slc.co.uk/welcome/secured/login?_locale=en_GB&cookieConsent=accept
 Maintenance loans
 Student loans company will pay your maintenance loan directly to you in instalments
usually at the start of each term
 Repayable
 Don’t have to start paying it until you graduate or you leave your course and if only you
are earning a certain income
More information about tuition and maintenance loans can be found here:
https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-government/doc/student-loans
 NHS funding
 Students studying nursing, midwifery and allied health professions are able to access
student loans to cover cost of tuition fees and means-tested support for living costs
More information can be found here:
https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-government/doc/nhs-funding
 Funding for disabled students (DSA)
 Disabled students’ allowance is a grant to help some disabled students cover any
additional costs that arise as a direct result of a disability
More information can be found here:
https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-government/doc/funding-disabled-students
Contact the university: disability@leeds.ac.uk
student advice at Leeds University Union
 support students applying for specific disability related funding
 During term time they are in the Leeds University Union building every day of the week
including week ends
Contact them: 0113 3801 400 email: advice@luu.leeds.ac.uk
 Funding for students with dependents
 If you have children or adults who depend on you, you may be able to access
government funding to provide extra financial support while you study
More information can be found here:
https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-government/doc/funding-students-dependents
V) Wellbeing and support
 Several services are available at university to help you
 Student services provide help if you are struggling with life at university and would like
some additional support
 Free counselling, well-being and mental health support
More information on the wellbeing services can be found here:
https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-student-life/doc/wellbeing-support
 Assigned to a personal tutor at the beginning of the year for your entire time at
university
 Support for care-experienced or estranged students
VI) Career support
• Careers office helps and supports you with study abroad/ internship opportunities, job opportunities
during your time studying at university and also once you graduate.
More information can be found here:
https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-career/doc/careers-support
VII) Summary
 University is different to college and school: you are an independent learner and you are
expected to take responsibility on your learning
 University of Leeds has a hybrid style of learning
 You will have to adapt to living independently away from home (for those moving to
university)
 There are many societies and clubs for you to meet people
 Financial support, student support and wellbeing are there to help you at university
 University is a great experience but do not think it will be all fun and games you will
have to work!
Reading To do task Notetaking
Session 2 – Circulatory system, heart and haemoglobin
Learning objectives:
1.Understand the systemic/circulatory system and blood vessels, including arteries, veins,
and capillaries.
2.Understand coronary circulation and that the heart has its own blood supply
3.Understand what systemic arterial pressure (blood pressure) is
4.Understand the cardiovascular disease and its diagnostic tests
5.Understand why haemoglobin is an oxygen-transporter in the body
6.Apply the knowledge learned in the Kahoot
Starter task:
Organs Oxygenated blood Deoxygenated blood
Kidney Enter via Leave via
Gut Enter via Leave via
Liver Enter via Leave via
Lung Leave via Enter via
I) What is systemic circulation?
Systemic circulation is made up of the heart and blood vessels.
Fill in the gaps:
 All arteries carry blood away......................................................
 All veins carry blood........................................................
 Arteries carry...........................................blood except the pulmonary
artery........................................
 Veins carry.............................................blood except the pulmonary
vein...............................................
 The main function of the circulatory system is to deliver.....................................
and..............................................to the rest of the body from the heart.
To the heart / pulmonary artery / nutrients / oxygen / from the heart / oxygenated / deoxygenated /
pulmonary vein
Types of blood vessels
A) Types of arteries
1. Elastic arteries (aorta)
 Large diameter
 Low resistance
 Adapts to high pressure fluctuations when blood leaves the heart
 Composed of large amounts of elastin in the tunica media to be able to stretch and
recoil
 The inner lining (endothelium) is folded that allows the artery to stretch and maintain
high pressures.
2. Muscular arteries
 Diameter of 0.3-10mm
 Less distensible, more active on vasoconstriction
 Delivers blood to specific organs
 Composed of less elastin and more smooth muscle in the tunica media
3. Arterioles
 Diameter of 10μm - 300μm
 Delivers to the capillary beds by responding to stimuli from the brain and local
chemicals
 Tunica medica is composed of almost entirely smooth muscle
 Muscles inside the arterioles contract to restrict blood flow or relax to allow full blood
flow.
B) Types of capillaries
1. Continuous capillaries
 Most common type
 Diameter of 8-10μm
 Delivers blood to the organ
 Endothelial cells have tight junctions between them
 Contain intercellular clefts: these allow the limited passage of fluid and small solutes
2. Fenestrated capillaries
 diameter of 8-10um
 play a role in active absorption or filtrate formation (small intestine, kidney)
 endothelial cells of the vessel have oval pores or fenestrations
 most permeable to fluids and small solutes
What is microcirculation?
Blood flows through the capillary beds and forms the microcirculation.
Fill in the gaps:
 capillaries form................................ ..............that are interweaving networks
 precapillary sphincters ...................................or..................................... to control blood
flow.
Contract / capillary beds/ relax
C) Types of veins
1. Venules
 diameter of 8-100um
 formed when capillaries unite to get the deoxygenated blood out of the organ.
 consists of only endothelium
 larger venules have a sparse tunica media and tunica adventitia.
2. Veins
 Blood flow at low pressure
 valves ensure that the blood is pumped back up to the heart.
 carry large blood volumes back to the heart
 composed of the 3 tunica layers: tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia
 inner walls are always thinner than the artery walls
 lumens are always larger than the arteries
 not very elastic and doesn’t contain a lot of muscle tissue
 valves inside the veins stop blood from flowing backwards
II) What is coronary circulation?
The coronary circulation supplies the heart with blood
 the heart has its own blood supply with the left and right coronary artery
 the right and left coronary arteries arise from the base of the aorta, just above the
aortic valve
 most of the venous blood drains via the coronary sinus directly into the right atrium
 The coronary circulation must deliver oxygen at a high rate to meet cardiac demand
III) What is systemic blood pressure?
‘Blood pressure is a measure of the force that your heart uses to pump blood around your
body.’ (NHS)
Measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as 2 figures:
 systolic pressure = the pressure when your heart pushes blood out
 diastolic pressure = the pressure when your heart rests between beats.
 Ideal blood pressure: between 90/60mmHg and 120/80mmHg
 High blood pressure: 140/90 mmHg or higher
 Low blood pressure: 90/60mmHg or lower
How is blood pressure measured?
Systemic arterial blood pressure is measured using a Sphygmomanometer.
IV) Cardiovascular disease CVD
1. Definition of cardiovascular disease:
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2. Name 3 risk factors for CVD
____________________________________________________________________________
3. Name 3 diagnostic tests for cardiovascular disease
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
V) Haemoglobin
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
V) Summary
 The circulatory system is important as it delivers oxygen and nutrients to the rest of the
body through the blood
 Oxygenated blood is transported from the heart to organs via the arteries and arterioles
 Deoxygenated blood is transported from the organs via the veins and venules back to
the heart
 The heart has its own blood supply via the coronary circulation
 Blood pressure is a measure of the force that your heart uses to pump blood around
your body and it is measured using a sphygmomanometry
 Examples of diagnostic tests for CV include blood count, blood tests and ECG.
 Haemoglobin is a protein that can carry up to 4 molecules of oxygen in blood vessels
around the body
Join this Kahoot and complete the questions!
Link:https://create.kahoot.it/details/5f0b9269-db9f-42a5-bcc1-e5b35319e171
Session 3 – Case study 1
Start a task
A 57-year-old man has the following symptoms:
 Chest pain
 Dyspnea (shortness of breath)
 Nausea
 Unexplained Weakness
The man declares he is diabetic and a smoker and experienced 3 hours of chronic chest pain prior to
the visit to the hospital.
Doctors run a series of simple, physical tests with the following results:
Heart rate: 100bpm (is this regular?)
Blood pressure 140/90mmHg (is this regular?)
Lungs showed little to no problems
Heart showed signs of a murmur
Further tests were then carried out on account of the symptoms and the murmur.
Blood tests exhibited only one irregularity: 30ng/L concentration of cardiac Troponin T in the
bloodstream.
Electrocardiograms:
Patient:
Normal:
Can you notice any differences when you compare the patient’s ECG to the normal? Use the PQRST
diagram to the left to describe the differences.
After these tests were done, the patient was advised to spend 24 hours under precautionary care at
the hospital, with regular monitoring of heart rate, blood pressure and symptomatic changes.
What is the diagnosis?
Treatment
Variety of different pharmaceutical approaches to alleviating these symptoms:
 Antiplatelet medications (aspirin): inactivate platelets, leading to less blood
clotting
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: targets angiotensin, interfering
with its ability to increase blood pressure, causing an overall decrease in blood pressure.
 Beta-blockers: cause your heart to beat at a slower rate and with less force.
 Nitroglycerin: widens your blood vessels, reducing blood pressure and improving
blood flow.
 Statins: lower the cholesterol level in the blood
Outside of the pharmaceutical approach, there are many lifestyle adaptations that can be taken to
reduce the problem overall and prevent a future problem from arising.
Maintain a healthy lifestyle containing healthy, well-
rounded meals with all the core nutrients required to
sustain a healthy heart. Regular exercise is
absolutely necessary and smoking is strongly
advised against.
Session 4 – Case study 2
Thalassemia
 Genetic disorder affecting the haemoglobin gene
 Autosomal recessive condition: child inherits a copy of the mutated alpha and beta
globin-producing genes from both of their parents
 Decreased synthesis of alpha and beta chains of haemoglobin
 Red blood cells cannot transport oxygen effectively around the body
 Red blood cells don't form correctly, last shorter periods of time, have abnormal function
and there are fewer of them in the blood stream
 More prevalent in Greek, Turkish, Asian, African and Middle Eastern populations
 Symptoms are normally experienced early on in life
Together as a class
 What tests to confirm diagnosis & for each, what would you expect to see?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
 While he waits for his results, what lifestyle changes & why?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
 What would be the primary treatment and why?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Summary:
 Thalassemia is a genetic disorder affecting the hemoglobin gene
 Results in a decrease synthesis of the beta and alpha chains of hemoglobin
 Condition is inherited from one of the parents carrying the mutated gene
 Autosomal recessive: mutations are present in both copies of the hemoglobin gene
 Diagnosis tests include red blood cell count (low red blood cells), peripheral blood
smear, iron studies and DNA analysis
 Treatment includes blood transfusion and chellation therapy
What you should remember from these 4 sessions?
 University is a great experience but it's what you make of it!
 Teaching and learning at University is very different to 6th form college.
 The circulatory system is important as it delivers oxygen and nutrients to the rest of the
body through the blood. It is crucial to maintain a normal blood pressure.
 The heart has its own blood supply via the coronary circulation.
 Diagnostic tests for cardiovascular disease include but not limited to complete blood
count, blood test and ECG
 Haemoglobin is a protein that carriers oxygen in blood vessels around the body.
 Research at university is very dependent on individual involvement and extra study.
 Case studies are an important tool in furthering diagnostic ability and analytical thinking.
 Not all information is important, a key skill is analysing information and assessing its
importance and relevance.
 PQRST is the regular notation of ECG graphs.
 Healthy lifestyle and diet can combat the risk of cardiovascular disease.

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Workbook.docx

  • 1. Session 1 – A guide to University Reading To do a task Notetaking What is our aim?  Give you a better understanding of what it's like to transition to university  How different the learning and teaching is at university  Give you a taster session with two patient case studies on cardiovascular diseases!  Help you with your A-level revision Our plan for the first session: 1. Why go to university? 2. Typical week at university 3. Differences with teaching and learning 4. Adapting to everyday life 5. Clubs and societies at University of Leeds 6. Financial support 7. Student support and wellbeing Our plan for the following sessions: Week 2 (7th of March)  Learning about cardiovascular physiology using the workbook to prepare you for the case studies
  • 2. Week 3 (14th of March)  First case study that we will do with you Week 4 (21st of March)  Second case study on a rare genetic disease related to cardiovascular disease that you will answer in groups supervised by one of us In one or two words what is your first impression about university? Start a task Scan this QR with your phone and send in your answers I) Teaching and learning at University ‘university challenges you to become an independent critical thinker’ (University of Leeds)
  • 3. Why go to University?  You have a strong passion for your course  Improve future career prospects  Develop your independence and confidence  Gain great experience in a new environment and meet new people  Have fun! Typical week at University How different is learning and teaching at University?  students are taught through a blended approach with both online and face to face learning  video and audio recordings from lectures are available through your virtual learning environment (you will have access to this once you start university) so that you can go back and watch the lecture contents  researched based learning is also an important part of university that you will be required to do (e.g: reading research papers and studies relevant to the topic you are learning)  independent study and research are crucial to the course!!!  plenty of opportunities of working with fellow students  you will get assigned a personal tutor at the beginning of year 1 who will support and advise you academically  Assessments at University
  • 4.  in 1st year: multiple choice questions (MCQs) or/and short answer questions used in online time limited assessments (OTLAs)  in 2nd and 3rd year: longer essays used in online time limited assessment (OTLAs)  Assessements can be during the semester or during the exam period (January and May every year)  written lab reports, grant applications, oral presentation, reflective accounts, portfolios or delivering poster presentations  Different activities that you will do during your course will include:  project work  laboratory sessions  practical sessions  field work  independent study What is hybrid learning?  Autonomy over your learning
  • 5. University is what YOU make of it!  Having autonomy over my learning means working independently after each lecture, managing and organising my work load, doing further reading on the topic, creating revision material...  Unlike school and college, you won't be led by the hand and helped every step of the way!  Lecturers and personal tutors are there to guide you but you are the one that has to initiate the interaction if you want help How do I become autonomous in my learning?  I need to find an effective note taking technique during lectures (taking paper notes or digital notes on the computer)  For exams and assignments I need to research the topic and add to the notes I already have from the lecture  I need to have my own revision techniques  I need to develop a good work routine giving time for my academic work and social life  I need to develop healthy habits and try my best to attend every lecture You can find more information on learning and teaching for Biomedical sciences courses here: https://courses.leeds.ac.uk/j416/biomedical-sciences-mbiol-bsc II) Getting involved: Sports clubs and societies  outdoor sports with sport facilities around campus and in Leeds (Wetwood sports park, Boddington Playing fields, Yorkshire Dales, boat house near Twaite Mills Stourton)  ‘Get out and get active’ programme: gives you the chance to try out a range of fun and sociable healthy activities on campus and in the local countryside  Leeds University Union clubs More information can be found here: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/around-campus/doc/sport-fitness  The Edge: University Gym centre  Volunteering opportunities
  • 6. III) Financial support at the University of Leeds Scholarships do not need to be paid back! 1. Sport scholarship program  for athletes who are able to compete at high levels whilst studying 2. Coaching scholarships  give students the opportunity to work alongside head coaches of the University of Leeds to raise club performance  application normally starts in Spring 2023 for September 2023 but you should check this!  email performancesport@leeds.ac.uk for more information More information about scholarships can be found here: https://sport.leeds.ac.uk/sport/performance-sport-scholarships/ 3. Leeds Bursary  non-repayable support for full-time and part-time UK students  helps students with the costs of being at University (e.g: cash bursary, discount on your fees, help with University accommodation)  the level of support you receive depends on your household income More information can be found here: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-university/doc/leeds-bursary 4. Scholarships on personal achievement  This depends on household income level  includes one to one support and advice sessions, group workshops, mentoring opportunities, social events and monthly newsletters through the Plus Programme  You need to meet the eligibility criteria  You need to be entering Leeds as full-time level one undergraduate in the following September. More information can be found here: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-university/doc/personal-circumstances-scholarships
  • 7. You can email them for more information: ugscholarships@leeds.ac.uk. Scholarships FAQs: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-scholarships/doc/scholarships- faqs 5. Plus Programme  support scheme for UK-fee paying undergraduate and postgraduate taught students who come from backgrounds that are less represented at university  help with the transition, success and progression at University Different ways the Plus Programme helps students:  Signposting: at the beginning of the year if you feel like you have questions or need help accessing different services, the programme will direct you in the right direction  Events: they offer exclusive and free events all year for students to build skills and feel comfortable at Leeds. Students can also have exclusive or priority on certain events and services at the University.  Clubs and Societies fund: helps you with the membership costs of joining clubs and societies  The Opportunities Fund: financially supports students for professional development opportunities like internships, conferences or interviews.  Weekly activity updates: keeps students updated on the best activities from all over campus and the city of Leeds  Mentoring opportunities: students can either have a go at mentoring other students from the Plus Programme or have mentoring for them from professionals.  Social Media Community: Subscribing to their social media as a way to meet other students from the Plus Programme.  Estranged and Care leaver Support: supports students who are estranged or care experienced. You can find more information about the Plus Programme here: https://students.leeds.ac.uk/info/1000014/plus_programme You can get in touch with the Plus Programme here: theplusprogramme@leeds.ac.uk. 6. Scholarships on academic achievement
  • 8.  awarded by the School of Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences and School of Molecular and cellular biology  certain criteria need to be met  Biomedical school offers means-tested scholarships More information can be found here: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-university/doc/scholarships-academic-achievement IV) Financial support from outside the University 1. Financial hardship funding  University funded scheme for students and postgraduate researchers who face unexpected financial difficulties and don’t have an alternative source of financial support  Helps with living costs  Certain criteria need to be met  Can apply at any time or date More information can be found here: https://students.leeds.ac.uk/info/10231/university_financial_assistance_fund/618/start_your_applicati on_now 2. Government funding:  Tuition fee loans  For UK undergraduate student in full-time or part-time education  Covers full tuition fees  Can apply to this regardless of your household income  Student loans company will pay your tuition fees directly to the university each year  It is repayable, you start paying it back after you graduate or leave your course and only if you are earning a certain income How can I apply?  You need to create an account on Student Finance England and then start the application
  • 9. Student Finance England: https://logon.slc.co.uk/welcome/secured/login?_locale=en_GB&cookieConsent=accept  Maintenance loans  Student loans company will pay your maintenance loan directly to you in instalments usually at the start of each term  Repayable  Don’t have to start paying it until you graduate or you leave your course and if only you are earning a certain income More information about tuition and maintenance loans can be found here: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-government/doc/student-loans  NHS funding  Students studying nursing, midwifery and allied health professions are able to access student loans to cover cost of tuition fees and means-tested support for living costs More information can be found here: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-government/doc/nhs-funding  Funding for disabled students (DSA)  Disabled students’ allowance is a grant to help some disabled students cover any additional costs that arise as a direct result of a disability More information can be found here: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-government/doc/funding-disabled-students Contact the university: disability@leeds.ac.uk student advice at Leeds University Union  support students applying for specific disability related funding  During term time they are in the Leeds University Union building every day of the week including week ends
  • 10. Contact them: 0113 3801 400 email: advice@luu.leeds.ac.uk  Funding for students with dependents  If you have children or adults who depend on you, you may be able to access government funding to provide extra financial support while you study More information can be found here: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-funding-government/doc/funding-students-dependents V) Wellbeing and support  Several services are available at university to help you  Student services provide help if you are struggling with life at university and would like some additional support  Free counselling, well-being and mental health support More information on the wellbeing services can be found here: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-student-life/doc/wellbeing-support  Assigned to a personal tutor at the beginning of the year for your entire time at university  Support for care-experienced or estranged students VI) Career support • Careers office helps and supports you with study abroad/ internship opportunities, job opportunities during your time studying at university and also once you graduate. More information can be found here: https://www.leeds.ac.uk/undergraduate-career/doc/careers-support VII) Summary
  • 11.  University is different to college and school: you are an independent learner and you are expected to take responsibility on your learning  University of Leeds has a hybrid style of learning  You will have to adapt to living independently away from home (for those moving to university)  There are many societies and clubs for you to meet people  Financial support, student support and wellbeing are there to help you at university  University is a great experience but do not think it will be all fun and games you will have to work! Reading To do task Notetaking Session 2 – Circulatory system, heart and haemoglobin Learning objectives: 1.Understand the systemic/circulatory system and blood vessels, including arteries, veins, and capillaries. 2.Understand coronary circulation and that the heart has its own blood supply 3.Understand what systemic arterial pressure (blood pressure) is 4.Understand the cardiovascular disease and its diagnostic tests 5.Understand why haemoglobin is an oxygen-transporter in the body 6.Apply the knowledge learned in the Kahoot Starter task: Organs Oxygenated blood Deoxygenated blood Kidney Enter via Leave via
  • 12. Gut Enter via Leave via Liver Enter via Leave via Lung Leave via Enter via I) What is systemic circulation?
  • 13. Systemic circulation is made up of the heart and blood vessels. Fill in the gaps:  All arteries carry blood away......................................................  All veins carry blood........................................................  Arteries carry...........................................blood except the pulmonary artery........................................  Veins carry.............................................blood except the pulmonary vein...............................................  The main function of the circulatory system is to deliver..................................... and..............................................to the rest of the body from the heart. To the heart / pulmonary artery / nutrients / oxygen / from the heart / oxygenated / deoxygenated / pulmonary vein Types of blood vessels
  • 14. A) Types of arteries 1. Elastic arteries (aorta)  Large diameter  Low resistance  Adapts to high pressure fluctuations when blood leaves the heart  Composed of large amounts of elastin in the tunica media to be able to stretch and recoil
  • 15.  The inner lining (endothelium) is folded that allows the artery to stretch and maintain high pressures. 2. Muscular arteries  Diameter of 0.3-10mm  Less distensible, more active on vasoconstriction  Delivers blood to specific organs  Composed of less elastin and more smooth muscle in the tunica media 3. Arterioles  Diameter of 10μm - 300μm  Delivers to the capillary beds by responding to stimuli from the brain and local chemicals  Tunica medica is composed of almost entirely smooth muscle  Muscles inside the arterioles contract to restrict blood flow or relax to allow full blood flow. B) Types of capillaries 1. Continuous capillaries  Most common type  Diameter of 8-10μm  Delivers blood to the organ
  • 16.  Endothelial cells have tight junctions between them  Contain intercellular clefts: these allow the limited passage of fluid and small solutes 2. Fenestrated capillaries  diameter of 8-10um  play a role in active absorption or filtrate formation (small intestine, kidney)  endothelial cells of the vessel have oval pores or fenestrations  most permeable to fluids and small solutes What is microcirculation? Blood flows through the capillary beds and forms the microcirculation. Fill in the gaps:  capillaries form................................ ..............that are interweaving networks  precapillary sphincters ...................................or..................................... to control blood flow. Contract / capillary beds/ relax
  • 17. C) Types of veins 1. Venules  diameter of 8-100um  formed when capillaries unite to get the deoxygenated blood out of the organ.  consists of only endothelium  larger venules have a sparse tunica media and tunica adventitia.
  • 18. 2. Veins  Blood flow at low pressure  valves ensure that the blood is pumped back up to the heart.  carry large blood volumes back to the heart  composed of the 3 tunica layers: tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia  inner walls are always thinner than the artery walls  lumens are always larger than the arteries  not very elastic and doesn’t contain a lot of muscle tissue  valves inside the veins stop blood from flowing backwards II) What is coronary circulation? The coronary circulation supplies the heart with blood  the heart has its own blood supply with the left and right coronary artery  the right and left coronary arteries arise from the base of the aorta, just above the aortic valve  most of the venous blood drains via the coronary sinus directly into the right atrium  The coronary circulation must deliver oxygen at a high rate to meet cardiac demand
  • 19. III) What is systemic blood pressure? ‘Blood pressure is a measure of the force that your heart uses to pump blood around your body.’ (NHS) Measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as 2 figures:  systolic pressure = the pressure when your heart pushes blood out  diastolic pressure = the pressure when your heart rests between beats.  Ideal blood pressure: between 90/60mmHg and 120/80mmHg  High blood pressure: 140/90 mmHg or higher  Low blood pressure: 90/60mmHg or lower
  • 20. How is blood pressure measured? Systemic arterial blood pressure is measured using a Sphygmomanometer. IV) Cardiovascular disease CVD 1. Definition of cardiovascular disease: ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Name 3 risk factors for CVD ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Name 3 diagnostic tests for cardiovascular disease
  • 21. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ V) Haemoglobin ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ V) Summary  The circulatory system is important as it delivers oxygen and nutrients to the rest of the body through the blood  Oxygenated blood is transported from the heart to organs via the arteries and arterioles  Deoxygenated blood is transported from the organs via the veins and venules back to the heart  The heart has its own blood supply via the coronary circulation  Blood pressure is a measure of the force that your heart uses to pump blood around your body and it is measured using a sphygmomanometry
  • 22.  Examples of diagnostic tests for CV include blood count, blood tests and ECG.  Haemoglobin is a protein that can carry up to 4 molecules of oxygen in blood vessels around the body Join this Kahoot and complete the questions! Link:https://create.kahoot.it/details/5f0b9269-db9f-42a5-bcc1-e5b35319e171 Session 3 – Case study 1 Start a task A 57-year-old man has the following symptoms:  Chest pain  Dyspnea (shortness of breath)  Nausea  Unexplained Weakness The man declares he is diabetic and a smoker and experienced 3 hours of chronic chest pain prior to the visit to the hospital. Doctors run a series of simple, physical tests with the following results: Heart rate: 100bpm (is this regular?)
  • 23. Blood pressure 140/90mmHg (is this regular?) Lungs showed little to no problems Heart showed signs of a murmur Further tests were then carried out on account of the symptoms and the murmur. Blood tests exhibited only one irregularity: 30ng/L concentration of cardiac Troponin T in the bloodstream. Electrocardiograms: Patient: Normal:
  • 24. Can you notice any differences when you compare the patient’s ECG to the normal? Use the PQRST diagram to the left to describe the differences. After these tests were done, the patient was advised to spend 24 hours under precautionary care at the hospital, with regular monitoring of heart rate, blood pressure and symptomatic changes. What is the diagnosis?
  • 25. Treatment Variety of different pharmaceutical approaches to alleviating these symptoms:  Antiplatelet medications (aspirin): inactivate platelets, leading to less blood clotting  Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: targets angiotensin, interfering with its ability to increase blood pressure, causing an overall decrease in blood pressure.  Beta-blockers: cause your heart to beat at a slower rate and with less force.  Nitroglycerin: widens your blood vessels, reducing blood pressure and improving blood flow.  Statins: lower the cholesterol level in the blood Outside of the pharmaceutical approach, there are many lifestyle adaptations that can be taken to reduce the problem overall and prevent a future problem from arising. Maintain a healthy lifestyle containing healthy, well- rounded meals with all the core nutrients required to sustain a healthy heart. Regular exercise is absolutely necessary and smoking is strongly advised against. Session 4 – Case study 2 Thalassemia  Genetic disorder affecting the haemoglobin gene  Autosomal recessive condition: child inherits a copy of the mutated alpha and beta globin-producing genes from both of their parents  Decreased synthesis of alpha and beta chains of haemoglobin  Red blood cells cannot transport oxygen effectively around the body
  • 26.  Red blood cells don't form correctly, last shorter periods of time, have abnormal function and there are fewer of them in the blood stream  More prevalent in Greek, Turkish, Asian, African and Middle Eastern populations  Symptoms are normally experienced early on in life Together as a class  What tests to confirm diagnosis & for each, what would you expect to see? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________  While he waits for his results, what lifestyle changes & why? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________  What would be the primary treatment and why? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Summary:  Thalassemia is a genetic disorder affecting the hemoglobin gene  Results in a decrease synthesis of the beta and alpha chains of hemoglobin  Condition is inherited from one of the parents carrying the mutated gene  Autosomal recessive: mutations are present in both copies of the hemoglobin gene  Diagnosis tests include red blood cell count (low red blood cells), peripheral blood smear, iron studies and DNA analysis  Treatment includes blood transfusion and chellation therapy What you should remember from these 4 sessions?  University is a great experience but it's what you make of it!
  • 27.  Teaching and learning at University is very different to 6th form college.  The circulatory system is important as it delivers oxygen and nutrients to the rest of the body through the blood. It is crucial to maintain a normal blood pressure.  The heart has its own blood supply via the coronary circulation.  Diagnostic tests for cardiovascular disease include but not limited to complete blood count, blood test and ECG  Haemoglobin is a protein that carriers oxygen in blood vessels around the body.  Research at university is very dependent on individual involvement and extra study.  Case studies are an important tool in furthering diagnostic ability and analytical thinking.  Not all information is important, a key skill is analysing information and assessing its importance and relevance.  PQRST is the regular notation of ECG graphs.  Healthy lifestyle and diet can combat the risk of cardiovascular disease.